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CATHEUEAi, AfcTTIQTPITlE S. 



PL .XIV. 




EiuF-M-ai fy flJle J&u.v .-from a ttrttwwv h £iU*:Sltrre .-/brSriito/ii BLrtrry a'v ,n~ Wi/i.-hwr ,-Vr/,.i-„-,' 

WEFCDIHIIESTEIE. (DATriHIIE3E)I^^JL ©iHTCJIECIHI, 

Fart of the Stalls' oftfte Choir. 

Zmden J*ul<lisfiea U)ecTz,lflz6 \fa Zarupheoi k CRiternos&r Row . 



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THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



SEE AND CATHEDRAL CHURCH 



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ILLUSTRATED WITH 



A SERIES OF ENGRAVINGS, 

OF 

Wiittos, ©lebattons, Pans, anfc SSetafls of t&e gtrc&itettuw of tfiat ©trfffte : 

INCLUDING 

BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF THE BISHOPS, 

AND OP 

OTHER EMINENT PERSONS CONNECTED WITH THE CHURCH. 



JOHN BRITTON.F.S.A. 



HotiDon : 

PRINTED FOR, AND PUBLISHED BY, LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 

PATERNOSTER ROW ; 
THE AUTHOR, 10, TAVISTOCK PLACE; AND J. TAYLOR, 59, HIGH HOLBORN. 

J817. 



C. Whittingham, Printer, Cliiswick. 



TO 
HER ROYAL HIGHNESS 



Zf)t J3vtuttS0 e^atrlotte irf ©!ftale& 



Intimately connected as the Ecclesiastical Antiquities are with 
the history of our native country, they cannot fail to be objects of 
curiosity and inquiry to your Royal Highness. It is therefore 
with no small degree of pleasure that the Author addresses the 
present Volume to one who is likely to be deeply interested in the 
mutual obligations and dependancies of church and state. The 
historical annals of the one are materially interwoven with, and 
elucidatory of the other. Whilst the page of the historian records 
the actions of the higher classes of mankind in past ages, that of 
the antiquary displays the arts, customs, and pursuits of our 
ancestors in every sphere and station of life. Hence antiquity 
has been denominated the eye of history ; and hence it becomes, 
not merely an useful, but almost essential branch of polite and 
dignified education. 

Assured that your Royal Highness has long been familiar with 
the antiquarian publications of the author of this address, he 
eagerly embraces the present occasion of expressing his obligations 
and thanks for such distinguished honour. Should any of his 
humble works conduce to the rational amusement of your Royal 
Highness, or tend to excite that inquiry which leads to science 



IV DEDICATION. 

and truth, he will have cause to be delighted. He is induced to 
inscribe this Volume to your Royal Highness, because the City 
and Cathedral of Winchester are intimately associated with many 
distinguished historical events and eminent characters. Here the 
justly revered Alfred was educated, crowned, lived, and died. 
Canute also resided in this city, and gave liberally to the church. 
Egbert constituted Winchester the metropolis of the kingdom ; and 
was crowned, died, and interred in the cathedral. The fabulous 
story of Queen Emma's walking barefooted and unhurt over red- 
hot ploughshares belongs to this cathedral. The first Norman 
monarch built a palace, or rather a castle here; and his son, William 
Rufus, was enshrined in this church. Philip aiid Mary were 
married at Winchester; whilst Charles the Second was so much 
prepossessed in favour of the city, that he built a noble and 
spacious palace on the site of the old castle. 

Constans, a monk of Winton, was made EmperOr of Rome; 
and no less than ten of its prelates are recorded among the saints 
of the Roman Catholic Calendar. Indeed Winchester may pro- 
perly be called an historical and royal city; and therefore it is 
hoped that the present Volume, illustrative of the Antiquity and 
Architecture of its venerable Cathedral, may be found worthy of 
the notice, aud deserving the patronage, of your Royal Highness, 

I am, with profound respect, 

Your Royal Highness's 

Obedient humble servant, 



JOHN BRITTON. 



Tavistock Place, London, 
Aprils, If. 17. 



PREFACE. 



Since the preceding dedication was published, the whole English nation has 
had to deplore and lament the sudden and melancholy death of the amiable 
Princess to whom it was addressed. Never, perhaps, was there a more 
general and unanimous sympathy excited : never were all parties "and all 
classes of people more agreed as to the eligibility of a future sovereign, — 
as to the domestic virtues of the wife, and as to the incalculable influence 
of such qualities on the fashion and manners of a country. Let us 
cherish, however, an ardent hope, that the esteem she excited will act 
as a stimulus to other heirs to the crown ; — for the greatest treasure a 
monarch can obtain is a nation's love. Splendid and costly monuments 
may be raised — churches may be founded — and poets may eulogise the 
wealthy and the great — but neither of those will secure the impartial 
approbation of the honest historian, if not accompanied by real worth, or 
talents. In examining the monuments of our Cathedrals, we are often 
disgusted with the fulsome flattery and falsehood of many inscriptions ; — 
we often see the short-sighted policy of those who seek to obtain post- 
humous fame by testamentary legacies and foundations : and have frequent 
occasion to deplore that the names, characters, and worldly situations of 
real benefactors to mankind, are often unnoticed by marble tablets and 
sepulchral eulogia. In the present age, however, real merit is very 
generally understood and appreciated; and great talents, if united with 
integrity, will certainly be honoured and perpetuated. It is a noble and 
proud characteristic of the English, to cherish and respect connubial 
happiness; to admire domestic virtues; and wherever these are rendered 
apparent, they immediately secure the sincerest and warmest sympathy. 
A people so constituted must be dignified in the scale of nations; and 
Englishmen, whilst they are proud of their country, should exert their 
talents to exalt it, and guard its honour with the most watchful jealousy. 

Intimately connected as the diocess of Winchester has been with the 
history and progress of Christianity in England ; — with the contentions 
between the episcopal and inonarchial supremacy, I have been seduced 
into a more extended review of those subjects than will, perhaps, be 
agreeable to the general reader : but I could not with propriety neglect 
to notice them, nor yet coutract my comments within a smaller compass. 
On these points I have most scrupulously endeavoured to be candid and 
strictly impartial ; detailing the opinions of those writers who appear to be 
most deserving of credit, and occasionally, but rarely, submitting my own. 
Aware that the civil and ecclesiastical history of Winchester has been 
amply and learnedly developed by its local historian, and that, from the 
religious opinions entertained by the writer, much warm, and rather acri- 
monious, controversy has been produced ; my endeavour has been to avoid 
the intemperate zeal of both parties *. History, antiquity, art, and matter 

* Sec Preface to " The History, Sfc. of Norwich Cathedral," for my opinions on this point. 



PREFACE. 

of fact, are the objects of the present woi'k; not theory, opinion, or 
romance: — these are fleeting and transitory; maybe esteemed to-day, but 
despised to-morrow: whilst those are lasting : at once affording a gratify- 
ing reward to investigation, and permanent satisfaction to the mind. 

With the same feelings and principles I have eagerly endeavoured to 
elucidate the styles and dates of the different parts of Winchester Cathedral. 
If I have erred in opinion, in statement, or inference, I shall feel thankful 
for better information, or for friendly correction. Many points, 1 am willing 
to admit, are unsettled, and therefore liable to varied interpretations : but I 
suspect that many persons, with the best intentions, and with well informed 
minds, are too prone to yield to the seductions of theory and prepossession. 
Though much has been written and published on this subject, I am per- 
suaded that much more remains to be done ; and that we shall never elicit 
the whole truth, nor come to the arcana of antiquarian science, but by 
diligent and fastiduous investigation. To elucidate all the nice varieties 
and gradations of architecture, we must be furnished with the most accu- 
rate elevations, sections, and details of ancient buildings; and at length we 
have a few artists capable of rendering us this invaluable service. 

It is the duty of a writer not only to avail himself of all the labours of 
his predecessors, but to correct their errors and supply their deficiencies. 
In doing this, however, he should be governed by rigid impartiality, and a 
manly courage to point out, without exulting at their defects. Knowing 
the difficulty of attaining truth, he should be lenient and liberal, and his 
grand rule of action is to be just to himself and to his reader. With these 
sentiments impressed on the heart, I have penned the following pages ; and 
though they may not comprise all the information that may be required by 
the critical reader; and though not so full of comments on the errors and 
mis-statements of preceding writers as some may wish, yet I hope the im- 
partial antiquary will forgive me for the latter omission, and excuse me for 
the former. 

It is now my pleasing task to thank the following correspondents for much 
useful communication and kindnesses — the Df.an of Winchester ; the 
Rev. K. Poulter ; the Rev. H. Lee; the Rev. F. Iremonger; B. Winter, 
Esq.; the Rev. R. Yates; Wm.Garbett, lisq.; and Wm. Hampeb, Esq. 

Having completed the history and illustration of Winchester Cathedral, 
being the third of this series, I shall next proceed to illustrate aud elucidate 
that of York, for which nearly the whole of the drawings are completed by 
Messrs. Blore aud Mackenzie. Krom the progress made, I have reason to 
believe that the whole work will be completed in the course of twelve months; 
and I cannot doubt but that the historical and architectural materials, 
relating to this metropolitical church, will abound with curious aud interest- 
ing facts. The architecture is replete with beautiful forms and features, and 
the whole will be amply and accurately displayed by the faithful pencils of 
the artists above-named. 



^tetotp an& Antiquities 



WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL CHURCH. 



<£f)aju & 



FIRST ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY IN BRITAIN : — INQUIRY INTO THE 

REALITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF LUCIUS : ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEE 

AT WINCHESTER : — THE EXTENT AND INFLUENCE OF ITS DOMINION I 

HISTORY OF THE FOUNDATION AND SUCCESSIVE ALTERATIONS OF THE 
CATHEDRAL, THROUGH THE DYNASTY OF THE KINGS OF THE WEST 
SAXONS TO THE PERIOD OF THE NORMAN CONQUEST. 



JLt is not easy, nor would it be desirable, to examine the Cathedral of 
Winchester without connecting it with eminent men and memorable 
events of former ages. Its history, indeed, is intimately blended with 
that of the nation; and its annals embrace many facts and relations 
which cannot fail to interest the feelings of the philosopher, the Christian, 
the historian, and the antiquary. As connected with the disputable and 
uncertain primary establishment of Christianity in Britain — as the temple 
wherein its benign doctrines were promulgated to Britons and Romans — 
and as the place of coronation and sepulture of Anglo-Saxon and Anglo- 
Norman monarchs, the Cathedral of Winchester is eminently important. 
In reviewing its early history we are, however, constantly perplexed in 

B 



10 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

the mazes of fable, tradition, and probable narrative ; and feel extreme 
difficulty in discriminating the one from the other, and rendering our 
account rational, satisfactory, and authentic. From the earliest period 
to the dissolution of the monastic institutions in Great Britain, Winchester 
appears to have been a place of local and national consequence. Under 
the Celtic or Belgic Britons, here was certainly a town called Caer- 
Gtvent, or the White City : this was subsequently occupied, fortified, and 
rendered a permanent station by the Romans, and denominated by them 
Venta-Betgarum. By the West Saxons it was made their chief seat, and it 
afterwards became the metropolis of all England. The Norman monarchs 
and some subsequent kings either resided at, or conferred certain marks of 
distinction on the city. Hence we shall find that, in its political and 
ecclesiastical history, there are abundant subjects for interesting inquiry 
and for extended disquisition. On the present occasion, however, it will 
be necessary to confine our attention to the latter subject. 

The early history of Winchester Cathedral has been connected, by 
the almost general assent of topographical writers, with the very intro- 
duction of Christianity itself into this island ; yet so few and meagre are 
the notices which the records of antiquity furnish on the suhject, and so 
much are they intermingled with fiction and improbabilities, that the impar- 
tial inquirer must still remain in a state of dubiety as to the real facts. The 
most effective research cannot now supply enough evidence to determine the 
true origin of this Church ; and however gratifying to curiosity it would 
be to discover the dates of its foundation and successive enlargements, it 
has become impossible to do so from the want of authentic documents. 
The traditionary legends of monkish writers are utterly insufficient to 
satisfy the judgment of any historian, in whose breast the love of truth is 
more powerful than a slavish attachment to hypothesis ; yet we have 
scarcely any other data on which to ground the annals of the first ages of 
this See and Cathedral. 

The first conversion of the Britons to Christianity, though in its conse- 
quences of such vast and incalculable importance, is involved in the 
greatest obscurity ; as well in regard to the exact time at which it took 



FIRST ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. 1 1 

place, as to the real persons by whom, or under whose auspices, that 
conversion was effected. Ireneus 1 , Eusebius 2 , and Theodoret 3 , have been 
considered as furnishing competent testimony, " that some of the Apostles 
visited the British Isles, and that the Britons were among the nations 
which were converted by the Apostles." The particular persons to whom 
this honour is generally given, are St. Peter and St. Paul ; but, without 
entering into the questionable testimony by which this opinion has been 
supported, it will be sufficient in this place to remark, generally, that 
Cardinal Baronius and other Roman Catholic writers ascribe the promul- 
gation of Christianity in this island to St. Peter ; whilst, on the contrary, 
many Protestant writers maintain that the Gospel was first preached here 
by St. Paul : of this latter opinion is the learned Dr. Burgess, Bishop of 
St. David's, who, in a Sermon, intituled " The first Seven Epochs of 
the ancient British Church 4 ," asserts the probability of St. Paul having 
accompanied the family of Caractacus from Rome, about the year 58 ; and 
this conjecture (founded on different passages in the ancient historians and 
fathers of the Church), the worthy prelate considers to be substantiated 
by a record in the British Triads 5 , where it is said " that the father of 
Caractacus went to Rome as an hostage for his son, and others of his 
family ; that he staid there seven years ; and that on his return he brought 
the knowledge of Christianity to his countrymen from Rome." — " It is a 
remarkable and very interesting fact," continues the bishop, " that the 
detention of the British hostages should have been coincident with St. 
Paul's residence there as a prisoner; and it was a not less favourable 
coincidence, that they should be released from confinement in the same 
year in which St. Paul was set at liberty. Nothing could be more 
convenient for St. Paul's mission to the Gentiles, than the opportunity 
which their return must have afforded him of introducing the gospel into 

1 Iren. lib. i. cap. 2, 3. 2 Euseb. lib. iii. cap. 7. p. 113. 

3 Theod. torn. iv. serm. 9, p. 611. " Printed in 1813, 8vo. 

5 Some of these ancient documents are published in the Myvyrian Archceology, and are partly 
translated in Williams's Dissertation on the Pelagian Heresy, p. 14; and by Mr. Roberts, in the 
Appendix to his Collectanea Cambrica, p. 293. 



12 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Britain ; and nothing more probable than that he should readily embrace 
such an opportunity." 

Notwithstanding the plausibility of this argument, it seems evident that, 
had St. Paul really visited Britain, a more direct testimony of the fact 
would have been found than a few obscure passages in the ancient fathers ; 
and though in his Epistle to the Romans, (chap. 15.) St. Paul twice men- 
tions his intention of going into Spain, yet it is very problematical whether 
that purpose was ever carried into effect. The total silence also of the 
Roman historians, as to any Christian hierarchy being established in this 
island, during the three first centuries of the Roman dominion here (since 
it appears from Ignatius that there could have been no church without a 
succession of bishops 6 ), affords a strong presumption that, during the above 
period, the diffusion of Christianity in Britain was extremely limited ; and 
that it arose more from accidental circumstances than from a settled plan 
of conversion. 

The gradual spread of the gospel in Italy and Gaul, and the intercourse 
maintained between the imperial seat of Rome and its dependencies, were 
unquestionably the leading causes of the introduction of Christianity into 
Britain ; yet the attributing of that event, personally, either to St. Paul or to 
Lucius, a British king, who is said to have been seated at Venta, or 
Winchester, and to have reigned between the years 164 and 190, appears 
neither to be warranted by historical records nor probability. 

That there were certain individuals among the Britons who, in the 
first century after Christ, embraced the pure doctrines which he taught 
is evident, both from Tacitus and Martial. The former states, in his 
Annals 7 , that a distinguished British lady, named Pomponia Graecina, 
a Christian, and the wife of Aulus Plautius (who had been pro-praetor 
of the Roman province in this island), was prosecuted (A. D. 57), and 
in danger of losing her life for her religion ; and the latter, in two 
Epigrams 8 , brings us acquainted with the virtues and beauty of Claudia 
Rufina, another Christian female of noble birth, who was also a native 

6 Igna. Epist. ad Trail. 5 3. ' Lib. xiii. cap. 32. 

1 Lib. iv. Ep. 13 ; and lib. \\. Ep. 54. 



FIRST ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. 13 

of this island, and who was married to a senator of Rome, named Rufus 
Pudens. This lady and her husband are generally admitted to have been 
the persons of whom St. Paul speaks as Christians, and whose greetings 
he sends to Timothy, in that epistle 9 which he wrote when going to appear 
a second time before Nero, previously to his martyrdom in June, A. D. 66. 
The influence of these ladies would most probably be exerted to extend 
the knowledge of the Christian dispensation in their own country; yet 
we have the positive evidence of Pliny, as to the fact of the Druidical 
superstitions of Britain being extremely prevalent, even so late as fifty 
years after the death of Claudius, and although several edicts had been 
issued against Druidism by the Roman emperors : his words are " Britannia 
hodieque earn attonite celebrat, tantis ceremoniis, ut dedisse Persis 
videri possit;" that is, ' the Britons of this day are accustomed to use and 
follow it, with such admiration and as many ceremonies, as though they 
had first taught it unto the Persians' 10 . 

The most respectable of our ancient writers who mentions the conversion 
of Lucius and the Britons under his dominion, is Venerable Bede, whom 
Godwin presumes to have " obtained his information out of the old 
Martyrologies" n . He says, that " In the year of Christ's Incarnation, 156, 
Marcus Antoninus Verus, the fourteenth emperor from Augustus, began 
his government with Aurelius Commodus, his brother; in whose time 
Eleutherius, a holy man, sitting bishop of the Roman Church, Lucius, a 
king of the Britons, writ unto him his letters, praying that by his appoint- 
ment and direction he might be made a Christian ; and presently he 
obtained the effect of his godly desire : from which period until the reign 
of Dioclesian, the Britons inviolably held the true faith, uncorrupted, in 
peace and quietness 12 ." 

Such is the simple ground-work of the story of Lucius ; but the legends 
of the monkish annalists of later days have rendered the whole incredible, 

9 2 Tim. chap. iv. v. 21. 

10 In Vita Claud, cap. xxv. — Vide Godwin de Praesul. cap. iii. " Godwin, ib. 
" Bede's " Hist. Eccles. Gent. Ang. Lib. Quin. Edit." by Smith, p. 44. 



14 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

by the absurd and even impossible circumstances which they have thought 
proper to attach to it. The " true Roman Martyrology," as Baronius calls 
it (although a prior Martyrology, written by Usuardus, at the command of 
Carolus Magnus, about the year 800, mentions nothing concerning Lucius), 
states that Eleutherius sent the two prelates, Fugatius, and Damianus or 
Duvianus, into Britain, and that they baptized Lucius and his queen, "and, 
in a manner, all the people of the land 13 ." But the extensive nature of 
this conversion (as told us by the monks), will be better understood from 
the following succinct statement, which Bishop Godwin has inserted in the 
' Discourse,' prefixed to his ' Catalogue of the Bishops of England' 14 . 

" Whensoever it was that this good Prince received the faith of Christ ; 
so it fell out (our historians say), that not only his wife and family 
accompanied him in that happy course, but nobles also and commons, 
priests and people, high and low, even all the people of this land which 
we now call England : and that generally all their idols were then defaced, 
the temples of them being converted into churches for the service of God ; 
the livings of the idolatrous priests appointed for the maintenance of the 
priests of the gospel, and that, instead of the twenty-live flamines or 
high-priests of their idols, there were ordained twenty-five bishops ; as 
also for three arch flamines, three archbishops; whereof one was seated at 
London, another at Yorke, and a third at Carlion in Monmouthshire." — 
In a subsequent page the bishop says, " It is recorded by most of our 
writers (in a manner all), that King Lucius, having founded many churches, 
and afforded unto them many possessions with great privileges, he at last 
departed this life in peace, and was buried at Gloucester, the fourteenth 
yeare after his baptism, as some say ; the tenth, as other ; and againe (as 
some other will have it), the fourth." 

Such is the substance of the traditions which an inquirer into the 

13 " ac totum fere populum." In 7 Kal. Jim. The old History of Llandaff, commonly 

called the Book of St. Teilo, says, that then ames of the messengers sent by Lucius to Eleutherius, 
were Elvanus and Meduinus, and that the former was constituted a bishop by Eleutherius, and 
the latter a doctor or teacher, in respect of their eloquence and knowledge in the Scriptures. 

" Chap. iii. p. 22. and p. 35. Edit. 1615. 



INQUIRY INTO THE REALITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF LUCIUS. 15 

church antiquities of Winchester has to examine, before he can obtain 
any foundation for the erection of genuine history. As the stream of time 
has rolled on, it is curious to observe how greatly the minute rill of 
information, given us by Bede, has been amplified in succeeding ages ; not, 
however, from springs " pure and undefiled," but from sources which 
obscure and blacken the original current. Rudborne, a monk of Win- 
chester, who lived about the middle of the fifteenth century, and whose 
history, or annals, of this cathedral has been published by Wharton, in his 
" Anglia Sacra," affords a very curious illustration of the above remark ; 
for he has not only strung together the various legendary accounts of 
former writers, but has added particulars that are not to be found in any 
preceding historian. The very singular phraseology in which he has 
enveloped his narrative, may be judged of from the following translation of 
the first chapter of his History, as published by Wharton. 

" Lucius, the glorious Prince of Britain, being invested with power and 
the regal diadem, hearing the report of Christianity, far transcending every 
mode of human estimation, with much charitable zeal, desired that himself 
and his kingdom, and every people subjected to him, should be instructed 
in that soul-saving doctrine. In the first year of his reign he sent certain 
legates and learned nuncios to the Pope, seeking peace and perpetual 
health, and also that he would shed a beam of the freely-granted river 
from the celestial fountain of Christ, the Eternal Sun, to their Prince, 
sighing for eternal life. At that time the blessed Father Eleutherius was 
presiding in all the world, who, from the blessed St. Peter, the prince of 
the Apostles, was the twelfth in succession to the Apostolical chair. The 
most serene Prince Lucius followed up the effect of his most desired 
proposition. Now the above mentioned was Eleutherius, the Holy, 

" Who held the Key of Heaven from pole to pole, 
Who, by God's permission, loosened the fetters of the world, 
And unlocked the celestial regions to the pious. 

"About the year of the Dominical Incarnation 164, as writeth the Venerable 
Bede in his 'De Gestis Anglorum,' lib. i. cap. 4. and Martin in his Chronicles, 



16 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

and Gildas the Historian (the Ancient British writer), lib. i. cap. 7. two 
learned priests, religious men and monks, named Faganus and Duvianus, 
with many of their associate monks, were presented to the king; and this 
prince and all his people were baptized" 15 . — 

Although Rudborne has cited Gildas as one of his authorities for referring 
the conversion of Lucius to the year 164, yet the short work, " De Excidio 
Britannia," which we have in print of that writer, makes not the least 
mention of that prince; nor is there any writing of his, now known to be 
extant, which refers to him. The date too, as given by Rudborne, is 
manifestly wrong, since Eleutheriiis did not succeed to the pontificate till 
after the death of Soter, in 177; but in this the Winchester historian does 
not stand single ; for the learned Usher, as stated by Carte, has collected 
upwards of twenty different opinions 16 , as to the time when Lucius was 
converted, and held his alleged correspondence with Eleutheriiis. 

Among the arguments employed by Carte, in his extended examination 
of this question 17 , to show that the events, attributed to Lucius, cannot be 
true, are instanced the very slow progress made by Christianity on this 
side the Alps, and the non-existence of every kind of credible record 
relating to a succession of bishops in this island, at any time before the 
middle of the third century. " No man of learning," says this historian, 
" however versed in the study of antiquity, or how indefatigable soever in 
his searches upon this subject, hath ever yet been able to find out so much 
as the name of any one bishop in Britain, except what are founded upon the 
legend of Lucius, till after the year 250 ; the highest point of time to which 
their succession of bishops ascends in all the sees of Gaul, except Lyons 
and Vienne ; — and the true reason why there was no persecution in this 
island (as there was in other parts of the Roman empire), till the time of 
Dioclesian, appears plainly to have been, because till then there were no 
Christians here considerable enough to be remarked." 

Nennius, speaking of Lucius, informs us that after his conversion he 

15 Rudborne Hist. Mag. lib. i. cap. 1. " Autiq. Bril. cap. iii. p. 20. 

17 Hist, of Eiig. vol. i. p. 132—140. 



INQUIRY INTO THE REALITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF LUCIUS. 17 

was called, in allusion to his name, Lever Maur, or the Great Light, or 
Splendour™; and the British Triads' 9 are supposed to record the same 
person by the appellative Lleirwg, or Lies (whence the Latin name, Lucius) 
who is stated in those documents to have established the first church in 
Britain, although just before that event is attributed to Bran. 

After his conversion, Lucius is said to have made request to Eleutherius 
for some particulars of the Roman laws, that he might make them a 
foundation for a settled order of government throughout his own dominions. 
The answer returned by Eleutherius is supposed, by Bishop Godwin, to 
have been first recorded " in an old chronicle, entituled Hrutus, amongst cer- 
taine lawes or statutes of the Saxons." There is however much diversity 
in the copies of this epistle, and some of them have additional sentences. 
In that published by Usher , the date is 169 ; and the following are the most 
particular passages, as translated from the Latin, by Godwin : — " Ye require 
of us the Roman laws and the Emperors to be sent over to you, which you 
would practice and put in use within your realm. The Roman laws and 
the Emperors we may ever reprove ; but the law of God we may not. Ye 
have received of late, through God's mercy, in the kingdom of Britain, the 
law and faith of Christ; ye have with you within the realm both parts of 
the Scriptures. Out of them, by God's grace, with the council of your 
realm take ye a law ; and by that law, through God's sufferance, rule your 
kingdom of Britain : for you be God's vicar in your kingdom. — The people 
and folk of the realm of Britain be yours; whom, if they be divided, ye 
ought to gather in concord and peace, to call them to the faith and law of 
Christ, to cherish and to maintain them, to rule and govern them, so as you 
may keep everlastingly with him whose vicar ye are." 

Whatever might be the extent of credulity in prejudiced minds, it is clear to 
the impartial historian, that the above epistle could never be a genuine one ; for 
the dominion of the Romans had been so extensively spread over this country 
long prior to the time at which Lucius is said to have swayed the sceptre, 
that by no possible means could he have been in possession of the enlarged 

18 Hist. Brit. c. xviii. ,5 See Myvyrian Archaiology. 2 ° Antiq. Brit. 

C 



18 - WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

sovereignty that is thus attributed to him. It is admitted that the Romans 
grounding their policy on the acknowledged prejudices of human nature, 
frequently governed their newly-conquered countries by the agency of 
native kings and princes, and willingly bestowed some portion of regal 
authority on those who were disposed to sacrifice their independence to 
ambition. The dominion, however, that was thus delegated by the Romans 
was always resumed as their conquests became consolidated, and their 
empire secured. In regard to Britain, wholly subjugated as it was long- 
before the days of Lucius, it would have been utterly inconsistent with 
every principle of Roman domination to have permitted a native prince to 
have borne such an extended sway over a country which they had 
divided into provinces, and placed under the rule of their own praefects. 
The " realm of Britain," could never have been subjected to Lucius; nor 
does it appear from any Roman author that ever a prince so named was at 
any time in alliance with them, or was suffered to govern a subordinate 
kingdom, though even of iuferior extent. Still less can we give credence 
to the legends which attribute the creation of so many archiepiscopal and 
other Sees to a British king ; so long after his country had been subjugated 
by a foreign power, and upwards of a century before Christianity was 
protected by the Roman emperors. 

From the preceding brief review of the evidence which has been adduced 
on this controverted subject, it must be clear to the impartial reader, that 
the story of Lucius is either altogether fabulous, or that Lucius himself 
was a person whose situation and circumstances in life have been greatly 
misrepresented. The two coins, mentioned by Archbishop Usher 21 , (the 
one silver, and the other gold, having the figure of a king on them with a 
cross, and the letters L. V. C.) which have been so frequently referred to in 
proof that Lucius was both a King and a Christian, are not so explicitly 
described as to warrant a belief of the affirmative. The very words, 
indeed, which the archbishop has employed, says Whitaker, " renders the 
fact infinitely precarious 22 ." He had seen, he affirms, two coins, which 

" Vide Usher De Prim. p. 39, 40. ■ Hist, of Manchester, vol. i. p. 405. 



INQUIRY INTO THE REALITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF LUCIUS. J9 

were marked with the sign of the cross, " et Literis obscuriaribusqucs LVC. 
denotare videbentur ;" a sentence which throws a strong doubt on the 
presumption of their having been minted by Lucius. It appears from 
Gildas, also, as quoted by the same historian, that no British king was 
allowed to coin money after the Roman conquest 23 . 

The account given by Rudborne, from Moracius, respecting the dimensions 
of the Cathedral which Lucius is stated to have erected at Winchester, has 
an equally suspicious air with many of the other circumstances attributed 
to that personage. It informs us, that " Lucius built a Christian church from 
the ground," upon a scale of grandeur and magnificence which has never 
since been equalled ; — " its length being 209 paces [about 600 feet], its 
breadth 80 paces, its height 92 paces, and its width, from one horn [corner] 
across the church to the other, 180 paces;" and that this edifice, when 
finished, was dedicated in honour of the Holy Saviour by Fugatius and 
Duvianus, who had been sent to Britain from Rome by Pope Eleutherius ; 
and who, likewise, constituted abbot of this place, a monk formerly called 
Devotus 1 ^. 

According to the same authority, Lucius bestowed on his new church 
the privileges of sanctuary, (agreeably to the laws of Dunwallo Malmutius, 
a reputed British king, said to have lived 500 years before Christ); and also 

23 Hist, of Manchester, vol. i. p. 405. 

24 Rudb. lib. i. Rudborne's words are these : — " Abbatemque loci constituerunt Monachum 
quendam vocabulo Devotum." Milner, in his History of Winchester, vol. i. p. 42, has strangely denomi- 
nated Devotus, " a religious bishop." An anonymous writer on Winchester cathedral justly remarks 
on this subject that, " In attributing the consecration of this cathedral to Romish missionaries, it has 
been wished to infer that the see of Rome had always spiritual authority over Britain ; and that 
Eleutherius, by this act, obtained the same power over Winchester, which his successors claimed 
a thousand years after. The very contrary, however, is the fact; and whatever might be the state 
of religious knowledge in this country during the life of Lucius, even bishop Milner is constrained 
to admit, that, " it seemed best to him and his prelates [without any reference to the bishop of 
Rome] that the same hierarchy should be observed which had before obtained among the Flamines, 
or heathen priests. According to this, Loudon, York, and Caerleon, became metropolitan sees ; 
and hence, Venta, although the favourite of Lucius, and probably the capital of his dominions, was 
left destitute of that pre-eminence to which, as the chief city of the west, it was otherwise entitled.'' 



20 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

annexed to it a monastery, whose inmates were of the order of those 
instituted by St. Mark, at Alexandria 25 . The dimensions of the monastery 
are stated to have been as follows: " in length, from the eastern part of the 
church towards the old Temple of Concord, 100 paces ; in breadth, towards 
the new Temple of Apollo, 80 paces : from the north-east part, in length 
lb'O paces, in breadth 98 : from the western ground (plagd) of the church, 
in length 190 paces, in breadth 100: from the southern ground, in length 
45 paces, in breadth 58 paces." 

The striking absurdity of Rudborne, or rather of Moracius, whom he 
follows, in carrying up the privilege of sanctuary to such an early period 26 , 
could be equalled ouly by his error in assigning the antiquity of the 
monastic profession to an era so remote from the true one. Even Milner 
himself (though sufficiently credulous on many things advanced by this 
writer) withholds his assent to the latter statement, and declares it to be 
" not warranted by ecclesiastical monuments 27 ." 

Rudborne says, that the new church was dedicated in the fifth year of 
the conversion of the kingdom ; or as he afterwards more particularly 
records it, on the 4th of the kalends of November, in the year of grace 109. 
His chronology, however, is extremely defective; and by no means to be 
depended on, unless corroborated by other authorities. The possessions 
and treasures of the Flatnines, he tells us, of this city, were given by 
Lucius to the bishops and monks of the new foundation 28 . 

The ambiguity which attends the period of the decease of Lucius, and 

lS Philo, the Jew, calls them Thevapcules : i.e. a Jewish order of monks devoted to contemplation. 

* 6 Bingham, in his Orig. Eccles. vol. iii. p. 291, says, that " the right of sanctuary began to be 
a privilege of churches from the time of Constantine, though there are no laws about it older than 
Theodosius, either in the Justinian or the Theodosian Code." There were no monks till after the 
middle of the third century. 

J7 Hist, of Winchester, vol. I. p. 42, n. In another part he says, that although Rudborne " takes 
great pains to persuade us that the Winchester monks were of an order anterior to the ages both 
of St. Benedict and St. Antony, it would be loss of time to confute an account so glaringly 
improbable." lb. vol. ii. p. 3, n. 

28 Rudb. lib. i.e. 3. 



INQUIRY INTO THE REALITY AND SOVEREIGNTY OF LUCIUS. 21 

the uncertainty of the place of his burial, have been often adduced as 
arguments against the credibility of his reputed sway ; and it is certain 
that the darkness in which those circumstances are involved, is calculated 
to excite considerable suspicion. Were the accounts true, that Lucius 
had possessed such extended sovereignty as to occasion the general 
establishment of Christianity in this island, it is scarcely possible to believe 
that he could have descended so obscurely to the grave, as to leave the 
time of his death unascertained, and the place of his interment undecided. 
Winchester, York, and Gloucester, have all been assigned as the scene of 
the latter ; yet the German writers report, " that a little before his decease, 
either resigning his crown, or being dispossessed of it by the Romans, he 
went abroad, and preached the gospel in Bavaria, and in the country of the 
Grisons 29 .'' Bishop Godwin refers to R. Vitus, as saying, that " King 
Lucius, after a certain space forsaking his kingdom, became a clergyman; 
and preaching the gospel in divers countries of France and Germany, 
suffered martyrdom, at last, at a place called Curiae 30 ." 

The dynasty of Lucius is stated to have terminated with his own life, as 
the Romans afterwards governed directly by their own officers, and not by 
native tributary princes. The religious establishment, however, which he 
had fixed at Winchester, is said by Rudborne, to have retained its 
privileges and continued in repose, till the great persecution carried on 
against the Christians by the Emperors Dioclesian and Maximian, was 
extended into Britain, (about the end of the third or beginning of the 
fourth century), at which period the church and monastery, attributed to 
Lucius, were levelled with the ground, and all the ecclesiastics either 
slaughtered or dispersed 31 . 

The glory of quelling the persecution in this island is ascribed to 
Constantius Chlorus ; whose son and successor, Constantine the Great, by 
his famous edict in the year 312, restored the Christians to the rights of 
humanity and civil justice. The church of Venta was then rebuilt, 

29 Milner's Hist, of Wiuchester, vol. i. p. 43. 3 ° Cat. of Eng. Bishops, p. 35. 

3' Rudb. lib. i. c. 4. 



22 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

according to Rudborne, upon the same site, and in a similar form (that of a 
cross) to the former one ; but on a much smaller scale, the expenses being 
defrayed by the offerings of the faithful in Christ 32 . When finished it was 
dedicated, at the request of the Abbot Deodatus, by Constans, the then 
bishop, in honour of St. Amphibalus 33 , whom the monkish writers record to 
have suffered martyrdom at Verulam, whither he had sought refuge in the 
abode of St. Alban, during the Dioclesian persecution; but having been 
discovered, he was put to death, as was also his kind host for affording 
him shelter and entertainment. 

After the withdrawing of the Roman troops from Britain, on account of 
the increasing calamities of the Roman Empire, Venta obtained the rank 
of a metropolis ; for here the British King, Vortigern, or Gortheryn, and 
his successors Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon, fixed their principal 
residence : yet no particulars are extant of its ecclesiastical history, 
during this period, than what are afforded by Rudborue, who barely states, 
that the monks coutinued to enjoy their privileges in security and peace, 
" devoutly engaged in singing hymns and holy songs," till the coming of 
Cerdic, the Saxon chief, and founder of the West-Saxon kingdom. This 
prince (after defeating the united army of the Britons, under Natanleod, 
in the New Forest,) besieged and obtained possession of Venta, about the 
year 51G, at. which time all the monks were slain, and the Cathedral was 
converted into a heathen temple 34 , and " made subservient to the gloomy 

" " Reedificata est Ecclesia Wyntoniensis secundo ab Christi fidelium oblationibus." Rudb. 
Hi. i. c. 6. 

" Ibid. Rudborne describes St. Amphibalus as " one of the brotherhood" of this church. The 
Bishop Constans, mentioned in the text, who is said to have been the son of the Emperor 
Constantine ; and who, after the successful usurpation of his father, about the year 407, having 
been " tempted, or compelled, sacrilegiously to desert the peaceful obscurity of the monastic 
life," was himself invested with the imperial purple, and left to command in Spain ; where, on the 
revolt of Gerontius, his bravest general, he was made prisoner, and put to death. Vide Gibbon's 
Decline, &c. of the Roman Empire, vol. v. p. 342. 

54 Rudb. Hist. Hi. ii. c. 1. — " In loco quern de Christi Ecclesia, l. e. Wyntouiensi, Monachis 
interfectis, Pagani templum fecerant Dagon." 



ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEE AT WINCHESTER. 23 

and impure rites of Thor, Woden, Frea, and Tuisco 35 ." The name of the 
city, itself, was also changed, and from Caer-Gwent, and Venta-Belgarum, it 
became Winton-ceaster ; and hence Winchester by an easy corruption. 

In the year 519, as most of our historians agree, the victorious Cerdic 
was crowned king of the West Saxons (in conjunction with Kynric, his 
son) in the church, or temple at Winchester; wherein also, having greatly 
extended his kingdom by new conquests, and increased his subjects by 
fresh colonies of Jutes and Saxons, he was again crowned about twelve 
years afterwards : here, likewise, he was buried, on his decease in 534. 

Though the immediate successors of Cerdic considerably extended their 
dominions, yet they continued to make Winchester their principal seat. 
No event of particular importance, however, is recorded concerning the 
Cathedral Church, till after the year 635, when the arrival of the missionary, 
Birinus, whom Pope Honorius had deputed to preach the gospel in those 
parts of Britain that were still involved in Pagan darkness, entirely changed 
the state of affairs. This prelate, whose country and origin are dubious, is 
said to have been a monk at Rome ; but, for the purposes of his mission, 
he was ordained a bishop at Genoa, and thence, proceeding through 
France, he took shipping for Britain. The sceptre of the West Saxon 
kingdom was, at that period, swayed by Kinegils and his son Quilchelm ; 
and Birinus, having obtained a favourable reception at the court of those 
Princes, (through the opportune presence of the religious Oswald, King of 
the Northumbrians, who was then soliciting the daughter of Kinegils in 
marriage) commenced his labours in this city. His pious endeavours were 
quickly rewarded by the conversion of Kinegils and many of his people 36 ; 

35 From these deities of the Jutes and Saxons, the names are derived of four of our week days. 
See Verstegan. The Jutes, called also Giotti and Gevissi, formed the principal tribe that established 
the West Saxon kingdom. 

36 The sudden influence which Birinus obtained over the minds of the Saxons, is, agreeably to the 
monkish legends of that age, attributed to the fame of a miracle, which attended his embarkation 
for this island, and is thus described by Dr. Milner : — 

" Proceeding from Genoa, through France, our apostle came to the sea-port on the channel, 
from which he was to embark for our island. Here, having performed the sacred mysteries, he left 
behind him what is called a corporal [in allusion to the body of Christ] containing the blessed 









24 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

and it appears from the respective histories of Bede and Malmsbury, that 
King Oswald acted in the character of godfather to Kinegils when the 
latter was baptized. 

Before Birinus quitted Rome, he pledged his word to the Pope, that he 
would promulgate Christianity in those parts of Britain where the light of 
the gospel had never yet been spread ; with this intent, and with the consent 
of Kinegils and Oswald, he removed to Dorchester, iu Oxfordshire, which 
was then a considerable town, and apparently the place were Quilchelm 
kept his court 17 , as that monarch received baptism there in the following 

sacrament, which lie did not recollect until the vessel, in which he sailed, was some way out at sea. 
It was in vain to argue the case with the Pagan sailors who steered the ship, and it was impossible 
for him to leave his treasure behind him. In this extremity, supported by a strong faith, he stepped 
out of the ship upon the waters, which became firm under his feet, and walked in this manner to 
the laud. Having secured what he was anxious about, he returned in the same manner on board 
the vessel, which had remained stationary in the place where he had left it. The ship's crew were 
of the nation to which he was sent, and being struck with the miracle they had witnessed, lent a 
docile ear to his instructions : thus our apostle began the conversion of the West-Saxons before he 
landed upon their territory." Hist, of Win. vol. \.p. 89. 

This legend is recorded by several ancient writers, and Dr. Milner regards it as a prodigy so 
well attested, that those, he says, " who have had the greatest interest to deny it, have not dared 
openly to do so." The following remark on this passage is extracted from a recent description of 
the Cathedral : — " Milner's concluding assertion is singularly bold and fanatical. The persons 
alluded to as not daring to deny it, are Bishop Godwin and the truth-telling Fox : the former takes 
no notice whatever of this compound miracle, wisely judging it beneath contempt ; and the latter 
bestows on it the only correct appellation iu our language, that of a lie." 

37 The town of Dorchester is situated near the river Thames, about ten miles south of Oxford. 
It was anciently occupied by the Romans, many of whose coins, urns, &c. have been found there, 
and considerable entrenchments still remain in the vicinity. The church is a very large and 
curious building, and affords numerous vestiges of its former splendour. In the windows are some 
remains of ancient painted glass, which some years ago were collected from different parts of the 
edifice, and put up in the chancel: among the subjects that continue whole is a full length 
figure of St. Birinus, as well as several small compartments relating to his history. The windows 
in the chancel are very curious and singular : that on the north side is large and lofty, divided into 
four days by three mullions, which internally assume the form of branches of trees. This is 
intended to represent the genealogical tree of Jesse, whose figure is prostrate at the bottom, and 
several smaller statues are displayed in other parts of the tree. Among the tombs is a fine 
effigy of a Crusader, in mail armour; aud also the figure of another armed knight, well executed, 



ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEE AT WINCHESTER. — A.D. 636-643. 25 

year (anno 636) : three years afterwards Cuthred, his son, was baptized in 
the same city, Birinus himself being his sponsor. 

From this era the ecclesiastical history of Winchester becomes more 
certain, as the concurring testimony of different historians substantiate 
the leading facts; for whatever has been affirmed on the authority of 
Rudborne, as to the existence of a Bishopric in this city, prior to the 
Saxon times, is extremely doubtful ; the historians most to be depended 
on being unanimous in ascribing the foundation both of the See and the 
Cathedral to Kenewalsh, the son and successor of Kinegils. 

Though Birinus had established his episcopal seat at Dorchester, (which 
had been given to him by Kinegils), yet that appears to have been done 
provisionally, only " till a church were built in the royal city, worthy of 
such a priest 38 ." For this purpose Kinegils collected a great quantity of 
materials ; and he intended, according to the Winchester Annalist, to 
bestow on the new foundation all the land round this city, to the extent of 
seven leagues 39 . Being seized, however, with a mortal illness before he 
had completed his design, he caused his son Kenewalsh to swear, in the 
presence of Birinus, " that he would punctually fulfil these his pious 
intentions." This was in the year 643 ; when dying, his remains were interred 
within the pale of the new church, of which he had begun the foundation 40 . 

but much broken. There is, likewise, the effigy of a bishop, in ponlificalibus, and two stone 
coffins ; the latter were dug up, the one about seven, the other about twelve years ago, in the south 
aile, within eighteen inches of the surface ; each of these is formed out of a single stone. Several 
other churches are said to have formerly stood in this town ; and many human bones and vestiges 
of antient sepulture are occasionally met with in digging in various parts of the neighbourhood. 
The site of the ancient Episcopal Palace is still pointed out in the appurtenances to a farm-house 
closely adjacent to the town. 

33 " Iste dedit S. Birino Civitatem Dorcacestram ; ut sederet interim in ea, donee conderet 
Ecclesiamtantosacerdotedignaminregia civitate."— Ann. Eccl. Winton. in Ang. Sacra, vol. 1, 128. 

39 " In votis enim ejus [Kinegils] erat in Wintonia aedificaie templum praecipuum; et collectis 
jam plurimis ad opus sedificii, terram totam ambientem Wintoniam a centro Wintoniae usque ad 
circumferentiam ab onini parte linea exeunte septem leucas habentem ajdificandre Ecclesias in 
dotem dare disposuit. — Ann. Eccl. Winton. ibid. 

40 « _ e t in Wyntonia, quam fuudare incceperat, honorifice sepelitur.'' — Rudb.ftft. ii. c.l. ibid. 189. 

D 



26 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Kenewalsh was a Pagan, and during several years he neglected the 
execution of his oath ; but having been dispossessed of his throne by Penda, 
King of Mercia, (whose daughter he had married, and afterwards 
repudiated,) he became a convert to Christianity, at the court of Anna, the 
pious King of the East Angles, to which he had fled for an as\lum. Being 
afterwards restored to his kingdom, through the interposition of his friends, 
and particularly of his kinsman, Cuthred, he proceeded with the building 
of the Cathedral, and completed it about the year 648, in a style of 
considerable splendour for that age* 1 . It was then dedicated by St. 
Birinus, as he is styled in the Roman Calendar, in honour of the Holy 
Trinity, and of St. Peter and St. Paul; and the conventual buildings, 
which had been also restored by Kenewalsh, were replenished either with 
secular or regular canons, but most probably the former; as the unnatural 
celibacy of the Romish clergy had not, at that period, obtained such a pre- 
dominance in this country, as it subsequently did, under the tyrannic sway 
of the famous St. Dunstan. Birinus afterwards returned to Dorchester, 
where he died, and was buried, in the year 640 ; but his remains were 
translated to Winchester by Bishop Hedda, on the final removal of the 
see to the latter city. 

Agilbert, or Angilbert, a native of France, who had long studied in 
Ireland, (which at that period seems to have been eminently distinguished 
for its schools and literature), was prevailed on by Kenewalsh to succeed 
Birinus, with whom he had been previously associated in promulgating the 
gospel. The foreign accents of this prelate, however, proved disagreeable 
to the Saxon King; and the latter, about the year 660, divided the diocess 
into two portions ; assigning to the see of Dorchester the jurisdiction over 
the northern part of Wessex, and establishing Winchester as the see of the 
southern part. This era, therefore, strictly speaking, must be considered as 
that of the foundation of the Bishopric of Winchester. 

41 " — Templum Deo, per id ternporis, pulcherrimum, construeret," — are the words of William 
of Malmsbury. " De Gest. Reg." /. 1, c. 2. Rud borne says, " Ecclesiam pulcherrimam construxit 
in Wyntonia." " Ann. Eccl. Winton." p. 288. 



DORCHESTER AND WINCHESTER UNITED. A. D. 643-676. 27 

Agilbert, says Bishop Godwin, " taking this matter very grievously (the 
rather because it was done altogether without either his consent or know- 
ledge) returned in a great chafe into his own country, where soon after he 
was made bishop of Paris 42 ." Through this abandonment of his duties, the 
direction of both sees became vested in Wina, an Englishman of great 
talents, whom Kenewalsh had raised to the episcopal seat at Winchester, 
but who, three years afterwards, was again expelled by that King ; though 
from what cause historians have neglected to record 43 . Both sees were now 
kept vacant four years; when Kenewalsh, becoming alarmed by some defeats 
in battle and other adversities, (which he attributed to his late neglect of 
religion,) dispatched an embassy to request Agilbert to return to his former 
diocess. This, Agilbert declined, but recommended his nephew Eleuthe- 
rius as a fit person to be appointed in his stead. He was accordingly 
received with much welcome both by the prince and people, and in the 
year 670 was consecrated bishop over the entire diocess, by Theodore, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. He chiefly resided in Winchester, and is 
recorded to have been very sedulous in the discharge of his duties. 
Amongst other pious works, he assisted St. Aldhehn in raising the 
hermitage of Maidulph, an Irish nobleman, into the famous Abbey of 
Malmsbury; which afterwards became so deservedly celebrated as the 
principal school and seat of learning in the west of England. He died in 674, 
and was buried in this Church ; in which, also about the same period, King 
Kenewalsh himself was interred ; he having previously endowed the new 
establishment with all the lands designed by his father for that purpose, 
together with the manors of Downton, Alresford, and Worthy 44 . His 
kinsman, Escuin, or Escwine, who had been raised to the throne on the 
expulsion of Sexburga (Kenewalsh's widow) died about the year 676, and 

42 Cat. of Eug. Bishops, p. 210. 

43 Wina, after his expulsion, took refuge in Mercia ; of whose sovereign, Wulf here, or Wulphere, 
he is said to have purchased the bishopric of London, about the year 666 ; he " being the first 
Simonist," says Godwin, that is mentioned in our country. 

44 Ann. Winton. anno 639. 



2B WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

was deposited here with his predecessors ; as was likewise his successor, 
Kentwin, (a son to Kinegils), who died in 685. 

After the death of Bishop Eleutherius, the vacant see was bestowed on 
Hedda, Abbot of Streneschal, or Whitby, in Yorkshire; whom Bede 
testifies to have been rather a good and just man than profoundly learned. 
By him the seat of the diocess was formally translated from Dorchester, 
about the year 676, and settled at Winchester; whither also, he removed 
the sainted remains of Birinus. Hedda, dying about the year 705, was 
interred in this Cathedral : Bede reports that many miracles were wrought 
at his tomb, the fame of which appears to have led to his canonization hy 
the Romish Church. 

At the period of Hedda's decease, the West Saxon kingdom had been 
greatly enlarged by new conquests ; and the knowledge of Christianity 
having, in consequence, been more extensively promulgated, it became 
necessary again to divide the diocess into two distinct sees. This act of 
jurisdiction, according to Godwin 45 , was executed by the sole authority of 
the famous King Ina; yet William of Malmsbury states it to have been 
done by an Episcopal Synod* 6 . The new See was fixed at Sherborne, in 
Dorsetshire, and had assigned to it the counties of Berks, Dorset, 
Somerset, Wilts, Devon, and Cornwall. The See of Winchester retained 
the counties of Hants, Surrey, Sussex, and the Isle of Wight. The learned 
St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmsbury, was then made Bishop of Sherborne; 
and Daniel, a monk of the same foundation, and also a renowned scholar, 
was raised to the Bishopric of AVinchester. In his time (anno 711) another 
division of this diocess was effected by the erection of Sussex into an 
Episcopal province, and fixing its See at the monastery of Selsea.or Seolsey ; 
which seat was subsequently removed to Chichester. A few years afterwards 
King Ina, influenced by religious zeal, resigned his crown, and with his 
pious Queen, Ethelburga, proceeded to Rome in disguise, having previously 

45 De Pracsul. p. 205. 

46 " Svnodali ergo concilio diocesis, ultra uiodun) protensa, in duas sedes divisa." Malm, in Vit. 
St. Aldhelm, Aug. Sac. tot. ii. p. 20. 



CORONATION OF KING EGBERT. — A. D. 741-800. 29 

refounded the Abbey of Glastonbury, and given eighty hides of land, in 
the Isle of Wight, to this church 47 . Athelard, Ina's nephew and successor, 
died in 741, and was interred at Winchester, together with his sister, 
Frideswitha. 

In the year 744, Bishop Daniel, who had presided over this see during 
upwards of forty years, relinquished his charge through the infirmities of 
age ; and re-assuming the habit of a monk, retired to his original solitude 
at Malmsbury, where he ended his days. Venerable Bede, in the Preface 
to his Ecclesiastical History, has acknowledged his literary obligations to 
this prelate; who, besides some other works, was the writer of a life of St. 
Chad, and of Histories of the South Saxons and the Isle of Wight. 

During the supremacy of the eight succeeding bishops, namely, Humfred, 
Kinebard, Athelard (who had been Abbot of Malmsbury, and was 
translated from Winchester to Canterbury in 793), Egbald, Dudda, or 
Dudd, Kinebert, or Cinebord, Almund, and Wighten, no event of 
particular importance occurred relating to this church, with the exception, 
of the burials here of the West Saxon Kings, Cuthred, Sigebert, and 
Kynewulph; and the memorable coronation of King Egbert, in the year 
827. This prince, who in the early part of his life had been banished by 
King Brithric, had so diligently studied the example of the great Charle- 
magne, as to become his rival on this side of the water, when called to the 
West Saxon throne, on the death of Brithric, in 800. After many severe 
battles, he obtained the ascendancy over all the other Saxon states, and, 
uniting the whole into one Monarchy, caused himself to be solemnly 
crowned King of all Britain in Winchester Cathedral, and in presence of 
the assembled nobles from every part of the country. On this occasion, by 
an edict dated from this city, he formally abolished all distinctions of 
Saxons, Jutes, and English; commanding that all his subjects should in 
future be called by the latter name only, and the country be called England. 



47 Ina died at Rome, in the year 728, according to the Saxon Chronicle ; but his Queen, having 
returned to England, retired to the Abbey of Barking, in Essex, (of which her sister was abbess) 
and died there in 741. 



30 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Bishop Wighten, who is supposed to have had the honour of crowning 
Egbert, died within two or three years after that event, and was succeeded 
by Herefrith ; of whom nothing more is recorded than the circumstance 
of his being slain in the year 833, together with Wigforth, Bishop of 
Sherborne, in the disastrous battle of Charmouth, in Dorsetshire, whither 
these prelates had attended the King to oppose the Danes, who had landed 
on that coast in great force. Eadmund, or Edmund, the next bishop, 
governed the diocess only a few months ; when, dying, he was succeeded 
by the venerable Helmstan, or Uelinstan, (as he is styled by Rudbome), 
who was a canon of this church, and had been entrusted with the educa- 
tion of Egbert's son, Ethelwulph. This young Prince is thought to have 
been intended for a religious life, and it is certain that both his inclinations 
and his talents were far better adapted for the direction of a church than 
the government of a kingdom. His more immediate tutor was the famous 
Swithun, or Sivithin, (as the name has been spelt in modern times;) " the 
opinion of whose holiness," says Godwin, " hath procured him the 
reputation of a Saint." Under this preceptor he became, first, a canon, 
and afterwards sub-dean of this Cathedral; and he seems to have held the 
latter situation when advanced to the throne on the decease of King 
Egbert, in 837'". Several ancient writers state, that the demise of Bishop 
Helmstan occurred about the same period, and that Ethelwulph was 
himself raised to the vacant see; yet the probability is, that he was never 
actually consecrated, though he might have been elected to the episcopal 
dignity. However this may be, it appears that the prince, being in holy 
orders in this monastery, had a dispensation from Pope Leo the Third to 
enable him to assume the crown. 

Rudbome says, that Helmstan being dead, Ethelwulph, in the fifteenth 
year of his reign, and in the year 852, ordered the most pious Swithun to be 
preferred to this see' 9 ; yet it would seem from other historians, that 

48 — patre dcfuncto, quia alius legitinius lucres doo extaret, exgradu Subdiaconi Wintoniensis in 
Regem translatus est, concedente Lcoue illius uouiinis Papa tertio. Will. Malm. Dc Poutif. /. ii. 
in Rer. Ang. Scrip, p. 242. Vide also, Joan. Walliugford, in Curoii. Ranulph. Higden. Ad. An. 
836. Rudb. Hist. Maj. /. iii. c. 2. M Vide Hist. Maj. /. iii. c. 2. 



ST. SWITHUN. — ESTABLISHMENT OF TYTHES. — A. D. 852-857. 31 

Swithun must have been appointed bishop here many years before. This 
famed prelate was a native either of the city or suburbs of Winchester; 
and, early in life, he became a canon of this Church. He was highly 
distinguished for his piety and knowledge of sacred literature; and William 
of Malmsbury styles him a " treasury of virtues," the most conspicuous 
of which were his meekness and humility. The influence which he had 
obtained over the youthful mind of Ethelwulph, he continued to possess in 
the maturer age of that prince ; and it is recorded to have been by his advice, 
that Ethelwulph, in a " Mycel Synod," granted his famous charter for the 
general establishment of tythes, in the year 854 or 855 S0 . This important 
deed was executed at Winchester, as appears from the charter itself, as 
copied in the histories of Matthew of Westminster, Ingulphus, Rudborne, 
and other writers. " The instrument testifies, that it was subscribed by 
Ethelwulph himself, and by his two vassals, Burred, King of Mercia, and 
Edmund, King of the East Angles ; as also by a great number of nobles, 
prelates, &c. in the Cathedral Church at Winchester, before the high altar; 
and that, being thus signed, it was, by way of greater solemnity, placed by 
the King upon the altar 51 ." Ethelwulph died in 857, and was buried near 
Egbert, his father, in this Church ; the possessions of which had been much 
augmented by these princes. 

Through the counsels of Swithun, King Ethelbald, (Ethelwulph's 
successor,) raised, fortifications round the Cathedral and cloisters, in order 
to protect them from the destructive fury of the Danes, who had now 
begun to make frequent incursions into different parts of the kingdom, with 
large armies. The good effects of this measure were soon experienced, for 
in the next reign, that of Ethelbert, the Danes landed a considerable force 
at Southampton, and advancing to Winchester, made themselves masters 
of the city, wherein they committed the most barbarous and lamentable 

io Malm. De Gest. Reg. Butler's " Lives of the Fathers," &c. vol. iv.p. 196. 

51 Miln. Hist, of Win. vol. i. p. 120, 121. Besides the charter mentioned above, there is another 
extant to the same effect, which Ethelwulph is said to have granted in the year 854, at the feast of 
Easter, and is dated at the Palace of Wilton. The latter charter is given in Dugdale's Monasticon, 
but it is generally considered to be spurious. 



32 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

excesses ; but the Cathedral, with its adjoining offices, appear to have 
escaped their rage, a circumstance only to be accounted for by supposing 
the whole to have been completely secured from their depredations. The 
Danes, on retreating to their ships, were routed with great slaughter, by the 
Earls of Hampshire and Berkshire; and the immense spoils which they had 
made in this city were recovered. These events appear to have taken 
place about 860 ; two or three years after which St. Swithun died, and 
agreeably to his own desire, was interred here, in the church-yard. He is 
said to have been an especial benefactor to Winchester, and to have either 
originally constructed, or rebuilt, the principal city-bridge 52 . He has the 
praise likewise of building a number of churches in those parishes where 
none had before existed : the monkish annalists, however, not being 
content with the renown really due to his sanctity and merits, have 
attributed to him various miracles. Godwin says, that " his learning 
questionless was great 53 ;" and Kudborne affirms, that Ethelwulph's 
youngest son, Alfred, whose immortal actions have procured him the 
surname of Great, was in his very infancy committed to the care and 
tuition of this prelate 5 *. 

Alkkith, or Adfcrlh, the next bishop, a man of great learning, 
governed this see " discreetly and wisely" about eleven years, after which 
he appears to have been translated to Canterbury, and is distinguished in 
the annals of that city by the name of Alhelred. His successor was 

s ' Wartou, in his History of Euglish Poetry, vol. i. p. 15, has quoted the following passage from a 
very ancient versification of the Lives of the Saints : — 

&epnt <t>tontfjan Jji? bustjopricfte to al gooune&'e Dtougfj : 
Cfjc to '03 in- ,il so of IDnncljcjitre (je amcnDeo mouglj. 
jrfbr h,c lette t(je jitronge bruge, voittjout the tounc arete, 
3[nb fono tljcrcto Inm and ston anti tlje tootfitnen tfjat tfjer toere. 

5J Cat. of Eng. Bish.p. 213. " How miraculously be made whole a basket of egges that were all 
broken, and some oilier thinges accounted miracles in our histories, who so list may reade in 
Matthew Westminster, in his report of the yeerc 862, at what lime, July 2, this bishop died." lb. 
William of Malmsbury states that be died in 863. 

54 Hist. Maj. /. 3, c. vi. 



BATTLE OF KTHANDUNE. 879, &C. 33 

Dunbert, who is recorded to have settled certain lands upon this Cathedral, 
for its repairs, which measure had become necessary through the devasta- 
tions committed here by the Danes ; who, after several desperate battles 
with the Princes Ethel red and Alfred, had penetrated to Winchester, 
where, obtaining possession of the Church, they massacred every individual 
belonging to it that fell into their power 55 . 

On the death of Ethelred, who had been mortally wounded in battle, 
in the year 872, his brother Alfred was crowned king, in Winchester 
Cathedral; but after a perturbed sway of several years, he was, at length, 
forced by the Danes to seek an asylum in the abode of a swine-herd, or 
neat-herd, in the Isle of Athelney, in Somersetshire; amidst the almost 
impassible marshes formed by the conflux of the Perrot and the Thone. 
After an inglorious obscurity of some months, he suddenly emerged from 
this retreat, and with a united band of faithful partizans (which had been 
privately assembled on the eastern borders of Selwood Forest) he surprised 
and defeated the Danish army at Elhandune, or Heddington, in Wiltshire 5 '"'. 
This victory led the way to new achievements, and Alfred's subsequent 
successes restored to him his capital and kingdom. Hence Winchester again 
became the seat of government, and its Cathedral establishment was once 
more replenished with secular canons. 

Bishop Dunbert died in the year 879, and was succeeded by Denewulf, 
or Denulf; of whom ancient writers report, that he was the very herdsman 
in whose cottage and service Alfred had. been concealed at Athelney. 
Godwin says, that the king " having recovered the peaceable possession 
of his crown, was not unmindful of his old master, in whom perceiving an 
excellent sharpness of wit, he caused him (though it were now late, he 
being a man growne) to study, and having obtained some competency in 
learning, he preferred him to the bishopricke of Winchester 57 ." He proved 

55 Rudborne places this event in 866 ; but the more probable date is the year 871, as assigned by 
Wharton, in Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 206, n. 

56 Heddington is about six miles south of Chippenham. See an account of this battle, with 
observations on its supposed site, in my account of Wiltshire : Beauties of England, vol. xv., also 
Whitaker's " Life of St. Nebt." * Cat. of Eng. Bish. p. 215. 

E 



34 MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

an active and able prelate ; and, as appears from the researches of the 
learned Spelman, was one of the king's chief counsellors 58 . 

The Great Alfred, in his latter years, began the foundation of a magnifi- 
cent abbey in the Cathedral Cemetery at Winchester, for the purpose of 
retaining in England his friend and chaplain, Griinbald ; who had been 
originally a monk at St. Bertin's monastery, in Artois, and had been invited 
into England by the king, to assist in establishing an University. Whitaker, 
in his ' Life of St. INeot,' contends that the first English University, or 
public school, was founded at Winchester, and not at Oxford, as generally 
asserted and believed. Alfred also intended the new abbey as a burial place 
for himself and his family ; but dying before its completion (in 900 or 901), 
he Mas provisionally interred in the Cathedral, under a mouument of 
porphyry marble, from which his remains were afterwards translated to the 
Neu-cii-JJj/iislre, as his foundation was then termed. 

Denewulf, according to Matthew of Westminster, was succeeded by 
Bishop Athelm; who, in the year 888, travelled to Rome with the alms 
collected by King Alfred and Archbishop Plegmund. His successor, as 
appears from the same writer, was Bertulf; whom Alfred, in the year 897, 
appointed one of the guardians of the realm, to defend it against the 
Danes 59 . Neither of these prelates are named by Rudborne ; who, on the 
contrary, states, that Denevyulf held this see twenty-four years; and that 
Edward the Rider exchanged with him a certain quantity of land, for that 
of the cemetery and other ground belonging to the Cathedral, on which the 
new monastery was built 00 . If this account be true, there is evidently no 
time for the succession of Athelm and Bertulf; as Denewulfs decease, 
(when calculated from the date of that of Dunbert his predecessor) could 
not have happened till the year 903. 

The chronological difficulties which attend the ecclesiastical history of 
Winchester about this era, are probably inexplicable 01 ; and they have been 
the more involved through the endeavours of the Roman Catholic writers 
to trace the direct supremacy of the Papal See over the English Church to 

58 In Vit. Alfr. p. 102. " Vide Godwin. De Presul. under Winchester. 

60 Rudb. Hist. Maj. /. iii. c. 7. 6 ' Vide VAliarton's Angl. Sac. vol. i- p. 209, n. 



CONSECRATION OF SEVEN BISHOPS. — 905. 35 

the period now mentioned. It is stated by Mahnsbury 62 , under the date 
904, that Pope Formosus having- been informed that the West Saxon sees 
had remained vacant during the space of seven years, sent a Bull into 
England, excommunicating the King and all his subjects, on account of 
this irregularity ; and that, in consequence, the King (who must have been 
Edward the Elder) caused Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, to 
assemble, at Winchester, a general Council, or Synod, (of bishops, abbots, 
and other dignified persons,) in which it was determined that the vacancies 
should not only be filled, but that three new Sees should be established in 
the West Saxon states. The archbishop, who had presided at the meeting, is 
then said to have proceeded to Rome, to get the censure taken off, and on 
his return home, to have consecrated seven new bishops in one day. The 
year generally assigned for this remarkable consecration is 905 ; but Sir H. 
Spelman and Johnson refer it to 908. 

Against the presumed authenticity of the above Bull, it has been fatally 
objected, that Pope Formosus died in 895, or 896 ; and therefore could never 
have signed such an instrument in 904. To solve this difficulty, Baronius 
conceives that Malmsbury's date is wrong, and should have been 894; yet 
if this were the fact, the sovereign excommunicated must have been Alfred ; 
yet no historian has ever glanced at such an event in respect to that 
monarch. Other difficulties, equally insuperable, attend this conjecture. 
Johnson, in " Ecclesiastical Laws," &c. refers this Bull to Pope Sergius, 
by which means, he says, " all runs clear." " We cannot wonder," he 
says, " if the monks chose to report this papal act as done by Formosus, 
who was a popular Pope, and made more popular by the barbarous treat- 
ment of his dead corpse and memory, than by such a monster of a man and 
Pope, as Sergius." 

That the West Saxon demesne was divided into several distinct Sees 
about this time ; and that seven Bishops were actually consecrated on one 
day by Plegmund, are circumstances so positively affirmed by various 
historians, that their validity cannot consistently be questioned. Three of 
the new Sees were taken from the diocess of Sherborne, and were fixed at 
Wells, for Somersetshire; at Crediton, or Kyrton, for Devonshire; and at 

6! Malm. De Gest. Res ./. ii. 



36 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Petrock's-Stow, for Cornwall: by this arrangement Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, 
and Berkshire, were the only counties that remained subordinate to 
Sherborne. The diocess of Winchester was left to its former limits ; but 
among the seven Bishops (all of whom were consecrated at Canterbury,) 
we find that one, named Kenulf, or Ceolwulph, was appointed for the 
ancient See of Dorchester, in Oxfordshire 63 . 

The prelate now chosen to preside over this diocess, was Frithstan, 
who had been a scholar of St. Grimbald, and a canon in the New Minster 
in this city. He Mas much renowned for his piety and learning, and having 
governed this See, in an exemplary manner, about twenty-two years, he 
resigned his bishopric to Brinstan, or liimstaii, (whom he had previously 
consecrated), and after passing the remainder of his da\s in devotional 
exercises, died in 932. Brinstan was originally one of the secular clergy 
belonging to the Cathedral, but he afterwards assumed the cowl in St. Grim- 
bald's new abbey : his most prominent virtues were charity and humility ; 
and he was accustomed to walk round the church-yards by night, praying 
for the dead 64 : he died on the feast of All Souls, 934, whilst in the act of 
prayer, in his oratory. In the following year he was succeeded by 
Elphege the First, surnamed the Bald, who had been a monk of 
Glastonbury, and was uncle to the famous St. Dunstau, whom he raised to 
the order of priesthood in this Cathedral. He is said to have excelled in 
all the Christian virtues, and to have bequeathed his lands to certain 
churches and monasteries in Winchester ; subject, however, to the pay- 
ment of some annuities to relations: he died in the year 951. " Of these 
three bishops," says Godwin, " divers miracles are reported in histories, 
which need not be here rehearsed." They were all buried in this 
Church, and are all ranked as saints in the Roman Calendar. 

Elsin, or Alfin, the next bishop, was a man of royal blood, and of 
extraordinary learning; but he has had the misfortune to be greatly calum- 

M Will. Malm. Rudb. Malt. West. Rapin says, that " though Malmsbury and Higden 
affirm the new-erected Bishopricks had the Pope's continuation, it is certain at that time, and for 
more than 200 years after, there was no such thing required." Hist, of Eug. vol. \.p. 113. 

64 One night, on finishing his devotions among the tombs, (in the cemetery of St. Anas(asius), his 
' Rcquiescant in pace' is recorded to have been loudly answered by an infinite multitude of voices 
from the sepulchre, ejaculating ' Amen: Vide Rudb. Hist. Maj /. iii. c 8. 



OPPOSITION OF EDWY AND DUNSTAN. 37 

mated through aiding King Edwy to repress the tyranny and insolence of the 
monks 65 . In his time, anno 955, the remains of Edwy's predecessor, Edgar, 
were interred in Winchester Cathedral, with great solemnity, by Runs tan ; 
who having been sent for to administer the sacrament to the expiring King, 
came not till too late : yet he had the hardihood to testify, that, on his 
journey, he had been assured by a celestial voice of the happiness of the 
deceased sovereign 66 ! 

On the decease of Archbishop Odo, in 958, Elsin was translated to the 
See of Canterbury, to which he appears to have been nominated by the 
King, from his affinity to the blood-royal ; though his enemies state that he 
obtained his election by bribery and corrupt intrigues. The manner of his 

65 The coronation of Edwy (a youth of fourteen) at Winchester, was attended by some remarkable 
events, which in their consequences, are thought to have had great influence over the affairs of this 
church. The generality of the monkish historians concur in representing that Edwy had been 
corrupted by a lascivious female of high birth and great beauty, named Algiva, who had a daughter 
equally shameless; and that he withdrew from the company of his nobles, at the coronation feast, 
in order to solace himself in their lewd society The guests, indignant at this treatment, ordered 
his tutor, Dunstan (who was then Abbot of Glastonbury), and Kinsey, Bishop of Lichfield, to con- 
duct the youth back to the assembly; and Dunstan had the boldness to reprimand him for thus 
inconsiderately giving way to his passions. Edwy was highly exasperated at being thus reproved, 
and, being yet more irritated by Dunstan's general arrogance, he deprived that ambitious prelate 
of all his preferments, and forced him into exile. Still further to divest him of his influence, he 
expelled all the monks of his order from their several monasteries, and replaced them by secular 
clergy. This procedure, however, proved the ruin of Edwy ; for the clamours of the monks were 
so great, that a successful rebellion was excited against him, and more than half his kingdom sub- 
mitted to the sway of Edgar, his brother ; who immediately recalled Dunstan from banishment, and 
made him Bishop of Worcester. Edwy died in 959; and Edgar having succeeded to the entire 
possession of the monarchy, promoted Dunstan to the Archiepiscopal See of Canterbury. The 
historian of Ramsey Abbey mentions nothing of the coronation feast, but traces Edwy's aversion to 
the monks to his having been offended by St. Dunstan, and Archbishop Odo ; who had obliged 
him " to repudiate a certain young and beauteous kinswoman of his, with whom he had contracted 
an illicit marriage." Hist. Ramesiensis, I. i. c. 7- 

66 This tale is related by most of the monkish writers ; yet they add also, as if to make it the 
more ludicrously absurd, that Dunstan's horse, " trembling at the thunder of the angelic voice," 
fell dead under him, "astounded at the prodigious noise." Vide Rudb. Hist. Maj. /. iii. c. 10. Will. 
Malm. Rog. Hoveden. Mat. West. Osborn. Hist. Ram. /. i.e. 7. 



38 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

death was remarkable, for, " being impatient to procure the papal confir- 
mation and pall, he hastened to Rome in the most unseasonable weather; 
when, in crossing the Alps, he experienced such intense cold, as induced 
him to cause the bodies of the horses, on which he and his companions 
rode, to be cut open, in order to preserve his own vital heat, by plunging 
his feet into them ; but this expedient failing, he died amidst the snow 67 ." 
His body was brought to England and deposited in this Church ; in the 
government of which he had been succeeded by Brithelm, of whom 
nothing more is recorded, than that he held the See about five years, and 
died in .063. 

The next bishop was the famous St. Ethelwold, a native of Winchester, 
and of respectable parentage. He commenced his studies, and entered 
into holy orders, in this city; but afterwards became a monk and dean of 
Glastonbury, under Dunstan, by whose influence with King Edred he was 
made Abbot of the newly-restored monastery of Abingdon, in Berkshire. 
Hence, according to Milner, " he was forcibly withdrawn, for the purpose 
of undertaking the pastoral government of this, his native city ;" but the 
rather, as appeared by his actions, with the view of aiding Dunstan (who 
was now seated in the archiepiscopal chair at Canterbury) in the accom- 
plishment of his long-cherished design of establishing a general celibacy 
of the clergy. To effect this, all the secular canous, who refused to 
repudiate their wives, and conform to the observances of the Benedictine 
Order, were expelled from the Cathedrals and larger Monasteries, under a 
commission granted by King Edgar. In the very year of his consecration, 
Ethelwold forcibly ejected the secular clergy of this Church, who, among 
other vices, of which they were accused, are represented as gluttons, 
drunkards, and adulterers 68 . This expulsion was effected with all the 

67 Milner's Winchester, vol. i. p. 139, from William of Malmsbury. Rudborue, &c. These 
writers state, that some such fearful vengeance had been foretold to him, in a vision, by Odo; in 
consequence of his having despitefully spurned at the tomb of that prelate in Canterbury Cathedral. 

68 This alleged depravity is said to have been a consequence, partly, of the early licentiousness 
and irreligion of King Edwy, (as alluded to in note 65), and partly, of there having been such a 
prelate as Elsin seated in the episcopal chair. Vide Miln. Hist. vol. i. p. 165. 



SECULAR CLERGY: — MIRACLES. 3.9 

promptitude of determined authority. " He ordered," says Milner, from 
the old historians, " a proper number of cowls to be brought into the choir, 
in the midst of the canons; and after a pathetic discourse on the sanctity 
of their state of life, he left it to their choice, either to put on those 
religious habits, and embrace'the monastic state, or quit the service of the 
Cathedral. Three of the number were content to enter on this strict 
course of life ; the rest gave up their stalls in the choir, which were soon 
after filled by a colony of [Benedictine] monks from Abingdon 69 ." In the 
following year he also expelled the canons of the New Minster, who are 
said to have been even more hardened in wickedness than those of the 
Cathedral 10 . 

On the accession of Edward, surnamed the Martyr, (anno 975) Elfrida, 
his step-mother, attempted to counteract Dunstan's influence, and is said 
to have caused three abbies, which Ethelwold had founded, to be 
suppressed, and their possessions to be given to married clergymen 71 . 
This, and other opposition to his grand designs, occasioned Dunstan to 
assemble a Synod in the refectory of the Cathedral monastery in this city, 
in which it was debated whether the regular, or the secular, foundations, 

69 History of Winchester, vol. i. p. 166. 

70 The monks aver that some of the displaced canons, not brooking the disgrace they had 
sustained, carried their resentment so far as to attempt to poison St. Ethelwold ; but that the 
saint, though suffering excruciating torment in consequence of swallowing the potion they had 
prepared for him, was suddenly restored to health, through his prayers to God, and confidence in 
Christ's promises. 

" Elfrida's conduct, in this instance, is stated to have arisen from being defeated in her design of 
raising her own son, Ethelbert, to the throne (in place of Edward) by the firmness of the Saints 
Dunstan, Oswald, and Ethelwold. How highly those personages were estimated by the monks, 
may be seen from the following passage : — 

'These three brilliant lights, namely, Dunstan, Oswald, and JEtMwold, by the three candlesticks 
placed at Canterbury, Worcester, and Winchester, (the Lord so disposing it) irradiated the three 
parts of the English world with such a brightness, shining from the true Light, that they seemed to 
contend with even the very stars of the firmament ; and were deservedly (by some men living) 
accounted to be formed by a miracle, through the unusual pre-eminence of so great a sanctity.' 
Hist. Ram. c. xiii. In Decern. Scrip. 



40 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

should be dissolved. From the opinions of the majority, it seemed 
probable that the question would have been decided against the monks ; but 
a voice, said to be supernatural, issuing from a crucifix, which hung aloft in 
the room, is recorded to have determined it in their favour 7 -' ! In that ase 
indeed, miracles abounded, particularly in respect to Dunstan ; whom the 
monkish writers represent as being so peculiarly favoured by heaven, that 
there was scarcely an event of his life, of any importance, but what was 
accompanied by some prodigy. 

Ethelwold, leaving his conduct to the secular clergy out of consideration, 
appears to have been a munificent and charitable prelate. He either 
founded or rebuilt the several churches and monasteries of Ely, Peter- 
borough, and Thorney; besides assisting in other monastic establishments. 
His grand undertaking, however, was the rebuilding of his own Cathedral 
Church, (which was now, for the first time, furnished with a crypt, or 
crypts, under the east end 73 ), and on its completion, in 980, he re-consecrated 
it with great solemnity, in the presence of King Ethelred, Archbishop 
Dunstan, and eight bishops, besides a numerous assemblage of nobles and 
o-entry. On this occasion, to its former patrons St. Peter and St. Paul, was 
added the name of St. Switluin, whose remains had been previously 
removed from the church-yard, and re-interred under a magnificent shrine 
that had been provided for the purpose by King Edgar. The fame of the 
many miracles wrought by St. Swithun's intercession, was the cause of his 
relics being thus honoured 7 '; and hence-forward, till the period of the 
Dissolution, this establishment was distinguished by the name of St. 
Swithun's Church and Priory. 

Amonsr Ethelwold's public charities it is recorded, to his immortal honour, 
that in the time of a great famine, he brake all the plate of his Church, and 
gave it to the poor; saying, that " the Church might be again provided with 
necessary ornaments, but that if the poor were starved, they could not be 

*• Vide Will. Malm. /. ii. c . 9. Osborn. Rudb. &c. 

73 " In super occultisstuduisti et addere cryptas." Wolstan. Ep. ad. S. Elph. 

m Will. Malm. De Pontif. 



BISHOPS ELPHEGE AND KENULPH. — A. D. 984-1006. 41 

recovered." This prelate died in 984, and was interred in the southern 
crypt of his own Church 75 . 

St. Elphege the Second, surnamed the Martyr, was in the same year 
consecrated to this See, by Dunstan; his austerities and extraordinary 
abstinence, which, in those days, were considered as proofs of superior 
sanctity, having recommended him to the Archbishop as a fit person to 
succeed Ethelwold. He was born of a noble family, and in early youth 
became a monk at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire. He was afterwards 
Prior of Glastonbury, " which place, after a season," says Godwin, "he 
left, and gave himself to a very strait kind of life at Bath, for which he was 
so much admired, (the rather because he was a gentleman of great lineage) 
that many went about to imitate him, and joining themselves to him, made 
him their governor, by the name of an Abbot 76 ." He was thence promoted 
to this See, which he governed in an exemplary manner during twenty-two 
years : he was particularly attentive to the poor ; and is recorded to have 
first introduced the use of Organs into his Cathedral. In the year 1006, he 
was raised to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, which he continued to 
possess till 1013, when he was barbarously massacred by the Danes, at 
Greenwich, in Kent, after a captivity of seven months. Hence, and from 
his devotional exercises, and extraordinary and unnatural abstemiousness, 
(which Osbern says had reduced his body to a seeming skeleton 77 ), he is 
ranked, in the Roman Calendar, both as a saint and a martyr. 

Kentjlph, or Elsius, Abbot of Peterborough, was made Bishop of Win- 
chester on the translation of Elphege to Canterbury. Godwin says he was 

75 Capgrave states, that the episcopal Chair of St. Ethelwold long remained an object of popular 
veneration ; it being believed, that if those who sat in it gave way to sloth and drowsiness, they 
were punished by terrific visions and painful sensations ! 

76 Cat. of English Bishops, p. 60". Elphege's place of retirement at Bath had been previously a 
monastery founded by King Offa, about 775, but afterwards destroyed by the Danes. John de 
Villule, a French physician, who had been made Bishop of Wells, purchased Bath of William Rufus, 
for 500 marks, and subsequently transferred thither his Episcopal See ; for the reception of which 
he rebuilt the Abbey which Elphege had founded, and which, with great part of the city, had been 
destroyed by fire. lb. p. 362. 

» In Vit. Will. Malm. 

F 



42 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

" a man infamous for simony and aspiring by corrupt means to this place;" 
which he enjoyed but little more than one year, being " called by death 
from his dear-bought preferment 78 ." He was interred in this Church ; as 
was likewise his successor Brithwold, or Ethelwold, who governed this 
See till his decease in 1015 79 . He was succeeded by Elsin, or Alsin ; 
whom Godwin has erroneously stated to have been exalted to Canterbury 
in 1038, but whom most of the ancient historians affirm to have died in 
1032 S0 : he also was buried in this Cathedral. 

Alwyn, a Norman by birth, and kinsman to Queen Emma, was next 
raised to this bishopric, through the Queen's influence with Canute, her 
second husband; who, on the decease of Edmund Ironside, about two 
years before, had obtained the entire sovereignty of the kingdom, and fixed 
his capital in this city. Emma, " the pearl of Normandy," was daughter 
to Duke Richard, who appointed Alwyn to accompany her to England 
in quality of counsellor, or guardian ; previously to her first marriage with 
Ethelred-the-Unready. Alwyn continued at. the English court, and whilst 
yet a layman, was made Earl of Southampton, and invested with a command 
against the Danes ; but after the peace between Edmund and Canute 
had left him at liberty to pursue his own inclinations for a religious life, he 
became a monk of Winchester about the year 1010'. He was soon after- 
wards raised to the office of sacristan ; a circumstance that, has been 
supposed to account for the profusion of rich gifts bestowed on this 
Cathedral by King Canute, Besides a large and costly shrine for con- 
taining the remains of St. Birinus, that sovereign presented the church 
with a prodigious chandelier, of solid silver, various ensigns, and other 
costly ornaments of plate and jewels ; but the most extraordinary of all his 
gifts was that of his royal crown, (which he ordered to be placed over the 
crucifix of the high altar) having vowed never more to wear such an 
emblem of authority, from the time that, when seated on the beach, near 
Southampton, he proved to his attendants, by commanding in vain the 

,8 Cat. of English Bishops, p. '217. 

'■> Vide Wharton's Notes on Rudb. Aug. Sacra, vol. i. p. 227. to lb. 



FIERY ORDEAL OF QUEEN EMMA. — A. D. 1047. 43 

flowing tide not to approach his feet, the extravagance and impiety of their 
flattery, in extolling his power as equal to that of the almighty Lord of 
the Ocean. Canute died in the year 1036, and was deposited before the 
high altar in this Church ; five years afterwards the body of his cruel and 
gluttonous son, Hardicanute, was buried near the same spot. 

Edward, surnamed the Confessor, from his presumed sanctity, was next 
exalted to the throne by the general voice of the people ; and his coronation 
was conducted with great splendour in this Cathedral 81 . During his reign 
a remarkable trial of that mode of judgment practised by the Saxons, 
called the fiery-Ordeal, is recorded to have been made on the person of 
Queen Emma, who, among other calumnies, had been falsely accused of 
a criminal intercourse with Bishop Alwyn. This story coming, at length, 
to the knowledge of the Queen, (who had been treated with much rigour 
by her son, and obliged to retire to the Abbey of Wherwell, near this city), 
she insisted on undergoing the proof of her guilt or innocence by the fiery 
ordeal ; and Winchester Cathedral was appointed as the place of trial. 
Here, in presence of the King, and a crowded assembly of all ranks, she 
is stated to have walked unhurt, though bare-footed, over nine red hot 
plough-shares ; and in memory of her extraordinary deliverance to have 
given nine manors to this Church : a similar number is said to have been 
bestowed by Bishop Alwyn ; and three others (those of Portland, Wey- 
mouth, and Wyke) by Edward himself, whose indignation against his 
mother, for marrying Canute, is affirmed to have been removed by this 
event 82 . Alwyn died in the year 1047, and Queen Emma in 1052: they 

81 On this occasion Edward granted a Charter to the Cathedral, ordering the donation of half a 
mark to the Precentor, or Master of the Choir ; and a cask of wine, and a hundred cakes of white 
bread to the Convent, as often as a King of England should wear his crown within the city of Win- 
chester. The privileges of this grant were subsequently extended to the monasteries of Westmin- 
ster and Worcester. 

82 The whole story of Queen Emma and the plough-shares (which, to give apparent credibility to 
the tale, are said to have been buried in the west cloister of the Cathedral,) can be regarded only as 
a romantic fiction. So far, indeed, as it is now possible to trace its origin, it seems to have first 
appeared in the guise of poetry ; and was sung, with the popular ballads relating to Winchester, in 



44 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

were both interred in the Cathedral, and are recorded as its special friends 
and benefactors. 

The last Bishop of Winchester, prior to the Norman invasion, was 
Stigand, who had been chaplain to Edward the Confessor, and was 
translated hither, on the death of Alwyn, from Elmham, in Norfolk, a see 
that was subsequently removed to Norwich 83 . Five years afterwards, on 
the banishment of Robert Gemeticensis for seditious practices, he was 
raised to the archbishopric of Canterbury, which he continued to hold in 
conjunction with Winchester, till the year 1070, (at which time he was 
formally deposed, with many other prelates,) in a great Council or Convo- 
cation of the Clergy, held in this city, under Hermenfride, Bishop ofSion, 
the Pope's Legate. Stigand is reputed to have been a very subtle and 
covetous man, and withal rich and powerful, but very unlearned. His 
principal misfortunes arose from his having had the boldness to appear at 
the head of the Kentish men, when they assembled in arms at Swanscombe, 
in Kent, to demand from William the Norman a full confirmation of their 
ancient liberties; and although that chieftain, in acceding to their request, 
had eugaged never to suffer it to become a ground of offence, yet the 
displeasure which he hence conceived against IStigand was immoveable. 
For awhile, however, he concealed his dislike under a specious, yet 
hypocritical, respect; but almost immediately after the Council had 
deprived the archbishop of his dignities, he committed him to close 
imprisonment in Winchester Castle; where, says Godwin, he was "very 
hardly used, being scarcely allowed meat enough to hold life and soul 
together." This harsh treatment, (which is thought to have been design- 
edly inflicted, to force him to disclose where his treasures were concealed) 
is said to have affected his mind; and he died with chagrin, or voluntary 

the Priory Hall, on the translation of Bishop Orleton to this See, in the year 1338. (Vide Warton's 
History of English Poetry, vol. i. p. 89.) Higden, who wrote ahout the middle of the same 
century, relates it at length in his Poly-Chronicon ; but the more ancient historians, as Ailred 
Piievallensis, Mahusbury, Dunelmensis, Huntingdon, and Hoveden, are entirely silent on the subject: 
the principal later writers who mention it are, Brompton, Knighton, Rudbome, and Harpsfield. 

■-■ See History of Norwich Cathedral, p. 12, wherein is some account of Stigand. 



BISHOP STIGAND. — A. D. 1070. 45 

famine 84 , within a few months after his deprivation. " After his death, a 
little key was found about his necke, the locke whereof being carefully 
sought out, shewed a note or direction of infinite treasures hid under 
ground in divers places: all that the king pursed in his owne coffers 85 .'' 
He was buried in this Cathedral ; to which, according to the Winchester 
Annalist 86 , he gave a " prodigious large" and costly crucifix, with its 
attendant images (St. John and the Virgin) ; but Rudborne 87 says, that the 
said crucifix was given to the Church by the King, who had found it in 
Stigand's treasury. It was afterwards placed over the screen at the 
entrance into the choir. 

84 Cat. of Eng. Bishops, p. 72. The grand charges against Stiganrl were, that he had presumed 
to wear the pall of his predecessor Gemeticensis, in the See of Canterbury, without having been duly 
inducted by the Pope; and had also kept possession of the Sees both of Winchester and Canterbury 
at the same time. The latter crime, however, if such it were, had never been objected against the 
famous Saints Dunstan and Oswald ; the former of whom held Worcesterand London together, and 
the latter Worcester and York. The fact is, that the great Council at Winchester was purposely 
assembled to deprive the English clergy of their preferments, in order that the same might be be- 
stowed on foreigners. William was the first sovereign who completely subjected the independence 
of the English church to papal authority. 

85 Cat. of Eng. Bish. p. 73. 

86 Angl. Sac. vol. i. p. 294. 87 Ibid. p. 251. 



46 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 



HISTORICAL NOTICES OF THE MUNICIPAL STATE, SEE, AND BISHOPS OF WIN- 
CHESTER, UNDER THE ANGLO-NORMAN DYNASTY : ORIGIN AND BUILDING 

OF THE PRESENT CATHEDRAL: — DATES AND STYLES OF THE DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF THAT EDIFICE. 

A new and important era in ecclesiastical history was formed under the 
Anglo-Norman dynasty, and Winchester was chosen, soon after the con- 
quest, as the place for the assembly of prelates, monks, &c. in different 
Synods. These were formed to give some semblance of justice or can- 
dour to the arbitrary proceedings of the Norman bishops. Lanfranc, late 
Abbot of Bee in Normandy, was first advanced to the chair of Canterbury' 
from which Stigand had been recently expelled; Walkelyn, a chaplain and 
relation to the late Duke of Normandy, was promoted to Winchester, and 
other priests from the Continent were advanced to other English sees and 
monasteries. The politic monarch knew the influence of the clergy over 
the people, and therefore prudently and cunningly assigned all or most of 
the chief offices to his dependants, relatives, and ostensible friends. Thus 
he very soon obtained an uncontrolled right, or power over " the established 
clergy, and treated them as his captives : he destroyed many of their 
churches, he stript most, if not all of them, of their rich furniture; he laid 
a taxatiou of men and arms to serve him in his expeditions, upon the lands 
of the bishops and prelates, and obliged them to secular services unknown 
to their predecessors; he caused many churches, with their tithes, to be 
converted into lay-fees for the maintaining his military officers and men of 
arms; the tithes of other churches, which were mostly served by English 
priests, he caused to be appropriated toabbies, which were governed, if not 
filled by Normans 1 ." These acts maybe regarded as productive of a bold and 

' Johnson's " Ecclesiastical Laws," &c. vol. ii. Preface to Laufranc's Canons. 



CANONS AT WINCHESTER. — A. D. 1070, &C. 47 

daring reformation, or revolution, in the ecclesiastical government; and, 
according to Dr. Milner, it was the third of the kind that had occurred in 
England. Walkelyn, on taking possession of his See, at first proposed to 
expel all the monks, but Lanfranc urged him rather to continue and govern 
them strictly by St. Benedict's rule; Simeon, a brother of the bishop, was ap- 
pointed Prior. In the Councils held at Winchester in 1070, 1071, and 107fi, 
the clergy, with Lanfranc at their head, formed a series of Canons a , or laws, 
levelled at the Saxons, and framed to justify and protect themselves. 
Among the alterations now effected, was the new modelling of the laws, 
language, and customs of the kingdom. Every thing was to be Norman, and 
even the English or Saxon language was to be abolished : Winchester was 
the residence of the court, and we may safely infer, was fully occupied by 
the officers, priests, and followers of the king. A new royal castle was 
commenced here : the curfew, or eight o'clock-bell, was first rung at 
Winton, to warn all persons to retire to bed, or to extinguish fire at that 
hour: and a command is said to have been issued hence to depopulate 
the entire tract or district which now forms the New-Forest 3 : that in- 

2 The heads of a few of the Canons will serve to characterise the monastic manners of the times, 
and the spirit of the legislators : — 1. Of Bishops and Abbots coming in by Simonical heresy : — 
2. Of ordaining men promiscuously, from bribery: — 3. Of the life and conversation of such men : — 
4. Bishops to celebrate councils twice a year ; and, 5, have free power over the clergy and laity of 
their diocesses : — 6. Laymen to pay tithes as it is written : — 7- That none invade the goods of the 
church : — 8. That clerks and monks be duly reverenced, or offenders to be anathematised : — 9. No 
Bishop to hold two Sees: — 10. Corpses not to be buried in churches: — 11. Bishops only to give 
penance for gross crimes. The penances required from soldiers are absurd, cruel, and impolitic ; 
and are irreconcileable to the military character of the monarch, who had obtained his post and 
power by arms. The soldier who killed a man in battle, to do penance for one year; and a year 
more for every person he knew he had killed. 

3 The extent of the royal command, as to the formation of the forest and sweeping away 22 — 
36 — 52, or even 60 parish churches, as variously represented, is a subject of dispute with different 
writers. The old chroniclers assert it, and also represent that the death of the Conqueror's sons, 
Richard, and William Rufus, and his grandson, Henry, in the New Forest, were all marks of the 
offended Deity's vengeance for such an impious offence. Some modern authors disbelieve the re- 
lation, and show it to be founded in the misrepresentation and exaggeration of those cloistered an- 
nalists who hated the monarch, and sought every opportunity to traduce his character. See this subject 



48 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

quisitorial edict of ascertaining and registering the whole landed property 
of the realm in the ' Domesday Book,' or ' Roll of Winchester,' was issued 
from this city A. D. 1083, and here that important record was kept : 
but another more material event, as relating to our present subject, and 
the stability of the See, was the commencement of a large and magnificent 
Cathedral, by the Norman bishop, in 1079. The old historians clearly 
intimate, that he began the church from its foundation, and raised it at his 
own expence, although the same writers admit, that the former edifice, by 
Ethelwold, had not been erected more than a century. Some of these 
also relate that the bishop employed a little finesse at the very beginning of 
his work, but which, according to Dr. Milner, " proved the greatness of the 
undertaking, and generosity of the Conqueror." The prelate, wanting 
timber for his new fabric, solicited some from the monarch, who granted him 
as much from his wood of Hanepinges, or Hampege, near Winchester, as he 
could cut down and carry away in three days. Taking advantage of this 
unqualifying grant, he employed all the men, horses, carts, &c. he could 
obtain, and levelled and carried away the whole of the said wood, or " forest," 
within the prescribed time. This act, Dr. Milner says, so " prodigiously 
incensed" the monarch, that he refused to see the bishop ; but the latter, 
in disguise, contrived to obtain an interview, and explained that he had 
not exceeded the monarch's prescribed time of three days, &c. when the 
king mildly remarked, ' Most assuredly, Waihilyn, I was too liberal in my 
grant, and you too exacting in the use made of it*.' It appears that this event 
occurred in the last year of the Conqueror's life ; and it is said that the 
bishop continued the building for seven years after that event, when, 1093, 
the Church and conventual offices were so near completion, that "almost 
all the hishops and abbots of England assembled in this city to honour the 
solemn dedication of them, which took place July 1. 5, being the festival of 

fully investigated and developed ill " Beauties of England," tut. vi. Hampshire. Gilpin's 
" Remarks on Forest Scenery,"— and Lewis's " Historical Inquiries concerning Forests and Forest 
Laws,"4to. 1811. 

4 Annates. Wint. an. 10UG. 



OPPRESSION OF WILLIAM RUFUS. — A. D. 1098. 49 

St. Swithun, the patron saint of the place 5 ." The Annalist strangely and 
mysteriously asserts that on the very next day, the workmen began to 
demolish the ancient fabric, which was completely cleared away within a 
year, excepting the great altar and one " portico." Thus it is plainly implied, 
that Ethelwold's church was on a different site to that of Walkelyn's ; and 
if the language of Rudborne is to be understood and believed, the whole 
edifice was new built from the foundation. Walkelyn did not long survive 
the finishing of his church, but according to the monkish annalist, fell a 
sacrifice to his devotion to that beloved pile. The second Norman monarch, 
William Rufus, sent a peremptory order from Normandy, in 1098, to the 
bishop, requiring an immediate remittance of " C.C. libras" an " enormous 
sum," says Milner, " according to the value of money in those days." 
This sum could not be readily raised, without sacrificing the treasures of 
the church, or withholding the accustomed support of the poor. In this 
predicament the prelate prayed to be released from the miseries of such a 
life, and accordingly he died within ten days after the summons had been 
delivered. Rufus therefore seized the revenues of this See as he had 
previously those of others 6 ; but this sacrilegious invasion of ecclesiastical 
property, according to the same writer, was visited by " divine wrath," and 
punished by an untimely death. He was killed by an arrow from the bow of 
one of his associates in the chase, and his body was conveyed in a cart to our 
Cathedral, " the blood dripping from it all the way," says Malmsbury. It 
was interred under the tower, " attended by mauy of the nobility, though 
lamented by few:" which tower, according to the same author, fell the 
next year, i.e. 1101; but Annals of Wilton say 1 107. " Though I forbear to 
mention the different opinions on this subject, least I should seem to assent 
too readily to unsupported trifles ; more especially as the building might 
have fallen, through imperfect construction, even though he had never been 
buried there 7 ." Considering the time this was written, and the education 

5 Milner, " History, &c. of Winchester," vol. i. p. 195, from Ann. Win. an. 1093. 

6 At the day of his death, says Malmsbury, he held three bishoprics and twelve vacant abbies. 
i Malmsbury, " History of the Kings of England," by Sharpe, 4to.l815. 

G 



50 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

and situation of the writer, this may be regarded as extraordinary language, 
and expressive of extraordinary sentiments. Had Rudborne been in- 
fluenced by similar feelings, we should have pursued our narrative with 
more satisfaction and probability. Immediately on the decease of Rufus, 
Henry, his younger brother, seized the treasury of the palace, &c. and was 
readily elected to the vacant throne. Soon afterwards he married Matilda, 
a descendant of the West Saxon Kings, and promoted William Giffard, 
his Chancellor, to this See ; but he was not consecrated, nor did he even re- 
ceive episcopal jurisdiction, till seven years afterwards. This delay arose 
from the disputes, then existing, " concerning the receiving ecclesiastical 
investitures from lay-persons, by the pastoral staff and ring 8 ." Henry I. and 
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, had long contested this point : but the 
dispute was settled by a synod in London, which declared that no king, nor 
lay-hand, should be qualified to invest any bishop or abbot with a pastoral 
staff or a ring : and Anselm consents " that none elected to any prelacy shall 
be denyed consecration upon account of the homage which he does to the 
king'." Thus adjusted, our bishop, who had been banished, was recalled and 
formally instituted and consecrated in 1 107. Though he does not appear to 
have done much for his own church or society, he is complimented for found- 
ing the college and church of St. Mary Overy, Southwark, London; aeon- 
vent of Cistercian 10 monks at Waverley, near Farnham, Surrey; and also 
another for Nuns, at Taunton. In 1 1 10 he removed the monks, &c. of the 
New Minster from the north side of the Cathedral, to a place called Hyde- 
Meadow, at the northern extremity of the city. 

It may not be amiss to notice the state of Winchester about this time. 
As the residence of the monarch, it was also chosen by many of his chief 
dependant nobles : here was also the royal treasury, royal mint, repository 
of public records, episcopal palace and cathedral ; three royal monasteries, 

8 Milu. Wiu. i. 203. 

' See Malmsbury's History, &c. and Sharpc's translation, for copies of the supplicatory, persua- 
sive, and argumeutative letters written by Pope Pascal to the king and to Anselm, on this subject. 

10 This Order is particularly and very liberally commended by William of Maluisbury. See De 
Regis, lib. v. and Sharpe's translation. 



BISHOP DE BLOIS, AND KING STEPHEN. 51 

besides other inferior religious houses; and, according to Dr. Milner, " an 
incredible number of parish churches and chapels." The same author, 
from Trussel, goes on to represent the extent of the city as " incredible" 
as its number of churches, by saying that its buildings extended " a mile 
in every direction further than they do at present; on the north to 
Worthy ; on the west to Week ; on the south to St. Cross ; and on the east 
to St. Magdalen's Hill." Although this representation appears a little 
hyperbolical, yet we can readily believe that Winchester, at its zenith of 
prosperity, was more populous than at present : in those insecure and 
warring times, few persons however would raise permanent buildings 
beyond the protection of the fortified walls and bastion towers 11 . It was 
about this time that our bishop built his castle at Wolvesey, at the south- 
east angle of this city, also other castles at his manors of Farnham, Taun- 
ton, Merden, Waltham, and Downton. 

The civil wars between Stephen and Matilda occasioned new commotions 
in, and destruction to, Winchester. The usurping monarch, on the death 
of his uncle, hastened from Boulogne to this city, where his brother, Henry 
de Blois, was bishop and Pope's legate; and through the influence of that 
prelate he seized the treasures of the royal palace, amounting, according 
to Malmsbury, to 100,000/. in money, besides plate, jewels, &c. He soon 
afterwards seized the castles of the bishops 12 , and committed other violences 

" The Roman boundary walls of this city must have been strong and lofty at that time. In the 
year 1125, several persons were summoned from different parts of the realm to assemble at Win- 
chester, to answer certain charges for debasing the current coin ; and all were convicted, and 
sentenced to lose their right hands. Three mint-masters of this city were however found inno- 
cent, and acquitted. A standard yard measure was settled by the king at this time, and deposited, 
with other standards of weight and measure, in this city. Among these was the famed Winchester- 
bushel. See Whitaker's " History of St. Germans." 

12 In spite of a solemn oath before a council of the nobility at Oxford, swearing " he would not 
retain vacant prelacies, but fill them with persons canonically elected ; that he would not disturb 
either clergy or laity in the enjoyment of their woods, as the late King Henry had dome ; nor sue 
any body for hunting or taking venison; that he would remit the tax of Danegeld," &c. These 
and many other indulgencies and immunities were promised to the people, and ratified by solemn 
obligatinos : but the political oaths of this ruler, like those of many others, seem only to have been 
made for expediency and state policy. 



52 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

against the clergy, which occasioned the latter to assemble a synod in this 
city, August 30, 1139, and remonstrate against such oppressive proceed- 
ings. Our present bishop employed his influence to preserve allegiance to 
the monarch, but the latter, disregarding the clergy and citizens, hastened 
from them to London, which confirmed the indignation of both classes against 
him. The castle of Winchester was soon seized for the Empress, and after 
some struggle with the bishop and his party, the Empress herself was 
admitted into the city. This was only a prelude to civil hostilities; for the 
bishop, though at first apparently friendly to the new female monarch, soon 
thought it proper to strengthen and fortify his castle of Wolvesey. 
This was invested by the Empress's troops, under the command of her 
natural brother, the Earl of Gloucester, and her uncle, David, King of 
Scotland. Stephen's military partizans were immediately rallied to 
relieve the bishop, and a long protracted scene of warfare ensued. The 
whole city, and all its approaches, were occupied by soldiers. To repel 
his assailants, and punish the citizens, the bishop " caused wild-fire and 
combustible matter to be thrown out of his fortified palace, upon the 
houses of the townsmen, and reduced a great part of them to ashes. In 
this fire were burnt above twenty churches, besides the nunnery within the 
walls, and the abbey of Hyde, without; the bishop laying hold of the 
opportunity to seize, for his own use, a golden cross, given to the last of 
these convents, by King Cauute, set with precious stones, (of which he 
made 30 marks of gold and 500 of silver), and three royal diadems, with as 
many stands of the purest Arabian gold, adorned with jewels and wrought 
in the most curious manner 13 ." In this state of civil discord and slaughter 
Winchester continued for seven. weeks, during which time the Empress and 
her adherents were shut up within the walls of the castle. On the evening of 

13 Carte's History of England, vol. i. p. 540, from Flor. Wig. Cont. Stow quotes an authority 
which states that forty churches were burnt. Milner thus enumerates the ravages committed at 
this time, " they destroyed, first the adjoining Abbey of St. Mary, then the whole north, which 
was infinitely the most populous part of the city ; together with twenty churches, the royal palace, 
which had been lately built in that quarter, the suburb of Hyde, with the magnificent monastery of 
St. Grimbald, erected there in the preceding reign." 



ROYAL AND CLERICAL WARS : TEMP. BP. DE BLOIS. 53 

Holy-rood day, the bishop devised a plan to deceive and conquer his 
opponents. He issued a proclamation that peace should prevail on that 
sacred festival, and that the gates of the city should be opened. The 
Empress, with some of her friends, and an escort of forces, escaped early in 
the morning, but not without a conflict, and some of her best officers were 
taken prisoners. Dr. Milner, on the authority of " Brompton, Knighton, 
Trussel, and others," says that the Empress devised the following stratagem 
to effect her escape from Winchester. After representing herself as dan- 
gerously ill for some days, it was proclaimed that she was dead: and 
that her corpse was to be conveyed, on a horse litter, through the army of 
the besiegers for interment. She thus escaped the outposts, and then mount- 
ing her horse, proceeded with her small retinue to Ludgershall, Devizes, and 
thence on to Gloucester. The intrigues and duplicity of the bishop at length 
met with a check by an order from the Pope to relinquish his legatine 
power, with all its authority and influence. This was a severe blow to his 
ambition, as he had frequently contested the authority even of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Indeed at one time he petitioned Pope Lucius II. to 
raise the See of Winchester into an archbishopric 14 , and to subject the six 
Sees of Salisbury, Exeter, Wells, Chichester, Hereford, and Worcester to it, 
and to make a seventh See of Hyde-Abbey. 

From the devastations and disasters which Winchester experienced 
during these royal and clerical wars, it never recovered ; and from this 
period it loses the principal part of that interest which arises from exciting 
the hopes and fears of the reader. In the reign of Henry the Second, it 
appears that the bishop had fled with his treasures to the Continent, which 
provoked the monarch to seize on and dismantle his three castles of Wol- 
vesey, Waltham, and Merden 15 : the ruins of Winchester were, however, 
partly restored, a mayor was appointed to govern its internal police, and 

,4 Carte. Hist. Engl, from Mat. Paris and Rudborne. This prelate is said to have been the first 
to have introduced the practice of appealing to Rome; " and, on this account, as well as others, 
deserved very ill of this church and nation." Johnson, Eccles. Laws. 

,s Dr. Milner, i. 219, observes, " this can only be understood of the ditches, barbacan, and other 
outworks. — Rad. Diceto, in his Ymagines, Hist, says the king destroyed all the bishop's six castles." 



54 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

this was the first town in England thus governed : in the next reign it 
was invested with the privilege of a corporation, by which it formed " an 
independent state in the heart of the kmgdorn." The Abbot of Hyde- 
Abbey instituted a suit against the bishop to make him account for the 
grand crucifix, and other valuables, which he had pilfered from that house. 
The royal treasury was still kept at Winchester, and to that city Richard 
Cceur-de-Lion hastened after the death of his father, and took possession of 
valuables to the amount of 900,0001. In this Cathedral he was also solemnly 
crowned, a second time, on the 17th of April, 1 194. This second coronation 
he demanded, on returning to his kingdom after having suffered imprisonment 
in the duugeon of Trivallis 1 '*'. On first coming to this city he dispossessed 
the Cathedral " of its two manors, and the bishop of the royal castle and 
county of Winchester 17 ." The reign of John is distinguished in the Annals 
of Winchester for some important grants to the city, and by its immediate 
participation in a violent quarrel, which lasted six years, between the King 
and the Pope, about the election of Stephen Langton. This person was 
forced on the clergy and nation by the Romau Pontiff, who through the 
medium of Pandulph, the legate, also compelled the king to submit to 
a mortifying and degraded humiliation to the papal throne. He was next 
excommunicated; assumed contrition, but only to act with treachery and 
tyranny ; which caused the barons, at the instigation of the Winchester 
prelate, to confederate against him, and compel him to sign Magna Charta. 
Winchester was afterwards conquered and occupied by French troops, who 
committed great devastation on the castles of the king and bishop. Under 
the next reign and next prelacy, our city was again restored ; but towards 
the end of the reign, much opposition arose between the monarch and 
monks about the election of a bishop. 

Having now furnished a general view of the progressive history of Win- 
chester and its See, up to the beginning of the thirteenth century, we shall 
direct our whole attention to the Cathedral, its offices and officers. By 
what has been already stated, it appears that the present church was built 

16 Milner, " from an ancient historian of great credit," gives a particular account of this corona- 
tion. Hist. Winchester, i. 240. ' 7 Milner, from Rog. Hovedon. 



LETTER FROM MR. GAREETT TO THE AUTHOR. 55 

by Walkelyn, " from the foundation ;" but many antiquaries contest this 
point, and assign parts of it to a much earlier date. On this subject I am 
willing to attend to the opinions and reasonings of all ; and therefore 
willingly give publicity to the following letter, from the gentleman appointed 
by the Dean and Chapter to superintend the architectural repairs, &c. of 
the Church. 

" Dear Sir, 

" I have at length undertaken to arrange, upon paper, the ideas that 
have from time to time arisen in my mind, relative to the styles and dates 
of the several parts of that interesting and venerable fabric, the Cathedral 
Church of this city. 

" It is not without much diffidence, that I undertake to express my 
opinion upon a subject, which has engaged the attention of antiquaries of 
eminent learning and ingenuity. I shall, however, rind some apology in the 
consideration that different conclusions have been drawn from the historical 
information they have collected ; a circumstance which shows that such 
information, though very essential to our inquiry, cannot be entirely 
depended upon, without a patient and scrupulous survey of the existing 
parts of the fabric, which, I believe, it may with confidence be said, will 
afford ample evidence to warrant us in premising generally, that the ancient 
historians of the Cathedral, either from misconception of the authorities 
from which their information was derived, or from their zeal to extol the 
munificence of the several benefactors to the fabric, must have greatly 
exaggerated the description of the works performed at different periods. 

" Having thus prepared a foundation we shall be able to trace without 
great difficulty, the works of the illustrious sovereigns and prelates who 
have been most eminently distinguished by their zeal and munificence, as 
founders or improvers of this ancient structure, from the commencement 
of the fourth century down to the period of the Reformation. 

" One of the latest historians of this edifice, Dr. Milner, and the au- 
thorities he cites, inform us that a basilic of vast extent and magnificence 



50 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

was erected for the purpose of Christian worship so early as the second 
century, upon the site which the Cathedral now occupies: of such an 
edifice it cannot be pretended that any part can now remain to be identi- 
fied, for we are told by the same authority, that after it " had subsisted 
about 120 years it was levelled with the ground." It is, however, probable, 
as will hereafter be shown, that some part of the foundation of such a 
structure may be still existing. 

" After the destruction of the first edifice, it is said to have been rebuilt, 
from the foundation, no less than four times in the short space of 780 
years. The improbability of this seems to have staggered the belief of Dr. 
Milner, who relates it ; for he tells us it is probable that Ethel wold " not only 
made use of the loose materials of the ancient building, but also incorpo- 
rated such parts of it as he found of sufficient strength to be left stand- 
ing;" and the same author, when he speaks of the rebuilding of this vast 
structure by Walkelyn, says, " It was not then from any real necessity of 
such a work, that our first INorman bishop rebuilt the Cathedral ; but the 
fact is, the Normans in general, being a high spirited people, held the 
Saxons, with all their arts, learning, and whatever belonged to them, in 
the most sovereign contempt." 

From the historical notices we meet with, we shall find no difficulty in 
admitting, that great improvements were made in the fabric of the 
Cathedral at, or about, the following stated periods: viz. in the year 313, 
" by the contributions of private Christians," when Constans was bishop of 
the See; about the year 584, by the Saxon King, Kenewalch; about the 
year 980, by Bishop Ethelwold; and again, in the year 1079, by Bishop 
Walkelyn, of whom it is particularly recorded, that he built the tower, 
which was at that time considered a stupendous work ; and that he cut 
down the whole of an extensive wood to supply the timber necessary for 
the completion of the edifice. This we may readily admit ; but when we 
attentively compare the architecture, and the workmanship of the tower, 
with that of the greater part of the adjoining transept, we shall not hesitate 
to ascribe to the latter a much earlier date ; for it is not difficult to trace 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : WALKELYn's WORK. 57 

distinctly, the junction of the Norman with the Saxon work, not only by 
the superiority of the masonry 18 , but by the shape of the arches. The two 
arches of every story, on each side of the transept next to the tower, and 
the respective piers between them, were evidently rebuilt with the tower; 
and this may be considered the extent of Walkelyn's work in masonry, as 
far as respects the Cathedral. In addition to this, which was certainly a 
work of considerable magnitude, it may with great reason be admitted, that 
he entirely new roofed the whole of the transept and nave in a manner that 
might well entitle it to be termed, new and magnificent; and when we view 
the greater part of the roof that now remains, we shall not be surprised at 
what is related of a whole wood being cleared to furnish the timber 
necessary for the purpose. 

" The Norman roof now remaining, is that of the whole of the transept 
south of the tower, and that of the whole nave west of the tower, with the 
exception of about fifty feet in length from the west end, which was 
evidently destroyed by fire; though it is not known at what period, or by 
what accident the conflagration was occasioned : there is, however, reason 
to suppose, from the appearance of the timber, as well as from the mode of 
construction, that this new part of the roof cannot be of higher antiquity 
than the seventeenth century. 

" The roof of the transept, northward of the tower, being of a construction 
very different from that of the nave, and southern part of the transept, we 
must conclude that the decay of the Norman roof in that situation was 
more rapid, and that it required renewal before the other parts; for we 
cannotsuppose that Walkelyn would have left this part incomplete. 

" It is presumed that what has been said of the architecture and work- 
manship of the tower and transept, will prove that some portions .of the 
latter existed previous to the time when Walkelyn is said to have rebuilt it 
from the ground. It now remains to show, that in the ancient parts there 
now exists the clearest evidence of additions to the fabric, at a period still 

18 The improved workmanship of the Norman builders may be most clearly -seen in the facing of 
the stone, and also in the joints, where the mortar is not equal to a fourth part of that used in the 
Saxon work. 

H 



58 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

more remote ; this is to be seen in the design, rather than in the execution 
of the work. The alteration now speaking of, was probably the work of 
Ethelwold, and consisted of an increase of the substance, and alteration of 
the shape, of four principal pillars of the transept, unquestionably for the 
purpose of supporting a tower at the extremity of each of the side ailes. 
It may be objected, that there is no historical notice or tradition of the 
existence of such towers, but the evidence of the present state of the 
structure is of the most decisive nature ; for the imposts of the arches which 
supported the flanks of such towers, are now to be seen distinctly in the 
spaces between the roof and vaulting of the ailes ; and whoever examines 
with due attention the side arches of the third story of the transept, will 
perceive that those nearest the extremities, (into which windows have been 
introduced) were notoriginally windows, but open arches of communication 
within the edifice, similar to those between the body and ailes. 

" We now come to the investigation of the work of a period still more 
remote, which is the Crypt, under the part of the church between the high 
altar and the Virgin Chapel. The workmanship in this crypt, though plain 
and simple in its design, is far superior to any that is to be seen in the 
whole edifice, excepting those parts which will be hereafter spoken of 
as the works of de Lucy and Fox. This work is as much superior to 
that of the greater crypt, to which it adjoins, as the Norman is to the 
Saxon work in the transept; but its inferior dimensions seem to indicate 
that it is not the work of the high-spirited Walkelyn, and the circular 
termination shows it is not the work of a much later period ; we may there- 
fore conclude that this is a remnant of the work of our pious British 
or Roman ancestors, in the early part of the fourth century : and in con- 
formity with the observations before made upon the existing appearances 
of the fabric, as well as with the historical notices mentioned by Milner, 
and his authorities, we may proceed to define the works of the various 
builders from that period down to the eleventh century in the following 
portions. 

" The work of King Kenewalch, now remaining, may be supposed to 
include the first story of the transept, with the exception of the part before 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : SAXON CRYPTS, &C. 59 

described as being rebuilt by the Norman bishop, and some other innova- 
tions in the windows: we may also conclude, that much of the work, of 
that sovereign remains in the pillars of the nave, though they have since 
been re-moulded, and probably much repaired, in prosecuting the works of 
the munificent prelate, Wykeham. 

" It may be observed, that in the transept a new set off appears at the 
base of the second tier of Saxon arches, to which it is presumed the work 
of Kenewalch was taken down by Bishop Ethelwold, and that the work 
of the latter was continued from thence upwards, to the height of the pre- 
sent parapet, including the towers before spoken of, as well as an increase 
in the length of the nave; the whole length of which is evidently of Saxon 
workmanship, as appears by the columns that continue above the vaulting, 
where the masonry is of the same coarse kind as that before described, in 
contradistinction to the Norman work. The further work of Ethelwold 
may be seen in the greater Crypt, upon which he of course added a super- 
structure, though the work now standing over that foundation is of a much 
later date, which will be spoken of in its place. With respect to timber 
roofing, we must suppose that Ethelwold made use of such as he found 
upon the old building, for when we admit so great a part to have been 
renewed by Walkelyn, we cannot suppose that he rejected what had been 
new within the short space of one hundred years, when we find that which 
he used has endured more than seven hundred years. Milner tells us posi- 
tively, that Ethelwold first enriched the Cathedral ' with its subterraneous 
crypts which it before had wanted :' this is certainly at variance with what 
I have suggested relative to the lesser Crypt ; to reconcile which it may be 
presumed that Milner's authority (which in that instance is not cited) may 
have meant that the Cathedral was deficient in that respect, or that it 
wanted crypts proportionate to the general scale of the edifice, and not 
that it had no crypt. We now come to the work of Walkelyn, which, it 
is presumed, has been sufficiently proved to be Confined to the building of 
the central Tower and such parts of the edifice as immediately abutted 
upon it, and to the new roofing of the transept and nave. 

" I agree with Dr. Milner in the supposition that Walkelyn's work did 



60 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

not extend eastward of the present tower, but a considerable part of the 
Saxon edifice remained standing in that situation, including the smaller 
Tower which Rudborne informs us fell upon Rufus's tomb. The tower 
thus mentioned I conceive to have been one of those which stood at the 
eastern extremity of each of the side ailes of the choir, similar to those I 
have before described as once terminating the side ailes of the transept. 
An examination of the crypt will show that additions had been made to 
the walls of the substructure, at a period subsequent to their first erection, 
which cannot easily be accounted for, otherwise than for the support of the 
towers thus assigned to that situation; and the fall of one of them towards 
Rufus's tomb may be reasonably accounted for from the evident circum- 
stance of the foundation in that direction being less substantial than that 
of the opposite side. 

" Before we come to an examination of the works of Bishop de Lucy, it 
may be observed, that an architectural innovation, probably one of the first 
specimens of the pointed arch in this country, as an integral ornament, is 
to be seen in the wall inclosing a part of the south-west aile of the tran- 
sept. This work may be reasonably attributed to Bishop de Hlois : it 
seems to appear as an experiment to try the effect of the pointed arch, 
compared with the semicircular one, aud it is curious to observe the pre- 
dilection that seems to have prevailed in favour of the former, as that is 
placed in a situation to be viewed with greater advantage than the other, 
aud is also more prominently ornamented. 

" We now come to the work of de Lucy, in the consideration of which 
we are again interrupted by a tower of the old Saxon Church, that was 
left standing in the part eastward of the choir by Walkelyn ; and this 
occasions some difficulty in understanding what was the state of that part 
of the fabric when de Lucy began his work ; for we are to recollect, that 
the weather-cock falling from the tower in the year 1214, broke the shrine 
of St. Swithun, which, Dr. Milner justly observes, must have stood near 
the high altar, and was not likely to have been struck by a heavy body 
falling from the present tower. We may therefore attribute this accident 
to the failure of one of the old towers, before described as having stood at 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT: DE LUCY'S WORKS. 61 

the extremities of the side ailes of the choir, in which situation the high 
altar must have been placed nearly between them. The difficulty which 
next occurs is to find the situation of the tower so particularly stated to 
have been begun and finished in the year 1200. The works of this munifi- 
cent prelate, now remaining, will, I conceive, justify a conclusion that a 
tower built under his direction would have been of sufficient strength to have 
continued to the present time ; nor have we any reason to believe him so 
deficient in judgment as to have placed it in a situation to interfere with 
any future improvement of the part containing the high altar, which must 
at that time have been the most ancient part of the whole fabric : by these 
considerations we shall be induced to look for de Lucy's tower at the 
eastern part of his work, and we may therefore accordingly recognize a 
portion of it in the western part of the present Lady Chapel, which has 
evidently been of greater height at some former period than it is at present; 
as part of the staircases that led to another story are now to be traced, 
though they are nearly filled up by rough masonry in effecting subsequent 
alterations. 

" With respect to the other works executed by de Lucy, there is some 
reason to suspect, however extraordinary it may appear, that he did not 
absolutely take down the whole walls of that part of the Church situated 
between the old high altar and his new tower, but that the upper part of the 
ancient walls were by some means supported while the arches and pillars 
were inserted under them ; for there are indications of those walls having 
been ornamented, above the present vaulting, with sculpture of a very singu- 
lar pattern, which is so situated that it can hardly be considered as the 
accidental application of old materials re-used ; it may, however, be 
observed, that in all (even the most ancient) parts of the fabric old 
materials, exhibiting mutilated mouldings, and other ornaments, are to be 
seen indiscriminately used in the successive repairs and alterations, from 
the time of the Saxons down to a very late period. 

" In returning to the work of de Lucy, we may see cause to believe that 
a considerable alteration was made in his plan after his decease, at which 
time the work had not probably proceeded further than the vaulting of the 



G2 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

central aile, or nave of that part of the Church, and the walls of the small 
chapels north and south of the then new tower, or Lady Chapel : the width 
of these small chapels I conceive to be the width intended by de Lucy 
for his whole work, as by adhering to this he would have preserved the 
ancient proportions, which were evidently violated by increasing that width 
to meet the extreme width of the second Saxon edifice. The ill effect of 
this innovation is to be seen in various ways ; first, in the disproportionate 
appearance of the side ailes, compared with the centre, or nave ; secondly, 
in the defective state of the walls, which are forced much out of their per- 
pendicular by the pressure of the vaulting of the side ailes of such extra- 
ordinary width : this failure, however, may be partly attributed to the 
circumstance of the outer walls being built upon new ground, while the 
opposite pillars stood upon the solid foundation of the ancient crypt; and 
thirdly, in the unequal and unfinished appearance of the east ends of the 
ailes; but although these defects occurred in the design, it must be 
observed, that the workmanship of this period far surpassed any thing that 
preceded it : the joints in the masonry are hardly to be perceived, and no 
stroke of a tool is to be seen on the surface; the mouldings are wrought 
with accuracy, and the foliage of the capitals is sculptured with boldness 
and elegance. The staircases contained in the two turrets of the eastern ends 
of these ailes are, 1 believe, unique : they certainly exceed every thing I have 
seen or heard of in that way. One hardly knows which to admire most, the 
elegance of the design or the accuracy of the execution : I imagine those 
staircases must have led to some otfices frequented by superiors of the 
establishment. 

" It does not appear from any historical notice that I have met with, that 
any considerable repair, or improvement, was made in the Cathedral after 
the completion of Bishop de Lucy's undertaking till the time of William 
de Edington ; a prelate who, Dr. Milner says, was ' in his virtues and 
talents only inferior to Wykeham himself,' and * that justice has never 
been done to the memory of this benefactor of our Cathedral.' This 
passage seems to insinuate that Edington must have executed other works 
than those described by Bishop Lowth in his Life of Wykeham ; and here 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : BISHOP EDINGTON's WORK. 63 

it may be observed, that another writer upon ecclesiastical architecture, the 
Rev. J. Dallaway, in one of the tables at the end of his work, purporting to 
exhibit the dates, dimensions, and names of the founders of the various 
parts of the English Cathedrals, mentions the building of the choir of our 
Cathedral, 138 feet in length and 86 in width; and also the Lady Chapel, 
54 feet in length, as the works of Edington in the year 1350. The same 
table mentions the tower, 133 feet high, as the work of Godfrey de Lucy, in 
the year 1 190 ; and the presbytery, 93 feet long, and 86 wide, as the work 
of T. Langton, in the year 1493. Here we find the dates correspond with 
other accounts of the times when the respective prelates held the see. The 
part of this statement, relative to the work of de Lucy, certainly appears to 
be at variance with other accounts, which seem to be admitted as authentic, 
and are corroborated by the style of the architecture ; but that part which 
relates to Edington, though no authority is cited, appears worthy of con- 
sideration, as I am not aware of any authentic account relative to that part 
of the fabric. For though Dr. Milner, speaking of the part of the 
Cathedral ' between the tower and the low ailes of de Lucy,' says, ' that 
great and good prelate, Fox, undertook to rebuild it;' yet I cannot suppose 
that a person so well acquainted with the various styles of ancient architec- 
ture could mean, that the pillars and arches of the presbytery, with the 
windows over them, could have been executed by the same persons, or in 
the same age, as those of the side ailes adjoining ; those works are in 
reality very different, both in design and in execution, and I am therefore 
inclined to believe that Mr. Dallaway has obtained some information upon 
the point that escaped the industrious researches of Dr. Milner. From 
these circumstances, and from the appearance of the work itself, it seems 
highly probable that the part between the tower and the altar-screen was 
built by Edington, and that the Stalls in the choir were also the work of 
the same prelate, or of his executors; for upon minute inspection it may 
be found that there are many similarities in the execution of these works, 
and those about his tomb and its inclosure. I pass by, at present, the part 
between the altar screen and the work of de Lucy, considering that to be 



64 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

the work of another benefactor, and proceed to the west end of the fabric, 
where I agree with Dr. Milner, that Edington, or his executors, completed 
' the two first windows from the great west window, with the correspond- 
ing buttresses, and one pinnacle on the north side of the church ; as like- 
wise the first window towards the west, with the buttress and pinnacle on 
the south side.' I am further of opinion, that the two west windows of the 
side ailes were executed at the same time, and probably the two hexagonal 
turrets ; these certainly appear to have been carried as high as the present 
parapet before any alteration was made in the design in consequence of 
Wykeham's undertaking, as it may be seen that a cornice, evidently 
intended to have been continued from the turrets along the outer wall of the 
nave, is suddenly broken oft* and another cornice begun, at some height 
above it. It is also evident that the sloping parapets, running from the 
hexagonal turrets, over the windows of the west end of the ailes, are carried 
several feet higher than they were designed to be by Edington ; as part of 
the course of stone, intended to project over the junction of the lead 
covering of the roof, with the inside of the wall, is now to be seen ; by 
which we discover that the small moulding upon the second ornamented 
space over the window was intended as the extreme height of that part. 
The nature of the ornaments in the parts now under consideration was 
certainly calculated to justify the observations of Bishop Lowth, that ' in 
the year J371 some work of this kind was carrying on at a great expense;' 
but whether it included the great western window or not, is doubtful. I 
am of opinion that the sum provided by Bishop Edington was expended 
before the intended work was completed, for whatever was done at that 
time must have fallen far short of what was really necessary ; since we are 
informed by Bishop Lowth, that upon Wykeham's visitation of the Cathe- 
dral in 13U3 19 , ' the fabric of the Church was greatly out of repair, and 
the estates allotted to that use were very insufficient for it. The bishop 
ordered, that the Prior for the time being, should pay 100/. a year for seven 
years ensuing, and the Sub-prior and Convent J 00 marks in like manner, for 

■» Lowlli's Life of Wykcham, third edit p. 103. 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : WYKEHAm's WORK. 65 

this service; over and above the profits of all estates so allotted, and all 
gifts and legacies.' Now it is difficult to conceive, that the nave or ailes 
could, at that time, have been so much dilapidated as to call for this extra- 
ordinary injunction, when we see the transept at this time so nearly in its 
original state ; we must therefore attribute the defect to the unfinished state 
of the work begun by Edington. 

" We now come to an investigation of the improvements made in this 
venerable structure by a prelate justly celebrated for the profound skill and 
taste displayed in the various works executed under his auspices, and 
through his boundless munificence. En the subject before us we view the 
last ivorlc of William of WyJceham, commenced in the 70th year of his 
age, and prosecuted with diligence throughout the remaining ten years of 
his life ; though it is to be regretted that we cannot with certainty deter- 
mine the extent of the work executed during that time. Dr. Milner has 
discovered that Wykeham did not absolutely take down so much of the 
ancient fabric as his learned biographer supposed he did, and this we may 
readily admit ; but it is to be observed, that Bishop Lowth quotes Rud- 
borne as his authority, and if Dr. Milner has himself been mistaken 
respecting what he represents as the work of Bishop Fox, we shall not feel 
much difficulty in supposing that similar mistakes have arisen respecting 
the extent of the works executed at more distant periods by Ethel wold 
and Walkelyn, as previously assumed. In proceeding to trace the works of 
"Wykeham, we have an unerring guide in the Bishop's own Will, as far as it 
is applicable to this purpose. By it we find, that within fifteen months 
previous to his decease, so much of his undertaking remained unfinished 
that he directed 3000 marks to be applyed for its completion (a sum far 
exceeding what he had formerly directed the prior and convent to expend 
in seven years) : and we find by his directing the walls, the windows, and 
the vault to be finished throughout according to the new mode in which he 
had already completed some parts on the south side, that a considerable 
part on the north side still remained unfinished : but as we find no mention 
of the great west window, we may conclude that he commenced his work 
in that part. I have before expressed some doubt whether this window 

i 



66 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

was the work of Edington, or Wykeham ; but when it is considered that 
there is a peculiarity in the upper compartment very unlike any part of 
Edington's, and invariably followed through the whole of Wykeham's 
windows ; and when we see the outer face of the wall over the window, and 
the face of the wall making the gable end of the roof, ornamented with 
mouldings and compartments accordant with the known taste of Wyke- 
ham, we can hardly hesitate to pronounce it his work: we may also with 
confidence attribute to him the judicious and elegant alteration of the Saxon 
pillars, the whole of the windows of the nave and of the ailes, (excepting 
those before attributed to Edington,) and the vaulting of the ailes with 
which the flying buttresses are so ingeniously combined for resisting the 
pressure of the greater vault. But when we compare the vaulting of the 
ailes with that of the nave, stupendous as we must acknowledge the latter 
to be, we cannot but feel that the former presents a much more finished 
appearance, and that the genius of Wykeham had ceased to direct the 
operation. The vault of the nave may therefore be considered as the work 
of Wykeham's executors, probably assisted by his successor, Cardinal 
Beaufort, who is described by Dr. Milner as a great benefactor to the 
Cathedral, though he does not particularize his works. I think it highly 
probable, that in addition to a share in the vaulting of the nave, the 
Cardinal erected the Portals which make so fine a feature in the western 
facade ; and that he also added the two side windows, eastward of the altar 
.screen, as well as the Screen itself, and the beautiful row of canopies facing 
eastward, in Bishop de Lucy's part of the Church, as I conceive those to 
be works of an earlier date than Bishop Fox, to whom Dr. Milner ascribes 
them ; besides the works of Fox are always to be known by his arms and 
devices, of which these inimitable specimens of art are quite destitute. 

" When William of Waynflete succeeded Beaufort in the See, we may 
presume that the Cathedral was in the most satisfactory state of repair ; as 
we do not find by his biographer, Dr. Chandler, that he undertook any 
repair or embellishment of the fabric, except his own sepulchral Chantry. 
We may, however, be assured, that a prelate possessing in so eminent a 
degree the liberality as well as the talents of his great predecessor, 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : LADY CHAPEL. 67 

Wykeham, would not have withheld his assistance, if any part of the fabric 
had remained in an unfinished state. It cannot be necessary for me to say 
any thing of a monument so well known as the chantry of this prelate, 
further than to express my opinion that as it would not be desirable to see 
in that situation an exact copy of its opposite neighbour, the stately and 
well executed sepulchral chantry of Beaufort, so it would be extremely 
difficult, if not impossible, to devise a more elegant and fit companion 
for it. 

" The next work in chronological order is the alteration and addition to the 
Lady Chapel, which Dr. Milner sufficiently proves to have been executed 
by the Priors, Hunton and Silkstede, though the latter may probably have 
been assisted by Bishop Courteney. The old part of the Lady Chapel 
must have been previously vaulted, as appears by the disposition of the 
ornaments on the east and west sides: we cannot say much in praise 
of this work of good Prior Silkstede, as far as respects the vaulting, the 
columns, and the windows, though the ornaments below the windows, both 
outside and within, are entitled not only to notice but to admiration, as. 
well for the design as for the execution ; and of the linings and fittings of 
this chapel, in carved oak, it is impossible to speak in terms that can do 
justice to the subject. The chastness of the design will, I believe, be 
generally considered to have a more pleasing effect than the profusion of 
ornaments spread over the neighbouring Chapel, which was fitted up by 
Bishop Langton about the same time, for his sepulchral chantry, and 
exhibits many beautiful specimens of carved oak, though they are rather 
too much crowded to be seen with advantage. This chapel, however, as 
well as the opposite one on the north side, appears to have been previously 
occupied as private oratories ; as there are ranges of niches in the eastern 
walls, of a style at least as early as the time of Bishop Edington. 

" It now remains to point out the works of Bishop Fox, the last who 
has been distinguished by any extensive repair or improvement of the 
fabric of the Cathedral ; and though we may not ascribe to this prelate the 
whole of the works supposed by some to have been executed by him, yet it 
must be acknowledged, that in taste, in skill, and in munificence, he is 



68 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

entitled to be considered as the worthy successor of Wykehara and of 
Waynflete. His works in the Cathedral I conceive to be the two turrets at 
the eastern extremity of the presbytery, with the magnificent window 
between them, and the whole of the ornamented wall over it, terminating 
with an elegant tabernacle ornamented by the pelicau, his favourite emblem, 
and contaiuing his statue, in stone. It ought not to escape observation, that 
the outside label of this window springs from two corbel busts, representing 
a king and a bishop, both finely sculptured, and in the highest state of 
preservation: and when it is considered that the art of sculpture was at 
that time in a flourishing state, it is probable that these busts may be true 
portraits of King Henry the Seventh and of Bishop Fox. The timber-framed 
Vaulting of the presbytery is also the undoubted work of Fox, and in this, 
as well as in the east window, he has shown great taste and judgment, by 
consulting the models before him, in the western window and in the vaulting 
of the nave, upon both of which he has improved. It is also unquestion- 
able that this prelate rebuilt, from the foundation, (that is from the walls of 
the crypt,) the whole of the Ailes, north and south of the presbytery, 
including their windows, • roofing, and stone vaulting, with the flying 
buttres.ses and pinnacles, the whole of which was executed in the most 
perfect style of workmanship. The open Screens between the presbytery 
and ailes may be considered as the completion of this prelate's work, 
excepting his own Chantry, which is certainly a master piece of its kind, 
equally calculated to display an elegance of taste in design, and the per- 
fection of art in its execution. The successive prelates from Edington to 
Langtou (with the exception of Courteuey, who presided but a short time 
in this lucrative See,) had erected or adorned sumptuous chantries in the 
varied styles of the times in which they respectively flourished, and Fox 
seems to have determined not to make a chasm in the series of works that 
are at once calculated to delight the admirers and instruct the practitioners 
in art. This accomplished prelate, as was before observed, had succeeded 
in improving upon models presented to his contemplation in his own 
Cathedral, but in this instance he seems to have despaired of doing so, 
and therefore to have studied the work of his contemporary, Bishop 



LETTER FROM MR. GARBETT : GARDINER'S WORK. 69 

Audley, in the Cathedral of Salisbury ; and in this it will, I believe, be 
admitted, that he has also improved upon his model : and this is the last 
work executed in our Cathedral in the fascinating style called Gothic. 

" The opposite Chapel, erected by Bishop Gardiner, has only the merit of 
occupying a space nearly similar to that of Fox's, but its architecture clearly 
discovers that the revolution in religion was accompanied by as sudden a 
revolution in art. It is really astonishing, in viewing this chapel, to 
observe, that although some part of it was intended to imitate the work of 
Fox, yet the execution of that part is incredibly mean. 

" There appears to have been an attempt to return to the former style in 
the time of Charles the First, when the ceiling was made in that part of 
the choir under the tower, and the canopy placed over the communion 
table; but those attempts were not more successful than that to complete 
the tower over the entrance to Christ-Church tower at Oxford. 

" Of Inigo Jones's justly celebrated Screen, I can only say, that I should 
admire it in another situation ; and wishing that before you have completed 
your series of Cathedrals, you may see something more appropriate in its 
place, I remain, dear Sjr, 

Yours, &c. 

Winchester, Dec. 29, 1817. W. Garbett." 

I have given publicity to the preceding ingenious and original remarks 
by my intelligent correspondent, respecting the ages of different parts of 
the building, because the whole evidently emanates from a mind intimately 
acquainted with the subject; and because I am aware that many persons, 
as well as Mr. Garbett, are of opinion that parts of the present fabric of 
Winchester Cathedral, are true specimens of Saxon architecture, and raised 
by the Saxons before the Norman conquest. Some of these persons, 
however, very unlike my correspondent, are influenced more by wayward 
fancy than judgment, — are impelled to believe and assert, whatever their 
prepossessions and prejudices incline them to — and are always endeavour- 
ing to reduce the styles and ages of buildings to favourite theories, instead 
of seeking for ample evidence to authenticate dates. It is also a favourite 



70 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

maxim with some of these gentlemen to carry back the date of every 
church, as far as possible, as if they thereby derived a peculiar pleasure, 
or advantage ; and like the late Mr. King and Mr. Carter, they do not 
hesitate to assert, peremptorily, that the oldest part must be of the age of 
its first foundation. To such persons, who prefer fiction to fact, and 
romance to history, it is useless to argue, and impertinent to urge the 
claims of rationality and common sense. Still, however, as the impartial 
student seeks for faithful information in such a work as the present, and is 
entitled to expect the candid opinions of the author on a controverted 
subject, I feel it my duty to explain my own opinion, and the reasons on 
which that is founded. 

Respecting the origin of the present fahric, the statement of Rudborne 
is as conclusive as language can render it. He asserts — and we must 
suppose from documents belonging to the church — that Walkelyn began 
to rebuild, or re-edify it from the foundation, in 4079 w : and on the 6th 
ides of April, anno 1093, he says that the new fabric was completed and 
re-dedicated. He proceeds to say, that on the day following the feast of 
St. Swithun, the bishop's men began to break down the old monastery, and 
which was demolished within the year, excepting one porch, or portico, and 
the great altar 1 . If this evidence be not sufficiently conclusive, we shall 
derive much collateral proof from comparing the style and character of the 
arches, columns, capitals, and bases; the windows, buttreses, mouldings, 
and piers of this Church, with such buildings as are admitted to have been 
raised by the Normans. Of these many remain so precisely similar to the 
crypts, transepts, and remaining part of the chapter-house at Winchester, 
that we must conclude they were erected at the same time, and by contem- 
porary builders. Besides, we are repeatedly told that the Normans were 
a proud, aspiring, pompous people; eager to make every thing new in their 

10 Anno MLXX1X. Walkelinus Episcopus a fundementis Wintoniensem coepit recedificare 
ecclesiam." Ang. Sac. i. 294. 

" " Sequent! vero die Domini Walkelini Episcopi cceperunt homines primum vetus frangere 
Monasteriuni ; et fractum est lotum in illo anno, excepto porUco uno, et magno altari." Ang. 
Sac. i. 295. 



DOUBTS RESPECTING SAXON ARCHITECTURE. 71 

newly acquired territory, and to impress all their works with their own 
national marks; they were also equally prompt to sweep away all traces 
of the arts, and customs of the people they subjugated. These con- 
siderations, and others which might be adduced, make me conclude that 
no architectural part of the present church, is strictly Saxon. Some of 
the foundation walls are probably, and merely probably, anterior to the 
Norman conquest : but as expense and labour were secondary objects with 
such men as Walkelyn, and Gundulph of Rochester ; and as their edifices 
were intended to be much larger than those of their predecessors, we can 
scarcely believe that they would make use of even their foundations. It 
is true there are some variations in the masonry, i. e. in the joints and 
courses of the stones in the extreme ends, and the more central parts of 
the transepts ; but this might have arisen from different workmen, who 
were employed even at the same time, and still more from those who were 
engaged on the Church at different periods of its erection ; for it cannot be 
doubted that an edifice of this size must have been some years in progress, 
and that many masons were unquestionably employed in its construction. 

The dates assigned by Mr. Garbett to the other parts of the Church are 
mostly in unison with my own opinions ; on two or three points we are, 
however, at issue, and in describing those members of the building, on 
which we differ, I shall make free to offer a few remarks. 

Still, although 1 cannot satisfy my own mind, or persuade myself that 
Winchester Church contains any decided specimens of early Anglo-Saxon 
architecture, I am aware that many other persons may feel perfectly con- 
vinced : and may perceive clear proof of remote antiquity in the styles of 
arches, and in the masonry. On such obscure subjects there will be 
difference of opinion, and this difference will most probably lead to truth. 
My mind, I own, is extremely scrupulous, and requires something border- 
ing on palpable demonstration. Knowing that many persons have deceived 
themselves, and then imposed on the world, by precipitancy and credulity ; 
I have persuaded myself that caution, and rational scepticism, on historical 
subjects, are necessary to constitute the impartial antiquary. 



72 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FORM, ARRANGEMENT, AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE 
CHURCH : — ALSO OF ITS EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BEAUTIES AND DEFECTS, 
WITH REMARKS ON ITS STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE : — AND ON THE VARIOUS 
PORTIONS OF THE EDIFICE, WITH REFERENCE TO THE ACCOMPANYING 
PLATES. 

1 he Cathedral Church of Winchester has been called l a school of eccle- 
siastical architecture? and with some degree of propriety : for as a school 
is intended to instruct novices in any branch of art or science, so this edifice 
is calculated to display to the student an interesting and varied series of 
examples of the ancient architecture of England, from an early age up to 
a recent period. Here therefore he may study styles, dates, and those 
varieties which peculiarly belong to the sacred buildings of the middle ages. 
He will also find, in this edifice, some very interesting examples of con- 
struction, in the walls, vaulting, and other parts of the masonry and 
carpentry : all of which are as essential to the scientific architect as the 
art of designing and planning a building. If we fail to satisfy ourselves 
as to Roman remains, or genuine Saxon work — if, after a careful 
examination, we retire either doubtful, or persuaded there is no such 
architecture, still we shall have ample evidence and examples of Norman 
works. The plans and magnificent designs of those proud invaders, and 
innovators, are amply set forth in this fabric. We see that they built for 
themselves and for posterity ; that their edifices were solid and substantial; 
simple in their forms, and large in their parts: — that as their religion was 
intended to awe, terrify, and soothe the mind, so its primary temple was 
calculated most essentially to promote these ends. Vieing with Gundulph, 
and other Norman prelates, Walkelyn seems to have designed his Cathedral 
on a scale of grandeur to equal, or surpass, all the others in the island ; 
and although we are not informed by what means he carried his designs 



PARTS OF THE CHURCH. 73 

into effect, we are assured that he raised nearly the whole of the Church in 
his life-time. A large portion of his work is now standing; but much of 
it has been altered, and more is obscured. 

From what has been already related, it appears that not only a Church, 
but the necessary offices for a prior and monks, were erected by the first 
norman bishop. Nearly every architectural member of the latter has been 
swept away, as well as the cloisters, chapter-house, and other appendages'. 
The Church, however, remains for our admiration and enquiry ; and at 
present consists of the following members : — a nave, with two ailes, a tran- 
sept to the north and another to the south of a central tower, each having ailes 
at the sides and extreme ends ; — a choir, and a presbytery with side ailes ; — a 
space, east of the altar, consisting of three ailes, all of nearly equal width and 
height ; — a lady chapel, east of the latter; — two chantry chapels to the north 
and south of the lady chapel ; — three distinct crypts beneath the east end of 
the Church, and five other chantries. 

The Exterior of Winchester Cathedral presents few beauties, or attractive 
features. Its length of nave, plainness of masonry, shortness and solidity 
of tower, width of east end, and boldness of transepts, present so many 
peculiar and specific characteristics. Although the architectural antiquary 
seeks in vain for that picturesque arrangement of parts, and successive 
variety, which belong to the Cathedrals of Salisbury, Lincoln, Wells, &c. 
yet he soon discovers a peculiar grandeur from its extent and quantity; 
and also many specific features of design, which tend to rouse and gratify 
inquiry. As a distant object the Church presents a large and long mass 
of building. Its nave, particularly as seen from the south, is distinguished 
by its length of roof and extent of unbroken lines ; and the low, stunted 
tower, as Gilpin remarks, " gives the whole building an air of heaviness 2 ." 

1 In the Deanery House, and in one of the Prebendal Houses, south of the Church, are some 
columns, arches, and vaulted roofs to certain rooms on the ground floor. 

2 The same author, who is generally judicious, and often elegantly apposite in his comments, 
uses some strange and absurd language in speaking of this Church. He says, " I doubt whether a 
spire was ever intended," when there was no reason either to doubt, or to question the subject ; as 
spires were not known when this tower was built. Again, he asks " Why the tower, in the hands 
of so elegant an architect, [Wykeham] was left so ill-proportioned, is a question of surprise." Now 
the tower was never in the hands, nor subjected to the improvements, of this clerical architect. 

K 



74 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

The whole Church is seated in a valley, and on three of the approaches to 
the city is seen from high ground. On the east and west the hills are much 
higher than the top of the tower, and consequently the building is viewed to 
great disadvantage. The eastern end, however, with its pinnacles, turrets, 
flying buttresses, and tower, form a fine and pleasing group. From the 
Portsmouth and Alton roads, i. e. approaching it from the S. E. and N. E. 
the Church is seen to rise above the contiguous houses and trees in massive, 
bold, and picturesque features. 

The Interior, however, will amply compensate for any defects or 
deficiencies of the outside. This presents several architectural and 
sculptural excellencies: this displays a variety of truly interesting and 
important subjects, for professional and critical examination. Whilst the 
fine aud sublime architecture of Wykeham, in the Nave aud ailes, produces 
the most impressive effect, and claims general admiration ; the substantial, 
plain, and large works of Walkelyn, in the tower and transepts, are 
imposing and simply graud. In the north Transept, lately cleaned and 
restored, we see the effect and character of this style, in nearly its pristine 
state. Every member is in unison with the rest: each is large, bold, and 
unadorned. The bases, capitals, clustered columns, or piers, and the single 
shafts, are devoid of all ornament, and appear to be entirely desigued for 
their proper places aud necessary uses. The arches, likewise plain, are 
composed of squared stones, and formed wholly for strength and utility, with- 
out any pretension to beauty. On the contrary, in the carving of the Stalls, 
and the wood-work of the Lady Chapel and Langton's Chapel, we see a 
redundancy of ornament prevail. The designers seem to have wantoned in a 
licentiousness of fancy, and thought they could not surcharge their works 
with too much variety, or introduce an excess of decoration. Still these 
parts of the edifice afford us much delight, even from this very caprice. 
The eye wanders from one form and object to another, in search of novelty, 
and the mind is kept in constant and pleasing exertion by analizing and 
appropriating the whole. The elaborate and sumptuous Altar-Screen is 
full of architectural members, and is certainly very beautiful. It is covered 
with niches, canopies, buttresses, pinnacles, crockets, pediments, &c. and 
when in its original colour and condition, with statues and costly orna- 



ARCHITECTURAL BEAUTIES OF THE INTERIOR. 75 

ments, must have been surprisingly splendid. The monumental Chantries 
for Fox, Beaufort, Waynflete, Wykeham, and Edington, have all their 
peculiar beauties, and each presents a specific style in design and detail : 
that of Edington has, perhaps, the least interest as a whole ; but its statue 
is the most elegant of any in the Church. Wykeham's altar-tomb, and 
some of its interior parts, are fine specimens of the age ; Fox's chantry is a 
superb example of monumental architecture ; gorgeous in its design, and 
exquisite in execution. Those for Beaufort and Waynflete seem placed 
in opposition to each other, like rival beauties, to court admiration : each 
consists of a pyramidical series of canopies, crocketed pinnacles, niches, 
tracery, buttress piers, &c. raised on, and supported by, open arches, 
piers, and panelled screens. Each also occupies a corresponding arch, 
and each is formed to enshrine and surmount the altar tombs and statues 
of the deceased prelates. It may be confidently asserted, that the com- 
bined group of chantries, screens, and clustered columns, in this part of 
Winchester Church, is not equalled by any spot in England, or in Europe. 
Its full effect, as first discovered to the stranger, is represented in Plate 
xvn. and comprehends the chantries of Fox, a; Beaufort, c; and Wayn- 
flete, b ; with the Chapels of Langton, e ; and the Lady Chapel, d. Every 
remove of the spectator, as he wanders round this part of the building, 
presents these objects differently grouped, differently combined, and with 
varied effects of light and shade. With such a splendid feast before him, 
it is not to be wondered if the architectural enthusiast, indulges himself to 
excess, and almost satiates his senses. 

The foregoing subjects may be regarded as the pre-eminent beauties of 
the Church ; but still there are many others to claim the attention of 
different persons, accordingly as they are influenced by particular studies or 
partialities. Most of these will come under notice in the following descrip- 
tion of the principal divisions and parts of the fabric. 

The Nave and its ailes are distinguished by the uniform style of the 
whole ; in solid and elegant piers, arches, windows, sculptured bosses, &c. 
" This," says Gilpin, " is perhaps the most magnificent nave in England." 
The Transepts and Tower next claim attention, as unrivalled specimens of 



76 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Norman architecture. Solid masses of masonry, vast spaces in height and 
width, with very little ornament, are the distinguishing features of those 
portions of the edifice. The transepts are open to the timber voof, and 
thus appear very lofty : but the effect of the rafters, and ragged timbers, is 
offensive. It presents the idea of neglect and ruin, and thus, when con- 
trasted with the solidity and uniform beauty of the nave, makes a very 
unfavourable impression on the mind. In the southern transept, the aile 
to the west and south, is entirely excluded by a wall, which fills up the 
whole of the arches; and the eastern aile is divided into three different 
chapels, or chantries, by screens, between each, and also between them 
and the centre of the transept. The northern Transept is less encum- 
bered and less obscured : its centre, east and north ailes, the triforium, 
and clerestory, are all clear and open to inspection ; but the western aile is 
a place of lumber, and its arches are walled up. [See Plate xn.J The 
Choir and eastern end are elevated above the nave and ailes by an ascent of 
several steps; and in this portion of the building the stranger will perceive 
several different styles of architecture, and several different subjects to 
arrest his attention, and demand his admiration. The choir occupies a 
space mostly beneath the Norman tower, and is fitted up with a series of 
elaborately carved stalls on the west, north, and south sides. In the 
carvings of basso-relievo, finials, crockets, and misereres, there are many 
grotesque designs, as well as many specimens of very fine workmanship. At 
the north-eastern extremity of the choir is the Pulpit, a very curious piece of 
carved-work, and evidently executed for Prior Silkstede, whose name is 
twice repeated on it. On the same side of the choir, beneath one of the lofty 
arches of the tower, is the Organ, which thus occupies an unusual place. 
Nearly facing the pulpit is the Bishop's Stall, or throne, a very incongruous 
and absurd piece of workmanship, presented by Bishop Trelawny, and 
intended as an ornamental appendage : but, like the screen between the 
nave and choir, it is formed in the Roman or classical style, as com- 
monly termed, and therefore becomes an unsightly object. Between the 
choir and altar is a large open space, called the Presbytery, which is 
separated from the ailes by stone screens, and from the altar by a 



CHANTRIES, CHAPELS, AND CRYPTS. 77 

carved railing. Immediately behind the altar screen is an open space, 
formerly a chapel, and inclosed by the splendid chantry of Fox, on the 
south, that of Gardiner, to the north, the altar-screen on the west, and 
another screen to the east. All these objects are highly interesting to the 
architectural antiquary, and will be hereafter described. East of these 
is a large open space, consisting of three ailes of nearly equal width and 
height, and inclosing the very elaborate and elegant chantry chapels, raised 
over the bodies of Cardinal Beaufort, and Bishop Waynflete. In this part 
are also several other monuments, slabs, &c. some of which have recently 
been removed to this from other parts of the Church. The eastern end of 
the building consists of three distinct Chapels, of which the central, or 
Virgin Mary Chapel, extends further, and is much larger than the other 
two : these are small square spaces, separated from the ailes by carved 
wooden screens, as is also the lady chapel. That on the south has a 
large altar tomb in the centre, some finely carved wainscotting, with a seat 
on two sides, and remains of an altar table, &c. at the east end. The wood 
work of this, as well as of the lady chapel, is elaborately carved, and 
charged with shields of arms, mottoes, figures, foliage, &c. At the eastern 
extremities of the ailes are the two Slair-Cases, surmounted by octangular 
turrets, which have been already justly praised by Mr. Garbett. Beneath 
the presbytery, ailes, lady chapel, &c. is a series of Crypts, consisting 
of three distinct and varied apartments, two of which are certainly ancient, 
but the other is of comparatively modern formation. In the more ancient 
one will be found a corresponding style of design to the transepts, in 
its columns and arches, but varied in proportions, as better adapted to 
their peculiarity of situation and object. Here the architect formed his 
plans for posterity : he laid his foundations broad and solid ; and direct- 
ed his works to be plain and firm. The columns, piers, and walls are 
composed of solid masonry, without the least ornamental sculpture, or 
moulding. 

Having thus briefly pointed out the chief beauties and features of the 
Church, it is a duty I owe the reader, conformably to the plan adopted in 
the histories of the other Cathedrals, to notice some of the prominent 



78 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

deficiencies and blemishes of the present fabric. I regret to say, that these 
are numerous, although much has been recently done to remove them : and 
it is hoped, that the same spirit, which impelled the late improvements, 
may influence the guardians of the Church to prosecute their laudable 
work with zeal and with judgment 3 . 

Externally, the whole Church may be completely insulated and easily 
laid open to public view : the ground on the west and north sides, has 
accumulated four or five feet, and this should be removed : a lofty wall, at 
the north-east end, might also be taken away ; other walls on the south side, 
with a sloping roof, and some extraneous building against the transept, 
likewise detract from the effect and beauty of that side of the edifice. 
The whole of this transept requires some essential repairs and restorations, 
in the masonry and the windows ; aud the trifling bell turret, at the angle, 
should be immediately taken down. The Toiver has generally been cen- 
sured as low, flat, and mean; and with much truth: but it must be 

3 Within the last eight years the present Dean and Chapter have made the following repairs and 
improvements to the Church :— new roofed the ailes, north and south of the presbytery, and of the 
Lady Chapel ; repaired and new leaded some other parts of the roof; renewed themullions of the four 
windows on the south sideof thepresbytery, aud two of those in the south aile ; the great east window, 
and several windows of the nave, have been carefully repaired ; the finial tabernacles and statues at 
the east and west ends, and two of the flying buttresses at the south side, have been restored. The 
north transept has been recently cleaned, pointed, and repaired; some tombs from the floor of the 
nave and transepts have been removed to the east end ; the galleries have been cleared, and much 
white-washing, &c. has been cleaned away. Most of these repairs and alterations are truly judicious 
and praise-worthy : but some of them, I am sorry to remark, will not justify approbation. The mem- 
bers of the chapter will act wisely to bear in mind, that an English Cathedral may be regarded as 
national property, — as a public edifice confided to their guardianship, in trust for the whole kiugdom. 
Its founders and successive benefactors thus considered it, and endowed it with repairing funds, to 
uphold its walls, and support its integral features. Hence it is as much the bounden duty of every 
succeeding Chapter to guard the fabric from decay, and every species of injury, as it is to attend to 
the prescribed routine of clerical discipline. Every neglect on their part, and every careless or in- 
tentional innovation on the genuine character of the building, is both a dereliction of duty, and an 
offence to the public. The apathy or wantonness of former officers, will not justify the smallest 
neglect from those of the present age ; for now the architecture, and each part of these edifices, are 
regarded with admiration by men of taste; aud the enlightened part of the public, as they must view 
them with increasing interest, will also watch them with jealousy. 



DEFECTS OF THE INTERIOR. 7.9 

recollected, that this is in unison with the norman part of the Church, and 
that we examine and admire it more as an architectural specimen of ancient 
art, than for its beauty of form, or picturesque features. The long and flat 
extent of the nave and aile, on the south side, presents a dull, monotonous 
aspect, but this part was formerly provided with an extensive range of 
cloisters, and some monastic buildings. 

Internally, we shall perceive several objects to offend the eye of taste, 
and many things out of place and out of harmony. Commencing with 
the Nave and its ailes, there are several marble slabs and monuments 
inserted in and attached to the walls ; and which are not only injurious 
to the effect of the whole, but some are destructive of the architec- 
ture 4 . In this part we are really surprised to find that the distinguished 
architectonic prelate, who built the nave, &c, should have placed his own 
monumental Chantry in a spot to injure the beauty and symmetry of his 
design. Its screen, instead of harmonizing with the style of the bold 
clustered columns, to which it is attached, presents a series of tall, meagre 
mullions, without beauty, and devoid of meaning. Besides, the whole 
breaks in on the line and massiveness of the nave, interrupts the eye, 
and attracts the attention to small, and not elegant parts, when it should 
be fully and wholly occupied by the whole. The architect's best monument 

* It is much to be regretted that our venerable and noble Cathedrals should, for so many ages, 
have been disgraced and disfigured by petty and pretty monumental tablets. The white, black, 
and variegated colours, of which they are formed, are not only inimical to all harmony and 
beauty ; but the manner in which they are usually inserted in the walls and columns, is ruinous 
to the stability of buildings. If the proper officers of the church are regardless of such shameless 
proceedings, there should be committees of taste, or a general public surveyor appointed, to watch 
over and direct all the monumental erections, as well as the reparations of each edifice. It is a lament- 
able fact, that we scarcely ever see a new monument raised with any analogy, or regard to the build- 
ing in which it is placed. The sculptor and director seem only ostentatious of themselves. To render 
it showy, imposing, and even obtrusive, is their chief solicitude ; and the trustees of a Cathedral 
are too generally regardless of every thing but handsome fees. Hence Westminster Abbey Church, 
and Bath Abbey Church, are become mere show rooms of sculpture, and warehouses of marble. A 
monument recently raised in Salisbury Cathedral, from a design by the Rev. Hugh Owen, is a most 
praise-worthy exception to this practice. It is also a fine precedent, and amply justifies my antici- 
pation in the history of that Cathedral, p. 101. 



80 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

is his own works, and if these are not calculated to perpetuate and dignify 
his name, it will never be done by a solitary and more perishable tomb. 
Wykeham's chantry and tomb are, however, full of beauty and propriety, 
when compared with some other objects, which we proceed to notice. 
The Screen, between the nave and choir, said to have been designed by 
Inigo Jones, is a bad and an unsightly object. It may be said to be in 
thegrecian, or roman, style : indeed it maybe pronounced any thing, but in 
place and in harmony. It is discordant, and highly displeasing, and betrays 
a deplorable want of feeling in the person, or persons, who designed it for the 
station, and in those who have sanctioned its continuance for so many years. 
In niches are two bronze figures, of kings in armour, which do not improve 
the effect, or appropriation of this offensive screen. Attached to two piers of 
the nave, on the steps to the choir, are marble monuments to Bishop 
Hoadley, and to Dr. Joseph Warton : these are most injudiciously placed, 
are glaringly white, and in their designs present a compound of english, 
grecian, and emblematic parts, which must detract from the national and 
simple beauty of a monument. In the north transept we find the pure norman 
windows, enlarged and altered, their sills lowered, and their openings filled 
with mullions and tracery: — the west aile is inclosed by a wall, which reaches 
to the top of the arches : — the timber roof is exposed, and some curious old 
paintings on the walls are covered with white-wash. The south Transept is 
also open to the roof, which, with parts of the walls, appear much decayed 
and dilapidated : and the whole aile is shut out by walls and screens. On 
entering the Choir the stranger finds some very fine parts, but also some 
things at war with propriety. The Organ is raised in a gallery beneath the 
northern arch of the tower, and is thus out of place; its form and fitting 
up are not calculated to adorn it: and the filling in of the two lofty arches 
of the tower is injudicious. A wooden ceiling, painted and carved, is 
thrown across between the four arches of the tower, whereby the lanthorn, or 
first story of that part of the edifice, is shut out from the floor. This absurd 
innovation was made in the time of King Charles I. and probably exe- 
cuted chiefly at his expense, as well as the fitting up of the organ. The 
romanized Bishops throne ; and the canopy, and sham urns, affixed to the 



.. . . ._■■■._ .■.■■-' 




Sallfrf *0 t 



-Z2 CHt-TtCH.SHOV " O? EOOP, SITES OX TOMBS fee. 

also Plans of Parts. 



Zemdim PkHuktd JanYi itti. *» L*kj»w x 



FITTING UP OF THE ALTAR. 81 

altar-screen, are all of the same tasteless character and times. They are 
anomalies to the place, and when it is known that they are painted, gilt, 
varnished, &c. and that the exquisite altar-screen is surcharged with repeat- 
ed coats of white-wash, we are astonished that such barbarous disfigure- 
ments should have remained for nearly two centuries, and that they are still 
tolerated. Gilpin calls the modern canopy " a sort of penthouse hanging 
over the table and adorned with festoons of flowers. This is daubed all 
over with brown paint, totally at variance with every thing around, and as 
if that was not enough, it is also adorned with profuse gilding. Enshrined 
amidst all this absurdity, hangs West's Picture of the Resurrection of 
Lazarus." This painting is censured by the same writer, as to composition, 
colouring, and management; and Dr. Milner reprobates it on other, but very 
frivolous grounds. He says, " the apostles here are mere ordinary men, or 
at most thoughtful philosophers, or elegant courtiers, studious of their 
attitudes ; the devout sisters, in the presence of their beloved master, are re- 
markable for nothing but their beauty and their sorrow." The height of the 
altar-screen has been remarked on, as a defect; and with strict propriety: 
for had it been lower, it would have afforded a pleasing view from the choir 
into the eastern end of the Church, and of the whole of Fox's east window. 
The effigy of Beaufort is a vulgar, clumsy piece of workmanship, even 
worse than its near neighbour, that of Sir John Clobery. We cannot 
otherwise account for the extreme badness of this statue, than by suppos- 
ing that it was placed there at a time much later than the building of the 
chantry ; indeed since the Reformation. It seems rather the workmanship 
of a stone-mason than of a sculptor. The effigies of Wykeham, Waynflete, 
Edington, de Foix, &c. have all been much mutilated and injured, and we 
seek in vain among them for either good expression or perfect faces. 

Plate i. — Ground Plan of the whole Church : the darkest shade shows 
the form and extent of the walls of the present edifice, the lighter colour, on 
the south side, denotes the direction of the destroyed walls of the chapter- 
house and cloister, and the other light tints, within the Church, point out 
the sites of tombs, stalls, and screens ; whilst the plans of some windows, 
and piers, are shown, to a larger scale, on the sides. A. the chief, or central 

L 



82 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

western porch and door-way : B. B. smaller porches of entrance to the 
north and south ailes of the nave : C. the nave, extending from the western 
door to the screen of the choir, 6: D the south aile, and E the north aile : 
F. choir, fitted up with stalls : G. presbytery : H. space named the sanctuary, 
inclosed for the altar, or communion table : J. north transept, with an aile 
on three sides, but that on the west is inclosed by a wall : K. south transept, 
also with a similar aile, all of which is inclosed by a wall and by screens : L. 
south aile of the presbytery : M. north aile : N. N.N. three ailes, of de Lucy's 
architecture, the appropriation of which seems unknown, but may now be 
properly called the chantry ailes : O. a space named the capitular chapel 
by Dr. Milner, who says, " the magnificent shrine of St. Swithun, of solid 
silver, gilt, and garnished with precious stones, the gift of King Edgar, used 
to be kept here ; except on the festivals of the saint, when it was exposed to 
view upon the altar, or before it. It is not unlikely that other shrines were 
kept in the same place, ranged against the eastern wall, on which may still 
be seen some painted figures of saints. This chapel is directly behind 
the high altar, and formerly communicated with the sanctuary by two 
doors, which are there still seen : it is, notwithstanding, a two-fold error in 
our domestic writers to term this place the Sanctum Sa?ictorum, and to 
describe it as the place from which the priest was accustomed to approach 
the high altar 5 , which is to confound it with the sacristy, or vestry. It was 
certainly furnished with an altar, the back screen of which, consisting pro- 
bably of ornamented wood work, seems to have been fastened by certain 
staples, which still remain. We are assured of this fact, from the circum- 
stance of the early conventual mass, immediately after the holding of a 
chapter, being celebrated here every morning ; from which circumstance it 
may be called the capitular chapel 6 ." P. the Lady, or Virgin Mary 
Chapel, consisting of two divisions, of two styles of architecture, [see PI. 
xx.] with fine carved seats, a rood-loft screen, &c. : Q. altar end of the 

5 " Warton's description, p. 75, Anonymous History, vol. i. p. 41. The Greeks indeed, as we 
have seen, called the altar by the name of dyiov dytuiy; but there is no such name as Sanctum Sanc- 
torum in the whole Latin Liturgy." 

6 Milner's His. Win. ii. 58. Hist. Maj. /. iii. ch. vi. 



CHAPELS OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS, AND SILKSTEDE. 83 

same, raised on steps : R. Bishop Langton's monumental chapel, having a 
large altar tomb in the centre, with seats and highly ornamented screens on 
the north and south, an open screen with folding doors on the west, and 
niches, with parts of an altar, to the east : S. a chapel, corresponding in 
size, and situation, to the former, called the Guardian Angels, or Portland 
Chapel. This is much altered from its original fitting up, being now 
occupied by a strange and incongruous medley of tombs, slabs, &c. It is 
supposed to have acquired its appellation of Guardian Angels, from figures 
of angels, or cherubs, painted on the ceiling; and latterly the name of 
Portland, from a stately monument erected against its southern wall to the 
memory of Richard Weston, Earl of Portland, who was Lord Treasurer 
to King Charles the First. His statue, in bronze, reclines on the tomb, 
which is further adorned with busts, &c. Against the north wall is a 
marble slab commemorative of Bishop Mews, who, with the above-named 
nobleman, lie interred in a vault beneath. This chantry is supposed to 
have been first occupied by the remains of Bishop Orlton, who died in 
J 333, and according to Richardson, in his Notes to Godwin, was interred 
" in capella propria." In the north wall of this chantry is a large ambre, 
and in the eastern wall is inserted, but very injudiciously, the side stone of 
the tomb represented in Plate xxvi. c, whilst the effigy belonging to the 
same tomb is stationed in another place : T. an arched passage called the 
slype, which formerly communicated from the cloister to the eastern end of 
the Church ; having the Chapter-house, U, on the south. The form, extent, 
and architecture of this apartment are clearly to be ascertained, by the 
arches and columns on the north and west sides, and by the remains of 
foundations on the other sides : V. a portion of the east aile of the south 
transept, called Prior Silkstede's Chapel. The letters t.h.o.M.a.s. and S. 
are curiously carved on the frieze of the screen ; and as the letters M. A. 
are distinguished from the others, and inclosed within a skein of silk, Dr. 
Milner says, that they form " a monogram of his patroness, the Blessed 
Virgin :" W. the treasury, &c. : X. vestry, or modern chapter-room, lately 
cleansed of white-wash, and newly fitted up: Y. part of the choir, immediately 



84 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

under the central tower, or lanthorn : Z. an inclosed chapel, called the 
Venerable Chapel, and supposed by Dr. Milner to have been the place of 
interment of J3ishop Courteney. It is divided from the central aile by an 
handsome open screen, the upper part of which is adorned with canopies, 
crocketed pinnacles, &c. From being " highly ornamented and well 
secured/' Dr. Milner believes that " the blessed sacrament used to be kept 
there, for the benefit of the sick and for private communion." In this chapel 
are several flat monumental stones and tablets to the Eyre's, Dingley's, 
Mompesson's, and other families. 

The small figures, or Arabic numerals, refer to monuments and to different 
members of the church: — 1. Wykeham's chantry and tomb: 2. Font: 3. 
Edington's chantry and tomb: 4. a large altar tomb for Bishop Morley : 5. 
door-way, from the south side, or eastern walk of the old cloister : 6*. entrance 
door to the choir through a modern screen : 7. old Norman door-way to the 
west aile of the north transept: 8. a curious piscina, near which some of the 
capitals of the small columns are sculptured to represent busts of kings and 
bishops : 9. niche in the wall, for a coffin tomb, probably that of de Foix : 
10. the intersecting groin here rests on four sculptured capitals, representing 
human figures, one of which holds something resembling a common chess- 
board ; in the east wall is a very beautiful niche, resting on a sculptured 
bracket : 1 1 . an opening has lately been made through the wall at this 
place to the crypts : 1 2. brass-eagle reading desk : 13. pulpit: 14. bishop's 
throne, or stall : 15. a coffin tomb, said to cover the remains of King Wil- 
liam Rufus : 10. screens inclosing the presbytery and communion table, &c. 
On the frieze of the screens are the letters W. H. aud Ii. VV. and H. B. 
with the date 1525, and the mottoes sit /cuts deo, also in domino coiifido, 
aud est deo gracia : 17. altar tomb, supposed to cover the remaius of Bishop 
Pontissara: 18. altar screen and altar table : 19. Bishop Fox's chantry: 
20. the chantry of Bishop Gardiner: 21. coffin tomb of Wm. de Basynge, 
lately removed from the south transept: 22. a large flat stone, measuring 
about twelve feet by five feet, and which formerly was inlaid with brasses 
of a figure, also " a scripture," or inscription. "This," observes Dr. Milner, 



VARIOUS TOMBS. 85 

" is celebrated, not only by the vulgar, but also by learned authors 7 , as the 
monument which covers the remains of the great patron saint of our 
Cathedral and city, St. Swithun. The improbability, however, of this 
opinion is great and obvious ;" for this saint was first interred in the church- 
yard, and his remains afterwards transferred, by St. Ethelwold, into the 
Cathedral, where they were deposited in a shrine, or chest of silver, (adorned 
with precious stones,) which was given by King Edgar for this express 
purpose 8 . Besides, in the year 1797, Henry Howard, Esq. and some other 
gentlemen, obtained permission to open this grave, as well as others in the 
Cathedral; and in this was found an oak coffin, containing a complete 
skeleton, inclosed in black serge, " probably a monks cowl," with leather 
boots, or gaiters, sewed on the legs. Milner thinks this must have been 
the grave, and these the remains, of Prior Silkstede : but when it is 
remembered that he appears to have fitted up a chapel in the south transept, 
and assisted so much in finishing the lady chapel, we are more inclined to 
look for his place of sepulture in either of those parts of the fabric: 23. lid 
and parts of a coffin tomb, removed from the north and south transepts : 
24. a coffin lid, on a raised slab, from the south transept : 25. entrance to 
the holy-hole, beneath a very fine screen : 26. chantry, inclosing an altar 
tomb, for Cardinal Beaufort: 27. ditto of Bishop Waynflete : 28. effigy of a 
Bishop, removed from another part of the church, and raised on modern 
masonry : 29. a large monument to some persons of the Mason family : 30. a 
raised coffin tomb, supposed to enshrine the remains of Bishop de Lucy : 
31. altar tomb to the memory of Bishop Langton : 32. monument, with 
effigy, sculpture, to R. Weston, Earl of Portland : 33. stair-case at the north- 
east angle of the north aile : 34. a large marble monument, adorned with 
military and naval trophies, to the memory of Sir Isaac Townsend, knight 
of the garter, and one of the Lords of the Admiralty, who died in 1731: 
36. effigy of a knight in chain-armour, on a piece of masonry, and brought 

7 " Clarendon and Gale's Antiquities,/). 30. Warton's Description,^. 83. A. Wood also seems 
to countenance this opinion. Athen. Oxon. Alban Butler also in Lives of Saints, July 13." 

8 See Rudborne, His. Maj. lib. ii. c. 12, and Will, of Malmsbury. 



86 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

from another part of the church: 36. wall, with blank arches: and 37. 
ditto, both represented in Plate xxix. A. and B. 

The Roman figures refer to certain parts of the building, drawn by C. F. 
Porden, to a larger scale than shown in the general plan : these parts are 
thus delineated to afford the critical antiquary and architect correct repre- 
sentations of the mull ions and mouldings of the windows, &c. It is from 
such delineations only that we can attain certain knowledge of styles and 
dates, and discriminate the progressive and almost imperceptible gradations 
from one form to another. In the four windows, here laid down, and in the 
three mullions, there will be seen considerable variation in the mouldings, 
which would not be so readily perceived in viewing the respective windows. 
It is from the want of correct plans, elevations, and sections of our ecclesias- 
tical edifices, and from an ignorance of their meaning, that so many irrele- 
vant and conjectural essays have been written on the subject : and until 
all the minute peculiarities of those buildings are faithfully engraved and 
published, we shall never have a satisfactory kuowledge of ancient 
architecture. Fig. i. a double window of de Lucy's works, with a pier, 
or large mullion, between the glazing, clustered, slender columns, and 
half columns on the outside, a passage, or gallery within, arched over, and 
shafts of clustered columns on the inside. Beneath the sill of the window is 
an arcade of trefoil headed arches, n. springing from single purbeck 
columns. An interior elevation of one compartment of this style is given 
in PI. xx. A. Fig. in. plan, or horizontal section, of one of Fox's windows 
in the aile of the presbytery, showing three mullions ; (one of which is still 
further enlarged, Fig. vm.) also the forms of the mouldings, on the sides 
of the window, &c: Fig. iv. plan of the eastern window of the lady chapel, 
having six mullions, (one of which is seen at Fig. vn.) and deep hollow 
mouldings on each side. One window on the north side, and the other to 
the south, correspond in form, size, &c. to the eastern. A view of the first 
is given in Plate vm. and an elevation of that on the north side in Plate 
xx. C: Fig. v. mullion of Edington's window: vi. column at the north end 
of the north transept; that at the opposite extremity of the south tran- 
sept corresponds : vn. and vm. have been already noticed : ix. plan of one 



CRYPTS. 87 

of Wykeham's windows in the aile of the nave: x. plan of one of Fox's 
windows in the clerestory of the presbytery: xi. plan of the north-east 
great pier, under the tower. 

Plate ii. Plan and Section of the Crypts, fyc. It is hoped that this 
plate will prove very interesting to the architectural antiquary ; as the very 
curious and early part of Winchester Church, laid down in this plan, No. 2. 
has never before been represented by engraving ; and consequently could 
not have been fully known to the public. As here defined, its forms, 
dimensions, and style may be easily understood. It consists of three 
portions, or distinct parts: — first, the large, or chief crypt, formed of a 
central apartment, A, having two ailes, with a row of columns : B. B, its 
ailes, continued round the semi-circular end, C : a second, or smaller crypt, 
D, with semi-circular end, and divided into two parts by a row of four 
columns, and a fifth, which is placed in the centre of the entrance, 1. From 
the windows, through the walls of this apartment, it seems very evident 
that the whole was formed anterior to the substructure of de Lucy's work, 
marked by the buttresses p. p. p. ; and from the style of the columns and 
arches, I cannot persuade myself to believe that it is anterior to the larger 
crypt, the chapter-house, or the transepts. At m. n. the wall is broken away 
to open a communication with the third crypt, E, the vaulting of which rests 
on two columns: one of these is represented, 5: on the south side are two 
windows, two others at the east end, and one on the north side, where there 
is also a door-way. The smaller letters refer to different parts of those 
crypts ; a. and b. stair-cases from the ailes of the church : c. door-way from 
the outside : d. a Avell : e. door-way from the north side : f. f. f. arched 
openings from the aile to the centre : g. g. g. small apertures, or windows : 
h. wall of the transept : i. i. i. buttresses: k. two larger buttresses : 1. m. n. 
already noticed : o. ground beneath the floor of de Lucy's ailes : p. p. p. 
buttresses to the same : q. vault tinder the Guardian angels chapel, with 
two coffins, supposed of Bishop Mews and the Earl of Portland: r. a 
corresponding space to the former, beneath Langton's chapel, but there is no 
exterior indication of a vault: s. door-way. — No. 1. shows the section of the 
three crypts with the floor above: 1. steps to the altar : 2. steps immediately 



88 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

behind the altar screen : and 3. steps to St. Swithun's altar : 4. holy-hole : 
5. floor of de Lucy's work : 6. floor of the lady chapel ; and 7. altar end of 
ditto : 3. column, and 4. pier of the large crypt: 5. column of the eastern 
crypt ; and 6. capital and base of the central crypt. 

Plate hi. Capitals a?id Bases. B. C. of the nave : D. E. of the tran- 
sept : F. G. of de Lucy's work : and H. I. of the presbytery : K. plan of a 
pier of the nave, the dark-line of which shows the additional casing and 
forms of the mouldings made by Wykeham : L. plan of one of the clustered 
columns in the presbytery, with bases, &c. 

Plate iv. View of the West Front, the age and architecture of which 
have been already noticed by Mr. Garbett, p. 64. This is evidently the 
workmanship of three different eras: 1st. the original walls, with hexangu- 
lar stair-case turrets, which appear to have been of a very early date, if 
not really of the age of Walkelyn : 2d. the central large and two lateral 
windows, with the panelling and tracery on the walls, most likely of Eding- 
ton's age: and 3d. the three porches with the open parapets, which Mr. 
Garbett assigns, for the first time, to Cardinal Beaufort. 

Plate v. By the section and plan of the west front, the interior eleva- 
tion of the windows, door-ways, pinnacles, &c. are correctly displayed ; as 
well as sections of the archivolt mouldings of the windows and arches on 
the north side: a. elevation of the pier of clustered columns and hollow 
mouldings: b. section of the opposite pier: c. section of the wall, between 
the windows, of the arch of the aile, and of the concealed flying buttress 
from the wall of the nave to that of the aile : d. section of the wall, beneath 
the window of the north aile : e. western door-way to the north aile : 
f. window of the clerestory, to the nave, over which is a section of its 
mouldings and of the parapet : g. section of the window of the north aile, 
beyond which is shown the profile of the large buttress on the north side, 
surmounted by a crocketed pinnacle, having a finial : h. a gallery, or floor, 
raised over the western end of the north aile, now used as the ecclesiastical 
court, and containing documents belonging to the church, but formerly 
employed as a tribune, according to Dr. Milner, " to contain the extra- 
ordinary minstrels, who performed on grand occasions, when some prelate, 



CATHEBTRAIL .AFnnDpUITinES. 




ty RaiUcn, from, a Drawing bv CJF.JbnZen fcrSnttim^Sisttry hx. oi 'Winchester Cathedral. 

WKKTOniEiTnEm CDATIHTEMSAIL (DIHIWIEiSM, 

CiMTAlS fc BASKS. 
London.Puituhcd, Oct'ljSn, ty laiu/man k' C Itttrno sttr Bum. 

printed iv il'JT k JiajTtft£- 



CATHEDRA! ANTKJIPITIES. 



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Eti.jr.wd h Jle-l&UJ-.trcm ajDr,iwiJUi h\ E.lw 3L>rt,rhr JtnttsnsJTi.rtcrv ,*v .-r IVin^usTer Cathedral 

WOT^HIES'TriEIE ^ikTTIHIKlMRi^L OTTCfiE'SIHI. 

View of the West front. 

TO THE HONORABLE AND REVEREND AUGUSTUS GEORliE ZECffE,. If. 4. ARCHDEACON' OF WINCHESTER, CHAFUIN 
IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY tcc.la. This Tint? is inscribed l'v f / u , _ { n f/ k , 1: 
Ibnlenfubtishei MivUfll lylotu/mm kt ?Itztermjta-low. 



TATHEBJLAI. .AJTTIQTTtTIES 



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2>r,uvn fyJSJUtgre 






WmcDMISSTriE'IE. CDATffilEJE/iE.AIL CMFKCBL 

Section ScPtan oftfie West front 



frmn.i iV ,'cr i-J5jmc«". 



Cathedral Antiquities. 



FL.V1. 




TTetr of the yurth Tnmjipt &c. 
TO SIS IEOM.1S BJKLV6RJR 1 this-Plotr ir ropcctAJfy insert fed In the sllttixrr. 



WEST END. 89 

legate, or king, was received at the Cathedral in solemn state, by a 
procession of the whole convent. At such times the cross-bearers, alco- 
Iyths, and thurifers, led the way, and the bishop, prior, and other dignified 
clergy, in their proper insignia and richest vestments, closed the ranks. 
In the mean time the Church was hung from one end to the other with 
gorgeous tapestry, representing religious subjects, the large hooks for 
supporting which still remain fixed to the great columns ; the altars dazzled 
the beholders with a profusion of gold, silver, and precious stones, the 
lustre of which was heightened by the blaze of a thousand wax lights, whilst 
the well-tuned voices of a numerous choir, in chosen psalms and anthems, 
gave life and meaning to the various minstrelsy that was performed in this 
tribune." Such was the religious pomp and gorgeous parade of the 
possessors of these Cathedrals in former times, as described by one who 
has been initiated in the mysteries of monachism, and who partially thinks 
the revival of it would be conducive to the happiness of the human race : 
i. door- way from the turret stairs to the parapet. 

Plan of the West End. A. recessed porch of entrance to the nave, in which 
the forms of the groining to the roof are defined, as well as the panelling of 
the sides, and the mullion, or clustered column in the centre of the door-way: 
B. southern, and C. northern porches : D. mullions and mouldings to the 
western window of the south aile, beneath which was formerly a door : E. 
corresponding window on the north side: F. one compartment of the north 
aile, showing the number and disposition of the ribs, at the intersection of 
each of which is a shield, or large boss : H. south aile ditto. [The form of 
the rib here laid down as an octagon, should have been drawn in a lozenge 
or diamond shape, as marked in the centre of the nave, and as indicated 
in the general plan.] G. groining of the nave, the lines on the sides of 
which indicate the mouldings of the arches. The darkest tint, at the west 
end, shows the masonry of the three porches, which have evidently been 
raised between the turrets and buttresses, and which are denoted, as well as 
the mullions of the windows, by a lighter colour. [For extreme width of 
west front read 118 feet, instead of 128 feet.] 

M 



90 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Plate vi. View of the North Transept, &c. Although much of the 
original work of this elevation remains, we cannot contemplate without 
regret that so much alteration and innovation has been adopted. Each 
of the four bottom windows, as well as those of the second and third stories, 
have been fitted up with mullions, tracery, and masonry: the two windows 
over the ailes are wholly closed up; some masonry, blank arches, &c. have 
been evidently taken away from the north-eastern angle, as may be inferred 
from the fragment of an arch seen agaiust the buttress. In the gable is 
a circular window, with mullions of rather unusual form and character. 

Plate vii. View of the North Side, from a place called Paradise, 
displays several very interesting aud varied features and parts of the church : 
first, on the left hand, is the window and blank arches, belonging to the 
guardian angels chapel : second, the turret stair-case at the north-east end 
of de Lucy's work, also the exterior of the windows, buttresses, and 
parapet of the north aile of the same : third, the enriched eastern gable and 
window, octangular turrets, flying-buttresses, pinnacles, &c. of Fox's 
architecture: fourth, the central tower: and fifth, the north transept, with 
its windows and buttresses. [The foreground of this print does not 
pretend to represent the local appropriation of the place, which is a kitchen 
garden belonging to the deanery.] 

Plate viii. View of the East End of the Church, which shows the great 
eastern window, the panelling beneath, the parapet, corbel table, &c. all 
supposed to have been built by Silkstede, Hunton, and Courteney : the 
window with two mullions and tracery, belongs to Langton's chapel. 

Plate ix. South Transept, §c. [Here also the artist has very properly 
omitted the local, but irrelevant objects of culinary plants and garden 
walls : he has also omitted a tall pan-tile roof, which obscures the four 
bottom windows of the transept, and has represented the three arches, at the 
west end of the chapter-house, as open.] This view displays the arcade on 
the north side of the chapter-house : the whole face of the southern tran- 
sept, with the peculiar panelling of the gable: also a long extent of the 
south side of the nave, and its aile : the tower, part of the upper story of 
the presbytery, and its south aile. 



CATMEBRAJL. ANTigmJITIES 




Di-a-wn "by Ed-wf Klori 



WEHSIHI ESTHETE. (D^TTTBIIIIBIEATL, SIMI!JE8.<SIBI, 

TtEW OF THE EAST EKD. 
TO THE REV° HAHRY LEE; FELLOW OF WINCHESTER COLLEGE, kckc. 
TMs Plate is inscribed \,y ^ Alpra0R 

ZonaoruftiHislitil Jai<?2.i3i3, iy Zongman ki':'J , ,rierrwstrrSow. 



Engraved "by R. Saiids. 



Prjntrdtj/' Cax. k Bitmct 



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To BARNARD WHITER ,£sq r cf Winchests- . (hit plat* u Inscribed from Mali:- Irhip bu y i. 






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CHOIR, LOOKING WEST. 
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Inscribed by f, Author 



nave: north transept: choir. 91 

Plate x. View of the Nave, from the west end, looking east, displays 
the clustered columns of the piers, the soffites of the arches, the parapet 
screen, between the arches and clerestory, also the latter and the bold rib- 
work of the roof. In this view the screen between the nave and the choir 
is seen to separate the building in two, and appears as an ugly piece of 
patchwork in a fine dress. 

Plate xi. View from the North Aile of the Nave, looking across the 
latter, showing part of the south side of the nave, the screen of Edington's 
chantry, &c. In the pier, on which the light falls, is displayed part of the 
capitals of the Norman nave, from which sprung the semi-circular arches. At 
the base of this pier is seen a piece of sculpture, representing a half 
length figure of a bishop, beneath a trefoil canopy, with his hands clasped in 
front, and with a shield resting against his knees. Lord Clarendon con- 
siders this to represent Bishop Ethelmar, whilst Warton thinks it is meant 
for Prior Hugh le Brun. The style of the arch and sculpture justifies the 
former opinion, for Ethelmar lived in the time of Henry the Third ; and 
though his body was buried at Paris, in 1261, yet it appears that his heart 
was brought to, and enshrined in, this Church. 

Plate xii. View of the interior of the North Transept, looking N. E. 
This transept has been already fully noticed. It may, however, be 
remarked, that the height and form of the column or pier, with the capitals, 
and arches, correspond with those in the original nave. In one of the piers is 
represented a canopied niche, and from other ornaments of this compart- 
ment of the aile, we may infer that it was formerly fitted up as a private 
oratory, or chantry chapel. 

Plate xiii. View of the Choir, looking west, displays the series of fine 
stalls, the pulpit, the eagle reading desk, a coffin-tomb, said to cover the 
remains of King William Rums, the whole vaulting of the nave, two 
arches, with piers, under the tower, also the first story of the latter, &c. 
[At present a floor shuts out the first story of the lanthorn, from the choir, 
but as the object of these illustrations and this history, is to represent more 
the permanent than the changeable features of the church, and as the said 
floor is not only a temporary and extraneous, but even trumpery erection, 



92 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

and may be soon removed, it was deemed advisable to omit it in the 
view. From the same feelings, the draftsman has left out the Bishop's 
stall, which is attached to the left hand pier, and also a boarded partition, 
which fills up the whole of the southern arch under the tower.] 

Plate xiv. Part of the Stalls of the Choir. The design and carving of 
these seats present abundant studies for the professional and amateur 
artists. The compartments here represented are the central entrance door- 
way to the choir, and three stalls on each side, with their respective move- 
able seats, or misereres-'. At the back of the seats is a series of arcades, 
highly ornamented with tracery and carvings, and each seat is surmounted 
by a tall, narrow canopy, splendidly enriched with crockets, finials, cusps, 
and other ornaments. From the style of the arches aud decorations of these 
stalls, they have been generally attributed to Edingtou's prelacy and 
munificence. In the inner mouldings of the three western door-ways, we 
recognise the same style and similar cusps. 

Plate xv. View of the Altar Screen. Among the architectural beau- 
ties of this, and of any other cathedral, there will not perhaps be found one 
to excel that represented in the annexed print. Niches of various sizes and 
situations, pedestals, canopies, and pilaster-buttresses, cover nearly the 
whole face of this sumptuous design ; whilst its upper division and summit 
is crowded to excess with pierced work, crocketed pinnacles, and per- 
forated canopies. In the centre is a projecting canopy, most elaborately 
executed ; but its appropriate pedestal is lost : as are also several other 
parts belonging to the middle and lower part of the screen. The accom- 
panying print shows it as it would appear if divested of the tasteless urns, 
in the niches, and of the carved wood work, now before it. The screen is 
executed in a fine white, soft stone, but is thickly covered aud obscured by 

> Dr. Milner's account of these seats, if not improbable, is calculated to render some of the 
monastic discipline very ridiculous. He states, that the misereres were formed to expose and punish 
sleepy monks : " on these," he relates, " the monks and canons of ancient times, with the assist- 
ance of their elbows, on the upper part of their stalls, half supported themselves during certain 
parts of their long offices, not to be obliged always to stand or kneel. This stool, however, was so 
contrived, that if the body became supine by sleep, it naturally fell down, and the person who 
rested upon it was thrown forward into the middle of the choir." 



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VIEW OF THE A1T.Tj4« 5CM5EH. 

TO m£ JiEVSDMUNS POULTER M.A. Prebendary of Winj;Aester,tuid. QiapUwi m 1/iePcrdPistwp oft/ie, dwce/s. 

This Plate it inscribed, by ( j u j[ lir ] wr 
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the Guirduvis t Preserver! of the above Chantry, tins new of it is inscribed ty JJj fl ttrn 

Icndrn.Tublished JuacUW ey l.ir^manV-CFjurrumirBffw. 



ALTAR SCREEN : WYKEHAM S CHANTRY. 93 

white-wash. In the spandrils of the two side-doors are sculptured repre- 
sentations, in basso-relievo, of the Annunciation and Visitation, but 
executed in a very bad style. With its original altar, and Catholic em- 
bellishments, this screen must have been magnificently rich and splendid. 
Its furniture, &c. are thus described by Dr. Milner, from an inventory 
printed in the Monasticon, from the report of the commissioners in the 
time of Henry the Eighth : " The nether part, or antependium of the high 
altar, consisted of plated gold, garnished with precious stones. Upon it 
stood the tabernacle and steps, of embroidered work, ornamented with 
pearls, as also six silver candlesticks, gilt, intermixed with reliquaries, 
wrought in gold and jewels. Behind these was a table of small images, 
standing in their respective niches, made of silver, adorned with gold and 
precious stones. Still higher was seen a large crucifix with its attendant 
images, viz. those of the Blessed Virgin and St. John, composed of the 
purest gold, garnished with jewels, the gift of Bishop Henry de Blois, King 
Stephen's brother. Over this appears to have been suspended from the 
exquisite stone canopy, the crown of King Canute, which he placed there, 
in homage to the Lord of the Universe, after his famous scene of his com- 
manding the sea to retire from his feet, which took place at Southampton 10 ." 
Mr. Garbett, in p. 66, ascribes the erection of the altar-screen to Cardinal 
Beaufort, but I am rather inclined to attribute it to Bishop Waynflete, who 
had, previous to his death, constructed his own monumental chantry; and 
to the workmanship and materials of which it so nearly corresponds. 

Plate xvi. View of Wyheham's Chantry, from the nave, shows the 
northern entrance door-way, with two niches, canopies, and pedestals over 
it, the whole of the screen towards the nave, the enriched niches at the 
east end, with parts of the architecture of the nave. Within the screen is 
an altar tomb, in the centre, sustaining the effigy of the prelate, repre- 

10 The altar-screen, in St. Alban's Abbey Church, has generally been compared to this at Win- 
chester; but although its general form, and some of its niches, are similar, the whole is very different, 
and much less elaborate in detail. It was built by Abbot Wallingford, about 1482, and cost 1100 
marks. See Clutterbuck's History of Hertfordshire, vol. i. p. 35, in which work is a finely engraved 
view of the screen by Mr. H. Le Keux. 



94 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

sented in pontificalibus, with small statues of three monks kneeling at 
his feet. [See Plate xxv B.] The altar tomb is of white marble, with 
canopied niches at the sides and ends ; and at present is disfigured, as well 
as the statue, by crude colours and gilding". At the head of the monu- 
ment, attached to the pier of the nave, are five tabernacles, or niches : at 
the east end are marks of the altar, with the credence table at the right 
hand, and a piscina. 

Plate xvii. View of the Chantries of Beaufort, Waynfiete, $-c. The 
combination of objects, represented in this plate, has been already noticed, 
p. 75, and their names and situations, in p. 85. The first object on the left 
hand is part of Fox's Chantry, a. which consists of a screen, the lower 
portion of which is inclosed, filled up within, and ornamented on the out- 
side with a series of niches, with pedestals and canopies, also with octan- 
gular panelled buttresses at the angles, and panels between each niche. 
Its southern side, or principal front, may be described to be composed of 
three divisions, in height, and four in length. Each of the latter displays 
an ornamented, perforated parapet and frieze, with a small pedestal rising 
in the centre, supporting the figure of a pelican, Fox's crest. Beneath the 
frieze is a double window, with mullions and tracery, ornamented with 
crockets, finials, and embattled mouldings. Under this window is a double 
line, or facia, of sculpture, beneath which is the series of niches, &c. already 
described. In the second compartment, from the east, is a recess, con- 
taining the effigy of an emaciated human figure, with the feet resting against 
a skull, and the head on a mitre. Thus, instead of representing his own 
person, and features, the prelate thought it more consistent with christian 
humility to exhibit this mortifying lesson to man ; to show the nothingness of 
his body when deprived of the animating spirit; and intimating that pride and 
arrogance are petty vanities, unworthy of man and degrading to his nature. 

" The College of Winchester, and that of New College, Oxford, have latterly contributed to 
preserve and embellish this tomb and chantry. According to Dr. Milner, it was first " repaired 
and ornamented soon after the Restoration, viz. in 1664, and again in 1741, but with very little 
judgment, as to the distinguishing and colouring of the several ornaments.'' It was again painted, 
gilt, &c. by Mr. Cave, of Winchester, in 1797. 



fox's and beaufort's chantries. 95 

It is rather curious that there is neither tomb, statue nor inscription to com- 
memorate the founder of this sumptuous chantry. In the western com- 
partment is a finely carved door. [See Plate xxi.] The interior is 
" luxuriantly," as Milner says, ornamented with tabernacles, sculpture, and 
architectural enrichments. It is divided into three parts, by a raised floor, 
and by a screen with a door-way. East of the latter is a little vestry, 
which still contain the ambries. The wall over the altar is decorated with 
three large, and sixteen small niches ; also a facia of demi-angels, shields, 
&c. The ceiling is adorned with tracery and shields of the royal arms of 
the house of Tudor, emblazoned with colours and gilding. In the vestry, 
over the ambries, is a niche, corresponding with those over the holy-hole ; 
and implying that the screen was formerly adorned with two rows of those 
enriched niches. The windows of this chantry appear to have been 
formerly glazed with painted glass 12 . Waynflete's chantry, b. will be 
noticed in the next plate. Beaufort's Chantry, c. consists Of clustered 
piers, with a panelled screen at the base, an open screen at the head, or 
west end, and a closed screen at the east end. There are doors on the 
north and south sides, and the whole is surmounted by a mass of canopies, 
niches, and pinnacles, which bewilder the sight and senses, by their num- 
ber and complexity. Beneath this gorgeous canopy is an altar tomb, in 
the centre of the inclosure, with the statue, already noticed and criticised. 
Milner says, " that the figure represents Beaufort in the proper dress of a 
Cardinal : viz. the scarlet coat and hat, with long depending cords, ending 
in tassels of ten knots each. The low balustrade and tomb, the latter of 
which is lined with copper, and was formerly adorned on the outside with 
the arms of the deceased, enchased on shields, are of grey marble. The 
pious tenor of his will, which was signed two days before his death, and 
the placid frame of his features, in the figure before us, which is probably a 
portrait, leads us to discredit the fictions of poets and painters, who describe 

12 A long dissertation by Mr. Gough, with very inaccurate plates of this chantry, from drawings 
by J. Schnebbelie, have been published in the second volume of the " Vetusta Monumenta." 



96 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

him as dying in despair 13 ." After what has been said, p. 81, of this statue, 
it will be unnecessary to offer another remark. 

Langtoris Chantry, e. has been already noticed, p. 77 and 83. Its elabo- 
rately carved screen, with folding doors, and open gallery, or rood-loft, are 
shown in this print : also a view into the lady chapel under, d. One compart- 
ment of the carved wainscotting round this chapel is delineated in PI. xxi. 

Plate xviii. View of the Chantries of Waynflete, Beaufort, and Gardiner, 
with parts of de Lucy's, Fox's, and Walkelyn's architecture. The principal 
chantry in this view, presents a gorgeous mass of architectural aud sculp- 
tural ornaments : in which the designer appears to have exerted his fancy 
to combine, in one object, and in a small compass, an almost countless 
assemblage of pinnacles, canopies, niches, and sculptured details. The 
interior, as well as the exterior, is covered with decorative work : its two 
ends are filled with tabernacles, and its inner roof covered with a profusion 
of tracery, arranged in various elegant forms. [See Plate xix.] From the 
multiplicity of parts in this single chantry, it would be tedious to describe 
the whole. Aided by the view, plan, and statue, the stranger may form a 
tolerably accurate opiuion of its style, form, and decoration. Chandler, in 
his Life of Waynflete, says he could not find any " particular information" 
concerning this " chapel of St. Mary Magdalen ;" whence he infers, that it 
Mas executed duriug the life-time of the prelate, and was also " furnished 
with missals, copes, and other requisites." The material of Waynflete's 
chantry, is a fine, soft, white stone ; easily worked by the mason's and 
sculptors tools : and its chief parts and ornaments are still in good pre- 
servation. The Chantry to Bishop Gardiner, seen beyond that of Wayn- 
flete, forms a curious contrast to the latter, and also to its corresponding 
chantry, that for Fox. As the vast power and tyranny of the Catholic 

fl " Shakespeare and Sir Joshua Reynolds ; the former in his Henry VI. — the latter in a celebrated 
picture." The former, most probably, derived his opinions of the prelate from the English Chroni- 
cles, (See Holinshed"s, iii. 212, 4to. 1808.) his chief sources for historical character ; and the latter 
merely illustrated, by a painting, a passage of the poet. The language of the bard, in portraying 
the haughty Cardinal, is pointedly strong and descriptive. 







fill 



Bel 



LADY CHAPEL. 97 

church, had experienced a severe shock, in the life-time of Gardiner, so the 
ecclesiastical architecture of the country was also revolutionized. Its 
decline is strikingly marked in this Bishop's chantry ; where we see a com- 
pound mixture of bad Italian and bad English ; the lower part represent- 
ing the former, and the upper part the latter. 

Plate xix. Groined Roof to Wayn/lete's Chantry. This print displays 
not only the forms and ornaments of the ceiling of this splendid chantry, 
but likewise the horizontal sections of the screens, buttresses, and mullions ; 
also the clustered columns of de Lucy's architecture: A. A. door-ways: 
B. B. clustered columns, with detached shafts of purbeck marble : a. seat. 
or plinth, round the screen: b. b. buttresses: c. c. mullions: d. d. niches, 
or tabernacles. 

Plate xx. Elevation of Three Compartments ; two on the north side of the 
Lady Chapel, B. C. and one of de Lucy's architecture, A. In the spandrils 
of the door-way of the eastern compartment, is some sculpture of foliage, 
entwining an ornamental T. on one side, and the letter N. in a tun or barrel, 
on the other side, being the initial letter for Thomas, and the rebus for Hun- 
ton, Hen ton, or N-ton, one of the priors. This door-way is supposed to have 
opened to a sextry, on the north side. In this part is still kept the remnant 
of a Chair, which was handsomely ornamented with velvet, enamelling, &c. 
Gale says, that it was used at, if not made for, the royal marriage between 
Queen Mary and Philip of Spain. The lower walls of this chapel were 
formerly covered with a series of fresco paintings, which from neglect and 
wanton mischievousness, are nearly obliterated. Carter, in his " Specimens 
of Ancient Sculpture and Painting," has published four etchings of the 
different subjects, and Dr. Milner has endeavoured to elucidate them by a 
long dissertation. The whole vaulting of this chapel appears to have been 
executed by Priors Hnnton and Sdkstede, whose names are painted on 
the roof; the latter connected with a figure of a horse, or steed. The 
groins, or ribs, rest on very elegant capitals. The stalls and wainscotting, 
as well as the rood-screen of this chapel, are highly charged with rich 
carving; one compartment of which is delineated in PI. xxi. 

N 



98 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Plate xxi. Specimens of Carved Wood-ivork, from the Lady Chapel, 
Langton's chapel, Fox's chantry, and the pulpit; all of which are so 
finely executed, that it is hoped the Dean and Chapter will not suffer 
any further dilapidation or destruction in these interesting remains of 
former times. 

Plate xxii. Part of the Altar Screen, being the east side of one of the 
door-ways, with canopies over it. In the spandrils are two slips of foliage 
very finely executed, which, with the canopies, have a close resemblance to 
the style of Waynflete's chantry. — The central niche of an old screen behind 
the altar, facing the east, which I am inclined to think was executed at the 
latter end of Edward the First's, or beginning of the Second Edward's 
reign. This screen presents nine of these niches, besides one which is 
inclosed in Fox's chantry. From the unusual situation of the screen, I am 
induced to think, that it was originally placed on the opposite side of the 
wall, with its niches facing the west, and forming the altar screen. The 
crockets, finials, and various foliage of the pediments and pinnacles of these 
niches, are elaborately wrought ; as well as a sculptured frieze beneath 
the pedestals. Every niche appears to have contained two pedestals, under 
each of which is still one of the following names: — Dominvs Jesvs: — S 
Maria: — Kyngilsus rex: — S ES Birinus Epc : — Kynwaldus rex: — 
Egbertus rex . — Adulfus rex fii.i ej : — Egbertus rex : — Eluredrex 
fili ej : — Edward, rex senior: — Athelstan. rex fili ej : — Edradus 
rex : — Edgar rkx : — EmmjE regina : — Alwinus epis : — Ethelred. rex: 
S ES Edward, rex fili ej : — Cnutus rex : — Hardicnut. rex filius ejus. 
Most of the above personages were interred in Winchester, and all but two 
were benefactors to the Cathedral. — A small part of Fox's Chantry displays 
the style of the turrets, the elegant parapet, the frieze, two canopies, 
and part of the tracery of one window. 

Plate xxiii. Section of de Lucy's Three Ailes, east of the altar, &c. 
Among the architectural plates that have been engraved for the publications 
of the Society of Anticpaaries, and for other works, I believe it may be con- 
fidently stated that no one presents such a combination and variety of parts, 



CATHBDIRAI ANTIQUITIES. 



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SECTION EAST OF THE ALTAR. 99 

styles, and objects, as that now under consideration. Here we are pre- 
sented with elevations of arches, columns, windows, &c. of distinct and 
distant ages ; from the middle of the eleventh century to the middle of the 
sixteenth: the crypt, transepts, and tower display the former, whilst the 
latter is contained in the chantry of Gardiner, i. The small letters refer to 
the principal objects : — a. a. outer aile of the crypt, showing the bases of 
the columns and piers : b. b. two inner ailes, divided by columns, d : c. sec- 
tion of piers : e. elevation of one of the openings, with section of the arch 
above : f. section through one of the windows : g. holy-hole, beneath the old 
altar screen : h. east end of Fox's chantry : i. ditto of Gardiner's : k. section 
of the south wall of de Lucy's work, representing the gallery, or passage 
through the wall ; on the inside is an insulated purbeck column, support- 
ing the rib of the vault : 1. clustered columns of detached shafts of purbeck 
marble : m. section of the opposite cluster, with the wall above : n. two 
arches, springing from clustered columns, having their bases on a high wall, 
and which, as already remarked, I conjecture was the former place of the 
altar-screen, before the present lofty one was erected, the back of which is 
seen through the two arches : o. section of the timber work of the roof: the 
latter is singularly wide and flat: p. profile elevation of one of the large 
buttresses, which receives the flying abutment from the S. E. angle, u : 
q. upper division of the east aile of the south transept, showing one of the 
small windows to the triforium : r. filled arch in the wall over the aile, 
above which, at s. are the clerestory windows of the transept : t. corbel 
table, which extends all round the transepts. The central acute gable, 
with crockets, panelling, octangular turrets, window, &c. display the florid 
style and workmanship of Fox's architecture. The narrow, tall openings, 
with horse-shoe arches, are the most eastern remnants of Walkelyn's works ; 
and the parts of windows and doors seen through them are those at the 
western end, which do not range in straight lines with the ailes of the 
presbytery. 

Plate xxiv. Half Elevation and Half Section of the Church, from north 
to south. As the latter plate was particularly curious and interesting from 
its variety, so this, from its simple and almost uniform character, cannot 



100 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

fail of gratifying the architectural antiquary. The left hand side displays 
the elevation of the west side of the transept ; half of the tower, and a 
section through the first window and arch of Wykeham's work, in the north 
aile of the nave ; also the form of the arch of that aile, with the clustered 
pier between it and the nave, the wall and clerestory window above, with 
the slope of the roofs of the nave and the aile. Beneath the arch of the 
nave is seen part of the screen to the choir, the altar screen beyond, and 
the eastern window. The right hand half, or section of the south tran- 
sept, &c. displays the interior of two floors of the tower, the timber Avork 
of the roof, and the whole interior elevation of the east side of the said 
transept: a. elevation of part of the outside of the tower: b. elevation of 
two floors of ditto : c. section of the south wall and its window, with the 
arched gallery, or passage : d. timber work of the roof: [since this plate 
has been engraved, the draftsman informs me, that the rafters here repre- 
sented, belong to the north transept, and that the timber work of this is a 
little varied :] e. small bell turret : f. section of the gable : g. of one of the 
windows, with a passage, or gallery beneath : h. triforium, over the aile: 
[the draftsman has here again made some mistakes ; the upper right hand 
arch represented flat, should be semi-circular ; and its impost moulding 
lowered : the upper string moulding does not continue through the tall 
attached columns:] i. screen before the venerable chapel: k. ditto to Silk- 
stede's : 1. chapel called by Dr. Milner the calefactory, a place " necessary for 
preserving tire for the thuribles and censers, that were used in the ancient 
service, as likewise for the monks to warm themselves in cold weather;" 
over this aile is a vaulted roof, which the same author says communicated 
between the dormitories and choir, through which the monks were to pass 
to perform their midnight service: m. section of window over the aile, and 
n. ditto from the aile, which plainly shows that it was originally intended to 
cover the slype, or passage, o. with a sloping roof, now raised over p. which 
is the present library: q. steps from transept to the south aile: r. section 
of stalls : s. section of arch under the tower : t. screen to the choir : u. altar 
screen: w. section of a window of the clerestory of the nave: x. steps to 
the north aile : y. section of window of the aile and profile of the buttress : 












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EFFIGIES OF EDINGTON, WYKEHAM AND WAYNFLETE. 101 

z. door-way to the north transept: figure 1. Norman window, filled with 
mullion and tracery, and the sill lowered: 2. an original window: 3. ditto : 
4. a series of four windows to the upper story of the transept: these appear 
to have been inserted by Prior Silkstede, as his initials T. S. appear on one 
of the bosses to the cornice, 5. under the parapet: 6. flat buttresses at the 
angle. 

Plate xxv. Front views of the Monumental Effigies of Edington, Wyke- 
ham, and Waynflete. That of Bishop Edington, A. lays on an altar tomb, 
within a stone open screen. The statue is fine in proportion, and has been 
carefully finished. Its mitre, and episcopal costume, are ornamented with 
much taste and elegance. Its head rests on two pillows, which were supported 
by two angels, having censers. The figure appears to have been painted. 
Round the ledge of the tomb is a perfect inscription, with gilt letters on a blue 
enamelled ground. Here is no appearance of a crosier. — B. effigy of Bishop 
Wykeham on an altar tomb of white marble ; at the feet of the statue are 
three small figures of priests in the attitude of prayer. Dr. Milner states 
that these are three monks " of the cathedral, who, accordingly as they 
were appointed to this office every week, were each of them to say mass in 
this chapel, for the repose of the souls of Wykeham himself, and of his 
father, mother, and benefactors, particularly of Edward III. the Black 
Prince, and Richard II. in conformity with the covenant made for that 
purpose with the prior and community of the cathedral monastery," The 
effigy is represented in the " mitre, cope, tunic, dalmatic, alb, sandals," &c. 
and rings on the fingers. All of these are painted and gilt. His head rests on 
two pillows, which are supported by angels, and beneath his left arm is a 
representation of his celebrated crosier, which is preserved in the chapel of 
New College, Oxford, and of which Carter, in his " Ancient Sculpture," has 
o-iven an etching. Dr. Milner describes the face as placid and intelligent, and 
the hands as covered with gloves; but I sought in vain for either Round 
the ledge of the tomb is a perfect inscription. C. Effigy of Bishop Wayn- 
flete, resting on an altar tomb, in his " full pontificals of mitre, crosier, casula, 
stole, maniple, tunicle, rocket, alb, amice, sandals, and gloves :" the latter are 
adorned with rosets, but have no rings. Between his uplifted hands is the 



102 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

figure of a heart. The mitre is richly ornamented, aud rests on two pillows, 
but here are no supporters, nor is there any inscription, or brass to the 
tomb. The face of this effigy, as well as that of Wykeham, has been mu- 
tilated and repaired: the portrait, very beautifully engraved, for Chand- 
ler's Life of Waynflete, and said to be copied from this statue, is very 
unlike the original. 

Plate xxvi. Part of a Tomb and fragments of tivo Effigies. A. a muti- 
lated effigy of a bishop, commonly attributed, and with much probability, to 
Peter de Rupibus, who, according to Matthew Paris, " sepultus est autem 
in ecclesia sua Wintoniensi, ubi etiani dura viverit humilem elegit sepultu- 
rem." The style of the mitre, drapery, canopy over head, and ornaments 
clown the sides, are all indicative of the age of Rupibus, who died 1238. 
B. a broken effigy of a knight, in chain-armour, with surcoat, shield with 
quarterings, on his left arm, and the right arm directed towards his 
sword. The head rests on two small cushions, on each side of which is a 
broken figure of a small angel. At the feet is a large figure of a lion. It 
will be observed, that the space for the lost legs is very short ; but it is so 
in the statue, which has been finely executed, and is said to repre- 
sent William de Foix, of the princely family of that name, who resided on 
an estate called Vana, or Wineall, near Winchester. The side of the 
tomb, A. certainly belonged to the statue, as clearly intimated by the first 
shield and arms, as well as by the style of the arches, and their crockets 
and linials. The four other shields are charged with the arms of Leon, 
England, France, and Castile; to all of which royal families he thus 
appears to have been allied. 

Plate xxvii. Elevation of one Compartment of the Nave, internally and 
externally. These delineations represent the true forms and proportions of 
the arches, windows, panelling, columns, &c. and the critical antiquary, 
who wishes to attain accurate information about the styles and dates of our 
architecture, will find that it can only be accomplished by means of correct 
geometrical prints: A. elevation, externally: a. clerestory window, with a 
label, or weather moulding, terminated with corbel heads: b. pinnacle with 
panelling, an embattled moulding, crockets, and finial : c. string cornice, 



CATEDEBBAL ANTIQUI'ITES. 



pt.. y >' vi 





3 if fgpP - 




c si.-.-' 



H 






v» Hfe 



WHNSIHIIESTEi^ (DATMEMRAIL (CMPmcDHI. 

Ja& of a?i^bia'e?zt Tomb &: tivo EtfiXfies. 

Ztmden .Fuhtifkal JLzrch zifo?. tyltmipnm & C?£ttcrrwster Mmv. 



TATffiEM&AJL ANTIQTDinnnES. a 



P1L.XKTI. 




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TSTaye: One Compartment, exta-ruiILy k interrwH)/. 



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.'■-■-■- - - - 



jfaW h Sic Xolt 



EfevaXian viterior &• ejctaiar war tft£-d/iar 



NAVE AND PRESBYTERY. 103 

with bold roses, and figures. [There should be only three instead of five 
in this division between the buttresses.] e. window of the aile. — B. eleva- 
tion, internally : a. groining- of the roof, springing from a single shaft, which 
rises from the floor. Its base is octangular, and the capital is adorned with 
sculpture of busts, foliage, &c. : c. frieze, charged with large and very finely 
sculptured bosses of various subjects; among which are the couchant 
hart, or deer, a man on horseback, the cardinal's hat, busts, the lily, 
&c. all of which imply that the vaulting and sculpture were raised by 
different benefactors: d. an open parapet before the old triforium. In the 
wall beneath the window, is concealed the old Norman semi-circular arch 
of the triforium, which corresponds in style and height with the same 
divisions in the transepts : e. panelling under the aile window : f. base of one 
of the shafts. 

Plate xxviii. Elevation of one Compartment of the Presbytery, externally 
and internally. A. the exterior, surmounted by an open parapet, c: a. a. 
large buttresses, with- four breaks, crowned with panelled pinnacles, and 
ogee, crocketed canopies, or domes, b. The clerestory window, d. as well 
as that of the aile, e. has three mullions, with a transverse one, and some 
rich tracery. — B. elevation of one arch, &c. of the interior of the presbytery 
close to the communion rails : a. upper window, with a gallery, or passage 
beneath, guarded by a perforated parapet: b. bracket to support the groins 
of the vaulting, which is of timber: c. arch, with its numerous mouldings, 
rising on clustered columns of three quarter shafts. From the style of 
the arch, and its columns, I cannot hesitate in referring the erection of this 
part of the Church, to the end of Henry the Third's, or beginning of Ed- 
ward the First's reign : d. grotesque animals at the union of the mouldings: 
e. steps to the communion table ; also the altar tomb, said to belong to Bishop 
Pontissara, but if so it has been materially altered at the time of putting up 
the screens. On the top of these screens are six wooden chests, containing 
some memorials and relics of Saxon monarchs, princes, and other illus- 
trious personages, former patrons of the Cathedral. The names are, 
Kynegils, Ethehvulf Escnin, Kentwin, Elmstan^ Kenulf Egbert, Adulfus, 
Canute, and Emma his queen, Alwyn, Wina, Stigand, Rufus, Edmund, 
eldest son of Alfred, Edred, &c. It may be remarked, that although these 



104 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

names appear on the chests, and we have pretty good authority that the 
persons they allude to were buried in the Cathedral; yet from the various 
changes and revolutions that have occurred in this Church, we can scarcely 
suppose that any remains of them can be identified. 

Plate xxix. Arches, and Part of the Toiver. A. elevation of two 
arches, with the capitals and bases of pilaster columns to the same, placed 
in a wall under one of the arches of the south transept: B. two other semi- 
circular arches, ornamented with pilasters and mouldings, like the former, 
and like those inserted in a wall beneath one of the arches in the west aile 
of the south transept. Mr. Garbett (p. GO) conjectures that the former were 
erected by Bishop de Blois, to exhibit as specimens of the newly invented 
pointed arch; but with deference to that, intelligent architect, I must 
contend that the arches, aud their members, have been transplanted 
from some other place, and that in the removal they may have been greatly 
changed. The pilasters do not appear to belong to the capitals, or to the 
arches ; and certainly the fragment of a pilaster, above the arch-mouldings, 
B. cannot be regarded as useful, ornamental, or analogous. Besides, if I 
recollect rightly, there is a finely sculptured bracket of a chained deer, or 
white hart, the cognizance of John of Gaunt, father of Cardinal Beaufort, 
inserted in another wall, inclosing the same part of the aile. We may as 
well attribute this figure to the middle of the twelfth century, as make any 
inference from the shape of these arches, or their appendages. The arch 
mouldings are probably of the ageofde Blois : but, circumstanced as these 
fragments are, it would be useless aud absurd to deduce from them any 
criterion as to age and style. Carter, in his " Ancient Architecture," Plate 
xxxviii. has given an etching of one of the poiuted arches, but so unlike 
the form, that it appears to be drawn from memory, rather than from the 
object, or from measurements. He represents each side of the arched line, 
as a true quarter of a circle, aud the arch as forming nearly an equilateral 
triangle with a line from the capitals. C. elevation of one side of the upper 
story of the tower, with sections of two of its walls: D. plans of ditto, 1. of 
the gallery story ; and -1. of the story beneath. 

Plate xxx. Two Views of the Font, which has been called " the 
Crux Antiquariorum, or the puzzle of antiquaries." Its age, aud the mean- 



CATHEMAL AfTTIpriTIEC. 



Pi. v :zz 




■A lyJZeZiux.ater a ta>» iyXito.SOm.ftrAnams Miary frof 

wuwcimiESTEiE (CATEEEiaisAiL sraj: 



JBtiUn/ ty J&jrtrjrd 



FONT. 105 

ing of its rude un-artist-like sculpture, have afforded themes for literary 
specidation, and will probably long continue enveloped in doubt and obscu- 
rity. On such a subject conjecture is likely to play truant: but in the ab- 
sence of satisfactory history, conjecture must be sometimes allowed, as it 
leads to investigation, if not immediately to demonstration. The Font is a 
large square block of black marble, having its four sides charged with sculp- 
ture, the angles at the top also ornamented with doves, and cups, and zigzag, 
and supported by four small columns at the corners, and one larger one in 
the centre 14 . On two sides are groups of figures, in low, flat relief, with a rude 
representation in one compartment of a side of a church, and a view of a 
ship, or boat, in another. Although, as subjects of art, these tablets are 
beneath criticism, yet as delineations of costume, manners, and implements, 
they are entitled to special notice and attention. Mr. Gough contends 
that the sculptures relate to the story of Birinus, and his introduction of 
Christianity into this province, the death of Kinegils, &c. ; but Dr. Milner 
contends, that they allude to, and are illustrative of, some incidents in the 
life of" St. Nicholas, Bishop [Archbishop] of Myra, in Lycia, who flourished 
in the fourth century, and was celebrated as the patron saint of children." 
As allusive to the figures on one side of the font, it is related that the first act 
of the saint, who was rich, (a rather un-saintlike circumstance,) was to con- 
vey, secretly, sums of gold into the chamber of an impoverished nobleman, 
who from distress had been tempted to traffic with the chastity of his three 
daughters, but who, thus enriched, was enabled to apportion each and procure 
husbands for all. The legend, however, tells us, that " the unostentatious 
saint" did not perform all his benevolence at once, or in secret, but at three 
different times, and in the silence of three different nights. On the third 
occasion, the once poor, but now rich nobleman, watched for and discovered 
" his unknown benefactor,'' when falling at his feet — for it seems that he 

■■» Fonts partly resembling that at Winchester, in size, shape, and material, are still remaining 
at East-Meon, and at Southampton in Hampshire ; and in Lincoln Cathedral. The first is represented 
and described in the tenth volume of the Archaeologia, and the second in Sir Henry Englefield's 
interesting and erudite little volume, called " a Walk through Southampton." 

See also Vetusta Monumenta, vol. ii. and Archseologia, vol. x. p. L84. 

O 



106 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

stole secretly into the chamber — he " called him the saviour of his own and 
of his daughters souls." This account is not very closely adhered to by 
the sculptor, for the scene appears to be on the outside of a church, which 
Dr. Miluer identifies as the Cathedral of Myra, and in addition to the saint, 
the father, and three daughters, here is the figure o» a man, with a hawk on 
his hand. Let us see if the second side is better elucidated by the legend. 
It seems to represent three groups of figures and three incidents : 1st. Four 
standing figures, and the heads of three others prostrate, one of which is 
dressed as a bishop, whilst another has an uplifted axe, apparently raised 
to strike at the three heads : 2d, a group, of the said bishop and three other 
figures, with a fourth laid on his back ; the latter has a cup in his hand, 
as has also one in the former group : the 3d subject displays a boat, or 
ship, with a rudder, mast, and three figures in it. This, Dr. Milner, says 
represents the saint, on board a vessel bound to Alexandria, and overtaken 
by a storm, as evinced by the masts being without sails, but which was 
appeased by the supernatural powers of the saint. In this voyage one of 
the mariners fell from the mast and was killed, but was soon restored to 
life by the miraculous intervention of the Archbishop. These prodigious 
works naturally excited much curiosity; and consequently, on landing, the 
prelate was visited by great crowds of persons, afflicted with diseases and 
misery. The next group therefore shows him in the act of healing the 
sick; i. e. of raising two persons, from prostrate attitudes, and astonishing 
the third person who appears with uplifted hands. The figure laying on his 
back, according to Dr. Miluer, belongs to a distinct incident and story, but 
anomalously brought here by the artist. According to the legendary history 
of the saint (as written by Jacobus de Voragine,) he appeared, after death, 
at the bottom of the sea, to a uoblcman's son, who was drowned for the sins 
of his father, and who the Saint conveyed " not only safe to shore, but also 
to the city of Myra." In the next compartment the child is led by the Arch- 
bishop, who is also engaged in the performance of another celebrated act; i. e. 
rescuing three young men from the impending axe of the public executioner. 
These three persons had been condemned by the Prefect of the city ; but as 
St. Nicholas conceived that the sentence was unjust and cruel, he " fled" 



FONT. 107 

from Phrygia to Myra, and arrived just at the very critical instant to check 
the murdering instrument. That such improbable, unnatural, and even im- 
possible stories should have been formerly invented for certain purposes, 
credited by certain persons, and rendered the themes of literary narrative and 
disquisition, is mosttrue; that they should be believed by anyperson who can 
read and think, in the present age, excites astonishment. For myself, I must 
candidly acknowledge, that I cannot peruse them without feeling the mingled 
emotions of pity, regret, and surprise ; and cannot write about them without 
thinking I am trifling with the time and patience of the reader. As forming 
the subjects of ancient paintings and sculpture, it seems requisite to notice 
them ; and in doing this, I take some pains to be brief. I hope therefore to 
be pardoned for occupying so much space with the above subject. 

Respecting the age of this Font, and its station in a Cathedral Church, I 
am inclined to think it was the workmanship of Walkelyn's time; when also 
the font at East-Meon was executed. The style of dress, mitre and crozier, 
indicates that age. As Cathedrals were not usually furnished with fonts, or 
their prelates and officers accustomed to perform the sacrament of baptism, 
Mr. Denne, (in Archasologia, vol. xi.) thinks that as Winchester and Lincoln 
Cathedrals were provided with fonts they had parochial altars, or chapels. 

Some few other objects remain to be noticed. In the south aile of the 
nave are mural monuments to Dean Cheney, and to Bishop Willis, the latter 
of which has a marble effigy of the prelate, reclining on a sarcophagus 15 . In 
the same aile is a tablet to the memory of Dr. Thomas Balguy, formerly 
an archdeacon of this Cathedral, and distinguished as much for his talents 
as for his moderation and humility. At one time he was offered the bishopric 
of Gloucester, but refused the temptation, on account of advanced age and 
infirmities. His literary works are wholly in the shape of sermons and 
charges, which were collectively published in 1785. At the advanced age 

,s This monument, by R. Clieere, has been praised as a work of art, but the judicious artist and 
critic will seek in vain for beauty in the execution, or the display of taste in the sculptor. The 
head is good, but all the rest of the statue is bad. Dr. Milner tells us that the sculptor was silly 
enough to fret himself to death for having placed the face of the statue towards the west, instead of 
the east ; but this foolish story requires better proof than the gossip of a Cathedral ciceroni. 



108 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

of 74, this very worthy man died, January 12, 1 795. [See Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes, vol. iii. p. 220.] In the nave, near the eighth pillar from the 
west end, is a grave stone covering the remains of Bishop Home, who, 
according to Dr. Milner, was " the destroyer of the antiquities of his 
Cathedral, and the dilapidator of the property of his bishopric 16 ." Near 
his place of sepulture is that of William Kingsmill, the first dean of this 
church, who died in 1548. On the north side of the nave reposes Bishop 
Watson, M. D. who died January 1583-4. Bishops Walkeyln and Giffard 
are said to have been interred in the nave, but there is no memorial to either. 
At the west end of the south aile is a small marble slab, to the memory of 
James Huntingford, who died September 30, 1772, aged 48. Bishop 
Trimnel, who died in 1723, is praised in a prolix inscription, as is also his 
brother, Dean Trimnel, who died in 1729. Attached to the piers near 
Wykeham's chantry are marble tablets to commemorate two prebendaries 
of this church, and masters of the college, Dr. William Harris, who died 
in 1700, and Christopher Eyre, LL.D. who was interred here in 1743. 
Near Bishop Willis's monument is a tablet to record the name and inter- 
ment of Dean Naylor, who died 1730. Another mural monument com- 
memorates Dr. Edmund Pyle, prebendary of this Cathedral, who died in 
1770. A funeral tablet records some particulars of the family, descent, 
public and prhate virtues of the late Earl of Banbury, who died 1793, 
and of his Countess, who died 1798. Close to Edington's chantry is a 
flat stone, covering the grave of Bishop Thomas, with an inscription 
detailing his successive preferments; and stating, that he was tutor to the 
present afflicted and estimable monarch of these realms. 

In the north aile of the nave are interred the mortal remains of a lady, 
whose ample benevolence and literary talents must awaken the warmest 
emotions of admiration and esteem in the philanthropist and lover of 
letters. This was Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, author of an interesting, 
eloquent, and discriminating " Essay on the Writings and Genius of 
Shakspeare," which attained a sixth edition in 1810; and which displays 
the palpable folly and envy of Voltaire's criticisms on our national bard. 

16 History, &c. of Winchester, i. 370. 



VARIOUS TOMBS. 109 

During her life she manifested particular solicitude and generosity towards 
the poor and unfortunate chimney sweeping boys ; and was the founder of 
a literary society, called " the Blue Stocking Club." Since her decease, 
which occurred in August 1800, aged HO, four volumes of her letters 
have been published by her nephew, Matthew Montagu, Esq. which for 
vivacity, playfulness, ingenious criticism, and versatility of subjects and 
treatment, are not surpassed by any epistolary writing in the English lan- 
guage. Near Mrs. Montagu repose the relics of Dr. Joseph Warton, 
whose monument, near the entrance to the choir, has been already noticed. 
This monument was erected by Flaxman, and its expences defrayed by a 
subscription among the pupils of Winchester College School, to which Dr. 
Warton had been many years head master. He died Feb. 23, 1800, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. " Biographical Memoirs of Dr. Warton," 
have been published by the Rev. J. Wooll. 

On a flat stone in the north aile is an inscription to Sir Nathaniel 
Holland, Bart, who died, October 15, 1811, aged 76. Among the inter- 
ments in this pile, is one of a lady whose virtues, talents, and accomplish- 
ments entitle her not only to distinguished notice, but to the admiration of 
every person who has a heart to feel and a mind to appreciate female worth 
and merit. The lady alluded to, Miss Jane Austen, who was buried here, 
July 1817, was author of four novels of considerable interest and value. 
In the last, a posthumous publication, entitled " Northanger Abbey," is a 
sketch of a memoir of the amiable author. 

In the south transept are several monuments. One is inscribed with the 
name of Colonel Davies, who met his death at the famous siege of Namur, 
under King William. Another records the decease of Mr. Isaac Walton, 
the 15th of December, 1683. Few literary works have attracted more pub- 
licity than the " Complete Angler," by honest and happy Isaac. His lives 
of Wotton, Donne, Herbert, &c. are also replete with anecdote and amuse- 
ment. A full memoir of his life is given in a new edition of " Walton's 
Lives," by Dr. Zouch, 1807. 

At the east end of the south aile is a monument, with a statue, standing, 
for Sir John Clobery, knight, who died in 1687, and who is praised in a long 



T10 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Latin epitaph, for having heen instrumental, with his friend General Monk, 
in restoring Charles the Second to the throne, and peace to his country 17 . 
Near this tomb are several flag stones with inscriptions : one records the 
name of " the Right Honourable James Touchet, Baron Audley and Earl 
of Castlehaien," who died August 12, 1700; another for the Countess of 
Exeter, who was interred here in 1663 : a third for Lord Henry Paulet, 
deceased 1672 : a fourth to Elizabeth Shirley, daughter of Earl Ferrers, who 
died in 1 740 : a fifth commemorates the Countess of Essex, who died August 
20, 1659, who had married for a second husband Sir Thomas Higgons, 
knight, who pronounced a funeral oration over her grave, in the ancient 
manner. He died in 1692, and lies near his countess. Another stone covers 
the grave of Baptist Eevinz, a prebendary of this church, and Bishop of the 
Isle of Man, who died in 1692, and is praised in a long Latiu epitaph, for 
abstemiousness, frequent fasting, and " other episcopal virtues." In the 
north transept are some inscribed slabs ; and beneath the organ loft, under 
the north arch of the tower, is a small inclosed Chapel, or chantry, the walls 
of which are covered with ancient paintings. 

1 This monument was erected in 1691, and cost £130. It was executed by Sir Win. Wilson, 
Knt. the same artist who executed a statue of King Charles II. in the west front of Lichfield 
Cathedral. The funeral expenses were ,£125. 5s. 10</.; thus — chanter for office of burial and for the 
choir, £i>. 9s. Ad. ; several dues to the church, £8 ; hanging house and coach with mourning, and 
the servants to attend, £32. 8s.; torches, bell ringers, &c. £3. 8s.; for rings, £23. 17*. Get.; for 
gloves, £10 15*.; a coffin, £3. 10s ; escutcheons, £12; a gravestone, £20. [Communicated by 
Wm. Hamper, Esq. of Birmingham, from a paper written by Lady Ilolte, of Aston-juxta-Birraing- 
Iwm, the daughter of Sir John Clobery.] 



©Dap, w&+ 

BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF THE BISHOPS OF WINCHESTER. 

T HE Anglo-Saxon Bishops of Winchester have already been noticed, and 
some particulars of a few of the earliest of the Norman prelates of that 
See, have also been mentioned. I now proceed, in conformity with the 
plan adopted in my History of Norwich Cathedral, to state some anec- 
dotes and characteristic traits of such others of the Bishops of Winchester 
as have been distinguished by any literary or public works. Of Walkelyn, 
the first Norman Prelate, some particulars have already been stated. It 
was the policy, and not without good reason, of the Conqueror to substitute 
his countrymen and dependents of Normandy, in the room of prelates and 
other leading churchmen of the old English stock. Walkelyn was his 
relation and his chaplain; and although inferior in learning to the new 
archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc, (an Italian, but an abbot in Normandy,) 
he was not without his merits. In 1079, Walkelyn undertook the great 
work of rebuilding his Cathedral and the adjoining monastery, in a style of 
architecture till then unparalleled in England ; and in 1093, in the reign of 
William Rufus, the Church was solemnly dedicated. On Walkelyn's 
death, in 1098, Rufus seized on the bishopric of Winchester, in addition to 
the other sees he had invaded, and kept possession of it until his untimely 
end in the New Forest in 1100. 

The first act of King Henry the First was to appoint his chancellor, 
William Giffard, to the See; but an interval of seven years elapsed 
before he was consecrated. The cause of this delay was the celebrated 
controversy which long agitated the church and the state, concerning the 
conveyance of ecclesiastical investitures from lay persons, by the pastoral 
staff and the ring; a practice which had been recently condemned by the 
head of the church. At last, after some years, the contest between the 
Pope and the King was terminated by a compromise, in which each party 



1 12 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

retained possession of his respective rights. Bishop Giffard founded the 
Cistercian Convent of Waverley, near Farnham, and erected a palace in 
Southwark, afterwards called the Bishop of Winchester's, and also con- 
tributed largely to the establishment of the adjoining monastery of regular 
canons of St. Mary Overy. 

On the death of Bishop Giffard, in 1128-9, the king found means to pre- 
fer to the See Henry de Blois, the son of his sister, Adela, by the Earl of 
Blois, and who at that time was abbot of Glastonbury. Deeply involved by 
family connection, as well as by personal character, in the unhappy con- 
tentions for the English crown, which ensued on the death of Henry the 
First; the life of Bishop de Blois is much more noticeable in a temporal 
and political than in an ecclesiastical point of view. At last his long and 
restless occupation of the See of Winchester was terminated by his death 
in 1171. The strong fortresses, or castles, erected by him in this city, and at 
Farnham, Merden, Waltham, &c. were at once evidences of his wealth and 
authority, and of the unhappy spirit and state of the times in which he 
lived. Those strong holds have long ceased to be of importance; but one 
monument of this prelate's munificence still exists, more congenial with his 
spiritual functions, and with the destination of tlie ample funds entrusted to 
his care. To Henry de Blois is this vicinity indebted for one of its prin- 
cipal ornaments, the Hospital of St. Cross, founded by him in 1136; an 
institution, which, in internal ndministration, as in structure and appear- 
ance, including the additions and improvements introduced by the Cardinal- 
bishop Beaufort, has undergone less alteration from its original establish- 
ment than any other of a similar nature in the kingdom 1 . 

According to Rudborne this prelate left certain writings, one concerning 
the monument of the renowned British prince, Arthur, discovered at Glas- 
tonbury, while Henry was at the head of that abbey : the other related to 

1 The church of St. Cross, has been frequently referred to as containing some curious examples 
of ecclesiastical architecture. It is indeed in the whole, and in detail, replete with interest ; but 
its peculiarities have been either misunderstood or misrepresented. In my Chronological Illustra- 
tion of Ancient Architecture, it is my intention to represent the peculiarities of this building, as 
well as those of the Church of Romsey, in this vicinity. 



BISHOPS TOCLIVE AND DE LUCY. 1 13 

the state of his Cathedral Church, and appears to have been extant in the 
time of the ecclesiastical historian Harpsfield, towards the close of the six- 
teenth century. 

The vacancy occasioned by the death of Bishop de Blois was not 
supplied until the end of 1174, by the installation of Richard Toclive 
alias More. In opposition to his repeated engagements, but in conformity 
with his general practice, the King, Henry the Second, kept the See so 
long void, in order probably to profit by its revenues ; and it was only by 
the interference of some Cardinals that he granted licence for the election of 
a bishop to Winchester, and to many other churches which had remained 
void for some years. 

Bishop Toclive was succeeded in 1 189 by Godfrey de Lucy, who not 
only re-annexed, by purchase from Richard the First, sundry manors 
formerly belonging to the see, but also restored the navigation of the river 
Itchen, between Winchester and the Southampton river, and adopted 
other measures for the general benefit of the city. In the year 1202, this 
prelate formed a confraternity, or society of masons, and contracted with 
them for five years, during which time they were to complete certain 
additions and repairs to the Church. The work then carried on must 
have been the east end, in which the Bishop was interred in the year 1204, 
only two years after he had begun his new style of architecture 2 . 

During the episcopacy of de Lucy occurred the singular re-instalment of 
Richard the First. Cosur-de-lion, in his regal office. Returning home, 
less elated with the victories he had achieved in the Holy Land, than de- 
pressed by the lawless captivity he had endured under the Duke of Austria, 
he hardly conceived himself to be a sovereign unless he were again publicly 

2 " Anno 1202. D. Wintoniensis Godfidus de Lucy constituit confratriam pro reparatione 
ecclesiae Wintoniensis, duraturam ad quinqua annos completos." Annates Wiut. Was not this 
confraternity a club of free-masons? 

It must surprise the architectural antiquary to be told, that T. Warton, the historian of English 
poetry, and the commentator on English Architecture, in his notes to Spenser's " Fairy Queen," 
refers this very architecture by de Lucy to the time of " the Saxon kings," before the Norman 
Conquest. See his " Description, &c. of Winchester," p. 63. 



I [4 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

crowned and recognised. The ceremony was performed with great splen- 
dour in the Cathedral of Winchester, in the presence of the prelates and 
nobles of the kingdom. But bishop de Lucy was absent ; for Richard had, 
on his arrival, resumed the manors he had sold and the castle, on the plea 
that the royal demesnes were in-alienable. We are not, however, informed 
that the purchase-money was refunded to the bishop. 

Towards the end of 1204, Sir Peter de Rupibus, or de Rochys, wag 
appointed bishop. He had been knighted for his military services under 
Richard, and hence was generally thought, from his education and habits, 
better qualified to command an army than to preside over a diocess. His 
military and political talents were peculiarly serviceable to the Christian 
warriors under the Emperor Frederic in the Holy Land, whither our 
bishop repaired in 1226'. By him King John was animated to withstand 
the Pope's excommunication, and he was afterwards created chief justice 
of the kingdom. On the death of John, from whose vices and mismanage- 
ment the nation derived greater and more lasting advantages than from the 
virtues and good conduct of many other princes, and on the accession of 
his son, Henry the Third, or Henry of Winchester, a child of nine years of 
age, the administration of public affairs became almost entirely vested in de 
Rupibus. He succeeded the Earl of Pembroke in the protectorate of the 
kingdom ; and even after the young king came of age, his chief reliance for 
counsel was on the bishop. By Matthew of Westminster, however, we 
are told that, in 1234, Henry requiring an account of the royal treasures, 
the Bishop of Winchester and the treasurer Peter de Rivallis, took refuge 
at the altar, and concealed themselves for some time in the Cathedral. 
All this notwithstanding, says Matthew of Paris, by his death in 1238, 
the whole counsel of England, regal and ecclesiastical, sustained an 
irreparable loss. This bishop's munificence was not confined to the 
religious establishments of England: the church of St. Thomas and the 
fortifications of Joppa, now Jaffa, in Palestine, were greatly improved at 
his expense. 

The death of de Rupibus occasioned a violent contest between the king 
and the monks of the Cathedral. Henry was bent on the election of his 



BISHOPS DE RALEY AND ETHELMAR. 115 

queen's ancle, William, chosen bishop of Valence, in France. The monks, 
on the other hand, having received an unfavourable report of William, 
persisted in refusing him, and chose William deRaley, or Radley, then 
bishop of Norwich. " When the king heard of their intent," says Godwin, 
" he was exceeding angry, and made great havock of the bishop's tempo- 
ralities ; swearing he would have his will at last, or they should never have a 
bishop." Thinking therefore to satisfy the king, the monks next elected his 
chancellor, Ralph Nevil, bishop of Chichester: but this election only the 
more incensed Henry against them. This indecent contention lasted 
for five years, although William of Valence, who had occasioned it, had 
died within a year after it began. William de Raley withdrew to France, 
where it became a saying, as Matthew of Westminster reports, that 
" Henry of England was a coward towards his enemies, and only brave 
against his bishops." Being at last reconciled with Henry, the bishop 
returned to England, and in 1246 performed in his presence the dedi- 
cation of the royal abbey of Beau-lieu (de hello loco) in the neighbouring 
forest. 

The See, vacated by the death of Raley in 1250, was filled by the election 
of Ethelmar, or Audomar, the king's half-brother by the marriage of the 
queen-dowager with Hugh, Earl of March. Ethelmar had neither morals 
uor learning, nor the requisite age, nor previous orders in the church, to 
recommend him for the episcopate ; but the monks had suffered too severe- 
ly in the preceding contest, and were besides convinced that they should 
not be supported by the Pope against the King ; they therefore acquiesced 
in Henry's proposal. The presages of Ethelmar's administration were not 
erroneous, for he conducted himself with so much injustice and tyranny, 
that he, with his brothers, whose oppressions were felt in other parts of the 
kingdom, was driven into banishment. His consecration was deferred for 
several years ; and the monks proceeded, by a new election, to nominate 
the King's Chancellor, Henry de Wengham, who declined the charge. At 
last Ethelmar died at Paris in 1260, on his way to England, having, as 
some say, succeeded in obtaining consecration at Rome. 



]16 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

The vacant See now became a subject of contention, not between the 
monks and the King, but among the monks themselves. The Pope, how- 
ever, set aside the contending candidates, and, by way of provision, as it 
was called, consecrated John of Exon, or Oxon, or Gemsey, or Gerways, 
(for so variously is the name written), who had been Chancellor of York. 
Taking part with the barons against the king, and being suspended by the 
legate, he repaired to Rome, where he died in 1268 ; enjoying but a short 
time the episcopacy, for which he is said to have paid into the court of 
Rome the vast sum of twelve thousand marks, equal, in effective value, to 
one hundred thousand pounds of our present money. 

John dying in curia, or at the court of Rome, the appointment of a 
successor fell, by the ancient canon law, to the Pope, who translated hither 
from Worcester Nicholas of Ely, who rebuilt and in 1268, dedicated the 
church of the original Cistercian abbey of Waverley, near Farnham, 
previously founded by Bishop Giffard. 

" About this time," says Godwin, " the Pope began to take upon him 
the bestowing of bishoprics for the most part every where. John de Pon- 
tissara, or of Pouutoise, in France, was placed by him, upon his absolute 
authority. He was a great enemy of the monks of his church, whose living 
he much diminished to increase his own." The most important act of this 
prelate was the establishment of the college of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, in 
Winchester, and which was completed in 1.301. "The statutes of this 
college," says Dr. Milner, " prove his zeal for the advancement of piety, 
morality, learning, and clerical discipline; but they are such as would be 
thought grievous and impracticable in the present day." [Hist. Win. vol, i. 
274, from Monast. Aug.] 

On the death of John, in 1304, the See was filled by Henry Woodloke, 
alias de Merewell, in whose time, in 1307, -took place the suppression of 
the celebrated order of the Knights Templars, who had property, and most 
probably a preceptory, (as their houses were termed,) in Winchester. 

The succeeding prelates were John de Sandale, Reginald de Asser, 
John de Stratford, and Adam de Orleton, the latter of whom was 



BISHOPS ORLETON AND EDINGTON. 117 

translated from Worcester at the end of 1333. He had been one of the 
most zealous agents of the barons in the first war against Edward the 
Second. His trial on this account was the first instance in England of a 
bishop being brought before the ordinary secular tribunal of the country, 
and this notwithstanding the opposition of the other prelates. The 
common charge of his being concerned in plotting the death of the un- 
happy Edward, seems, however,' rather doubtful; particularly as Edward 
the Third, in his complaint to Rome against Orleton, takes no notice of the 
charge. Whilst he presided at Winchester the monarch removed the 
woolstaplers from this city to Calais ; an event that proved very injurious 
to our city. Milner calls him " an artful and unprincipled churchman." 

William of Edington, appointed to this See in 1345, was the first pre- 
late of the order of the garter, which was instituted five years afterwards. In 
his capacity of treasurer to the king, he is accused of lowering the intrinsic 
value of the coin : but the principles on which such an operation of finance 
must be founded seem to have been very imperfectly understood on both 
sides of the question. His declining the nomination to the metropolitan 
throne of Canterbury, is variously explained ; although he be reported to 
have observed, that " Canterbury was the higher rack, but that Winchester 
was the richer manger." Be this as it may, it appears from Walsingham, 
copied, though not quoted, by Godwin, that Bishop Edington's executors 
were sued by his successor, Wykeham, for dilapidations to a great amount. 
The demands made were for sixteen hundred and sixty-two pounds ten 
shillings in money, fifteen hundred and fifty head of neat, three thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six wethers, four thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-seven ewes, three thousand five hundred and twenty-one lambs, 
and one hundred and twenty-seven swine 3 ; all which stock, &c. it, seems 
belonged, at that time, to the bishopric of Winchester. 



3 Dr. Lowth, who examined the original register, places this number of beasts at the head of 
the list, and calls them draught-horses instead of swine. The bishop's stock contained doubtless a 
number of both. 



118 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

Besides liis liberalities to other religious establishments, it appears in- 
contestable from his Will, executed in 1366, the year of his death, that 
Bishop Edington actually began the great work of rebuilding the nave of 
his cathedral, and that he allotted a considerable sum of money to carry it 
on after his death, which happened in October 4 . 

Of the illustrious successor of Edington, William of Wykeham, some 
notice has already been taken, in reviewing his great works in the Cathedral. 
It would certainly constitute an interesting theme for biographical disqui- 
sition to enter pretty fully into the memoirs of this eminent prelate, 
architect, and founder: but this pleasure I must deny myself at present, 
and refer to the ample life of him already written by Dr. Lowth. Intimately 
connected as he was with this Cathedral and city, endeared as his memory 
must be to thousands of persons now living, who have profited by his 
liberal and laudable foundations ; he becomes an important and imposing 
subject. His name is encircled with a halo of merits and virtues ; and 
nothing but praise has been poured forth to embalm hi3 memory. It 
should, however, be remembered, that panegyric is not history, and that a 
perfect human being is a lusus naturte. The man who, like Wykeham, 
amasses an ample fortune, from high political offices, is suspected to want 
both honesty and integrity : it is generally supposed that he aggrandizes him- 
self at the expense of the country, and that he is influenced more by a lust 
of power than by the amor putrice. But if, like Wykeham, he bequeaths the 
whole of his wealth to promote public good and to benefit mankind, he will 
secure the applanse of posterity. Wykeham lived at an important era; 
was fortunately advanced from poverty to affluence, and from his connec- 
tion with, and power over the English monarch, was enabled to produce 
very great effects on the country. His origin was obscure, and his only 
school education appears to have been derived from the charitable patron- 

4 " In this year, 130ti, on llie 1 Itli day of September, having made his will, Bishop Edingdon 
directed that out of his estate and goods, money should he expended for completing the nave of the 
cathedral church of Winchester, which he had begun." Cont. Hist. Wint. ex rcgistro Langham, 
cited by Milner. 



BISHOP WYKEHAM. 119 

age of Uvedale, lord of the manor of Wickham, or Wykeham, a village in 
Hampshire, the birth-place of our prelate. This gentleman was governor 
of the castle of Winchester, and placed William at a school in that city ; 
from which he was advanced to be his secretary. At this time Edington 
was bishop, who introduced Wykeham to Edward III. This splendid 
monarch soon appreciated and employed the talents of Wykeham. He was 
first made one of the king's chaplains ; and in 1356 was appointed clerk of 
the king's works in his manors of Hendle and Yestampsted. In the year 
1359, he was also nominated surveyor of the works at Windsor, where he 
appears to have continued engaged till 1373. By his letters patent he was 
allowed one shilling per day, and two shillings when travelling on business, 
with an allowance of three shillings a week for a clerk. Soon afterwards 
he was paid an additional shilling a day. The latter end of the year 1359 
the architect's powers were further enlarged, and he was appointed keeper 
of the manors of Old and New Windsor. " The next year 360 workmen 
were impressed to be employed on the buildings at the king's wages, some 
of whom having clandestinely left Windsor, and engaged in other employ- 
ments for greater wages, writs were issued to prohibit all persons from 
employing them, on pain of forfeiting all their goods and chattels; and to 
commit such of the workmen as should be apprehended to Newgate." In 
1362, writs were issued to the sheriffs of different counties to impress 302 
masons and diggers of stone, for the same works, and in 1363, many 
glaziers were impressed, and the works at Windsor were carried on till 
1373 5 . Wykeham was also engaged in building another royal residence 
for his monarch and master at Queenborough, in Kent. He was not, 
however, merely an architect, but was a man of the world and a man of 
business, and as such was frequently employed by Edward III. 

To take holy orders seems always to have been his design ; for in all the 
patents, and even as early as in 1352, he is styled clericus (clerk), although 
he had only received the tonsure, and was not ordained a priest until June 

s Lysons's Berkshire, p. 419. 



120 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

1362, nor even admitted to the low order of alcolythis until the December 
preceding. His first ecclesiastical preferment was to the rectory of Pulham 
in Norfolk, to which he received the royal presentation in the end of J 357. 
Ecclesiastical benefices now flowed in upon him in such profusion, that, as 
Dr. Milner observes, " we should condemn any other clergyman, except 
Wykeham, for accepting them ; and we are only induced to excuse him, in 
consequence of the proofs we have still remaining, that he only received the 
revenues of the church with one hand to expend them in her service with 
the other." The yearly value of his benefices amounted to no less a sum 
than £873. 6s. 8d. money of those days, equal to about £13,100. of present 
money. So numerous were the offices he held in the church, that it required 
no small ingenuity to combine them in such a manner that the possession of 
one should not be incompatible with that of one or all of the others. The 
advancement of Wykeham in the State kept pace with his preferment in 
the church. In 1363 he was warden and justiciary of the king's forests 
south of Trent; in 1364. keeper of the privy seal, and two years afterwards 
the king's secretary. He is next styled chief of the privy council, and 
governor' of the great council. Froissart, his contemporary, says, " there 
was at that time a priest in England of the name of William of Wykeham : 
this William was so high in the king's grace, that nothing was done in 
any respect whatever without his advice. The king, who loved Wykeham 
very much, did whatever he desired ; and Sir William Wykeham was 
made Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor of England 7 ." 

While Edward retained the full possession of his faculties, Wykeham 
continued to enjoy his confidence, but in the close of his reign the jea- 
lousy and intrigues of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Edward's only 
surviving son, suspected to entertain some views of ascending the throne in 
the place of his young nephew, afterwards Richard the Second, succeeded 

6 The prefix of Sir to the christian name of a clergyman was usual at this time, and implied that 
he was not graduated in the University; being in orders, but not in degrees ; whilst others, entitled 
masters, bad commenced in the arts. 

' Chronicles of England, &c. vol. viii. p. 385, octavo, 1806. 



BISHOP WYKEHAM. 121 

in undermining the credit of our eminent prelate. By specious pretences he 
was removed from his office, his episcopal revenues were sequestrated, and 
he himself forhidden to approach the court, or the capital. Previously, 
however, to the death of Edward, in June 1377, the bishop had in some 
measure the satisfaction to be restored to the King's wonted favours ; and 
early after the accession of Richard the Second, all difficulties respecting his 
affairs were completely removed. Disengaged, as far as his station would 
permit from his usual attendance On public business, Wykeham prepared 
the plans for his two celebrated Colleges, at Winchester and at Oxford. In 
1373 he had opened a school at Winchester; and the society intended for 
Oxford was formed several years before the collegiate buildings were com- 
menced. But these were not the only measures by which his government 
was distinguished ; for among many others, he sedulously exerted himself to 
restore the hospital of St. Cross to its original charitable purpose. 

To appreciate the character of Wykeham, we must divest ourselves 
of many notions (prejudices indeed they may justly be termed), resulting 
from the state of things in our days, compared with that exhibited 
in England four centuries ago. Many acts and measures then considered 
to be beneficial, judicious, and meritorious, may now be regarded in a very 
different light. Of the value of the religious, scientific, and eleemosinary 
institutions of former times, we cannot properly form an adequate estimate : 
we may, therefore, imagine that much of Wykeham's munificence might 
perhaps have been better employed. It must not, however, be forgotten, 
that monastic institutions, (besides contributing their proportion to the 
exigencies of the state,) supported the whole body of the poor; exercising 
hospitality to all, furnishing schools for the gratuitous education of youth, 
and hospitals for the reception of the sick and infirm. To the industry of the 
monks, prior to the discovery of printing, we are indebted for multiplied copies 
of the scriptures, and of the ancient classic and ecclesiastic writings ; and also 
for the histories and records of past times in general. It has been unfortunate 
for Wykeham that he was, more on account of his place and influence than 
from his personal character, peculiarly obnoxious to a person so powerful 
as John of Gaunt ; but Edward held him in singular favour : for, as Godwin 
observes, " in the greatness of his authority the king found two notable 

Q 



12*2 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

commodities, one, that without his care all things were ordered so well as 
by a wise and trusty servant they might ; the other, that if any thing fell 
out amiss, wheresoever the fault were, he had opportunity to cast all the 
blame upon the Bishop of Winchester." His Will, made fifteen months 
before his death, extends to all orders and degrees of men, and answers 
every demand of piety, gratitude, affection, and charity. Dying in Septem- 
ber 1404, he was interred in the chantry he had erected in this Cathedral. 

The successor of Wykeham was a prelate of a different description ; 
whose character, through the powerful representations of Shakspeare, 
seems consigned to perpetual ignominy 8 . This was Henry Beaufort, son 
of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by his third wife, Catharine Swin- 
ford. Educated abroad as well as at Oxford, he particularly applied 
himself to the civil and canon law ; studies indispensable for one who, for 
various reasons, looked forward to a high station in the state as well as in 
the church. Translated from the See of Lincoln to Winchester, and soon 
afterwards distinguished by the hat of a cardinal, and involved in the vortex 
of worldly politics, he at first allowed himself too little time to attend to 
the spiritual concerns of his diocess. His conduct, however, in his latter 
days, was very different. He lent to Henry the Fifth, whose treasury was 
exhausted by his brilliant but destructive successes beyond sea, the pro- 
digious sum of twenty thousand pounds, to ward off a suspected design of 
appropriating the reveuues of the church. Besides the money he expended 
on his Cathedral, and on various other religious and charitable establish- 
ments, he greatly enlarged the usefulness of the hospital of St. Cross, and 
erected the principal part of the domestic buildings now existing. 

Having filled the See of Winchester forty-three years, Beaufort gave 
place to William of Waynflete, so named from his birth-place in Lin- 
colnshire. To Wykeham's colleges at Winchester and Oxford, he was 
indebted for his education. Become master of the former, he was engaged 
by Henry the Sixth to take the same charge of the new institution at Eton. 
The revenues of Winchester enabling him to carry into effect the project 
he had for some time contemplated, he commenced his noble institution of 

e Our bard, appears to be supported by the accounts of Hall, Holinshed, and other old English 
Chroniclers. 



BISHOPS WAYNFLETE AND COURTENEY. 123 

the College of St. Mary Magdalen, in Oxford. Attentive to whatever 
could promote the views of his new establishment; Waynflete, preparatory 
to a visit to it in 1481, sent thither a very large number of volumes; eight 
hundred as some say, which had issued from presses already established 
in England, as well as on the Continent, or works still in manuscript. Be- 
sides the college at Oxford, Waynflete founded a free-school in his native 
town, and was a benefactor to Eton College, and to his Cathedral of Win- 
chester. Respecting the general character of Waynflete, his biographer, 
Dr. Chandler, observes, that in the course of his researches, he had met 
with no accusation of, or reflection on him. Humane and benevolent in 
an uncommon degree, he appeared to have no enemies but from party, and 
even those he disarmed of their malice. The prudence, fidelity, and 
innocence which preserved him in the waves of inconstant fortune are justly 
the subject of admiration. 

Waynflete lived to behold the restoration of the house of Lancaster, in the 
person of Henry the Seventh; when dying in the year 1486, the king had 
an opportunity of promoting to Winchester a prelate possessing his high 
regard. This was Peter Courteney, of the family of that name established 
in Devonshire; a prelate of respectable character, but still more distin- 
guished by his descent from the house of Courteney in France, which sprung 
from two kings of that country; Robert, who died in 1031, and Lewis Le 
Gros, or the Sixth, who reigned till 1137. Of this family one branch en- 
gaged in the Crusades and became Counts of Edissa, in the east; another, 
established in France, furnished three Emperors to Constantinople, and 
continued to be ranked among the Princes of the blood royal, until it was 
resolved, in late times, to limit that distinction to the descendants of St. 
Lewis, or the Ninth. The third branch passed into England in the beginning 
of the reign of Henry the Second, and soon rose to rank and opulence by 
inter-marrying, at different periods, with the royal family. 

The next bishop of Winchester was Thomas Langton, removed hither 
from Salisbury, a prelate described by Anthony Wood as a second Mecaenas> 
on account of the protection he afforded to literature and learned men- 
On the death of Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, he was actually 



124 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

elected to succeed him, but a few days afterwards was carried off by the 
plague, and was buried in the curious chapel already described. 

His successor, Richard Fox, had long been the confidential friend and 
minister of Henry the Seventh, who successfully employed his talents 
in sundry negotiations with foreign princes. In recompense, he was 
appointed Bishop of Exeter, retaining still his other offices of privy seal 
and secretary of state. From Exeter he passed first to Bath and Wells, 
and thence to Durham, where he displayed his munificence and architec- 
tural taste. But in order to have him nearer the court, Henry removed 
him to Winchester, and even selected him to be sponsor at the baptism of 
the young Prince, afterwards Henry the Eighth; to whom he subsequently 
acted as one of the leading counsellors, with equal zeal as when he served 
his father. Of his retirement from court, in the young king's time, various 
causes are assigned. It was after this event that he planned the munificent 
foundation of Corpus Christi College in Oxford. The original purpose of this 
college was to provide monks for the service of his Cathedral ; but, dissuaded 
from this purpose by a friend, who, notwithstanding the bishop's long and 
intimate acquaintance with the court, had penetrated deeper than himself 
into Henry's schemes respecting monastic institutions, he founded the 
college for the education of secular clergymen. He also provided it with 
some of the most celebrated scholars of the age, among whom may be 
named John Lewis Vives, and Reginald Pole, afterwards the celebrated 
cardinal. Dying in 1528, the bishop was buried in the exquisite chantry 
he had erected in his Cathedral. 

On the death of Bishop Fox, the See of Winchester devolved to the 
mighty cardinal, Thomas Wolsey, who had now engrossed the favour of 
Henry the Eighth, and obtained some of the richest benefices of the 
church. At first introduced to the tyrant by Fox, to counterbalance the 
influence of the Earl of Surrey, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, he soon rose 
superior to his opponent and to his patron himself. The history of Wolsey, 
independently of the part he took in public affairs, is little more than a 
list of promotions, following one another with a rapidity equally alarming 
to the courtiers, and invidious in the eyes of the people. Of this distiu- 



BISHOPS WOLSEY, GARDINER, AND POYNET. J 25 

guished prelate and politician, we are furnished with ample memoirs in a 
large folio volume, by Fiddes ; and recently in a new life of him, by Mr. Gait. 
In my account of York Cathedral, I shall have occasion to make a few 
remarks on his character. 

From the death of Wolsey, Winchester was without a bishop for nearly 
four years, when the vacancy was filled by Stephen Gardiner, who was 
brought into notice by "Wolsey, but who owed his preferment to his readi- 
ness to promote and justify every project of the king. Being appointed at 
the moment when the dispute concerning the ecclesiastical supremacy of 
the crown was at its utmost height, Gardiner joined the two metropolitans, 
and some other prelates, in acknowledging Henry to be the supreme head 
of the church of England. This measure was soon followed by the sup- 
pression of the religious houses throughout the kingdom, by which Win- 
chester suffered greatly, both in condition and outward appearance. Not- 
withstanding his submissive conduct, during the life of Henry, and his 
taking out a new license to govern his See on the accession of Edward the 
Sixth, Gardiner resisted all further changes in religion until the young king 
should be of age, and was therefore by the protector, Seymour, committed 
to the tower. At last he was declared to be no longer prelate of Winchester,: 
and Dr. John Poynet was appointed in his place ; who was the first bishop 
consecrated according to the new ordinal. On the accession of Mary to the 
thrOne, Gardiner was reinstated in his See, and, Archbishop Cranmer being a 
prisoner on a charge of high treason, he officiated at the Queen's Coronation, 
and at her subsequent nuptials with Philip of Spain. Of the conduct of 
Gardiner as a bishop and a statesman, the accounts of writers are contra- 
dictory and irreconcileable. Whilst the Catholic justifies and applauds 
him for courage, consistency, and religious integrity, the Protestant repre- 
sents and censures him for cruelty and unmerciful tyranny. 

Of Bishop Poynet who, on the deprivation of Gardiner in the reign of 
Edward the Sixth, was translated from Rochester to Winchester, little 
more is known than that he was an early and a strenuous champion for the 
reformed doctrines. He was also well skilled in various languages, ancient 
and modern, well read in the fathers of the church, an able mathematician 
and a mechanist. On the accession of Mary, he, with many other Protes- 



126 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

tents, withdrew to the continent, not only on account of religion, but, as 
it is said, because he was suspected of abetting the insurrectionary move- 
ments under Sir Thomas Wyatt. He died at Strasburgh in 1556. 

Bishop Gardiner was succeeded by Dr. John White, on the condition 
that he should pay one thousand pounds annually to Cardinal Pole, who 
complained that his See of Canterbury had been greatly impoverished in 
the time of his predecessor, Cranmer. He pronounced the funeral dis- 
course on Queen Mary, whom he extolled with great ardour, while he 
spoke of her successor, Elizabeth, with extreme coldness. Refusing to 
take the new oath of supremacy, he was of course, in June 1559, declared 
to have forfeited his bishopric. 

The See of Winchester again remained vacant for some time, until the 
appointment of Bishop Robert Horne, a Protestant divine of great 
talents, distinguished by his controversial writings, and by the voluntary exile 
he underwent in the reign of Mary. While Bishop of Durham, he was 
noted, according to Anthony Wood, as " a man that could never abide any 
ancient monument, acts, or deeds that gave any light of or to godly religion." 
To the injudicious zeal therefore of this prelate may be ascribed the havoc 
made at that period in the Cathedral and in other edifices of Winchester. 

The See was next successively occupied by Drs. John Watson and 
Thomas Cooper, both of whom had studied and taken their degrees, in 
medicine. After the latter, Winchester possessed a second William Wick- 
ham, who died in less than ten weeks after his translation from Lincoln. 
The next Bishop, William Day, dying in the ninth month of his 
episcopate, was followed by Thomas Bilson, a native of Winchester and 
a Wykehamist, there and at Oxford, of whom Elizabeth had a very high 
opinion. She appointed him of the privy council ; and he employed his pen 
in justification of her interference in the affairs of Scotland, France, and the 
Low Countries, yet so as to furnish no pretext for resistance, in any case, 
on the part of her own subjects against himself. " It. was written," says 
Collier, " to put the best colour on the Dutch revolt." Bishop Bilson con- 
tinued in Winchester for several years after the accession of James the 
First; but without supporting the character he attained under Elizabeth. 
His successor, James Montague, so much esteemed by James as to be 



BISHOPS WATSON, COOPER, WICKHAM, DAY, ANDREWS, AND NEILE. 127 

chosen the editor of his writings, sat only about eighteen months, and was 
buried in the Abbey Church of Bath, which he had repaired at a great 
expence. 

By the death of Montague an opening was made for Lancelot Andrews, 
who had been in succession, Bishop of Chichester and of Ely. The inscrip- 
tion on his monument in the church of St. Mary Overy, in Southwark, notices 
with peculiar emphasis the distinctions awaiting him in another world, on 
account of the celibacy he had observed in this. 

Dr. Richard Neile succeeded Andrews by his fifth translation, and 
notwithstanding the course adopted -by King James in favour of the rigid 
Calvinists at the synod of Dort, afterwards united with him in embracing 
the modified system of Arminius. So far did Neile push his animosity 
against the Calvinists, whom he had deserted, as absolutely, while Bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, to consign one of them to the stake. He per- 
fectly agreed with Archbishop Laud in forwarding King Charles's views of 
restoring to divine service, and to the churches themselves, some portion at 
least of their former splendour and majesty ; but being again removed to York, . 
the execution of the scheme was left to his successor in Winchester, 
Walter Curle, who made many alterations in his Cathedral. 

On the restoration of Charles the Second, Winchester recovered its 
bishop, after an interval of ten years from the death of Curie, in the person 
of Brian Duppa, who had been the king's tutor. It was not, however, 
until nearly two years afterwards that the church of England and its ser- 
vices were properly re-established ; an event which the bishop did not live 
to witness. By his death the See came to George Morley, Bishop of 
Worcester, " a man," says Wood, " of tried loyalty, and no temporiser, 
who had learned to shift his principles to be ready for any turn of afiairs 
that might happen, and always to stand fair for promotion." He built the 
episcopal palace at Winton, in place of the ruined castle of Wolvesey r 
also repaired the castle of Farnham, and purchased Chelsea-house as a 
London residence for the bishops of Winchester. 

Dr. Peter Mews, the successor of Morley, had served in the royal 
army during the rebellion, and, retiring into Holland on the king's death, 
returned with Charles the Second, who advanced him to the See of Bath 



128 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

and Wells, and afterwards to Winchester. He signalized himself at the 
battle of Sedgernoor, where he commanded the artillery : nor was he less 
valued for his integrity and hospitality than for his loyalty and prowess. 

The succeeding prelate, Sir Jonathan Trelawney, had been raised to 
the See of Bristol by James the Second ; but in 1688, opposing the king's 
declaration of liberty of conscience, he was, with his metropolitan and five 
other prelates 9 , committed to the Tower; from which, however, they 
were, by the sentence of a jury, soon after liberated. Joining heartily in 
the revolution, he was, by William and Mary, made Bishop of Exeter, and 
in J 706 was promoted to Winchester. 

The successors of Bishop Trelawney were Drs. Charles Trimnell and 
Richard Willis, the former translated from Norwich, the latter from 
Salisbury. In room of the latter was appointed Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, 
who had previously occupied the Sees of Bangor, Hereford, and Salisbury. 
This prelate will long be remembered in the church of England from 
engaging warmly in the celebrated Bangorian controversy. In consequence 
of the notions maintained by Bishop Hoadly, the government, it is be- 
lieved, resolved to dissolve the convocation of the clergy ; and since that 
time, although regularly assembled on the opening of anew parliament, it 
has never transacted any business. 

On the death of Bishop Hoadly, his present Majesty translated from 
Salisbury to Winchester Dr. John Thomas, who had been his preceptor, 
and who, dying in 1781, was succeeded by the present venerable prelate the 
Hon. Brownlow North, then Bishop of Worcester, and brother of the 
late Lord North, afterwards Earl of Guildford. 

' These were, Saudcroft, Archbishop of Canterbury ; Kcnn, Bishop of Bath and Wells; Turner, 
of Ely; White, of Peterborough ; Lloyd, of Norwich ; and Frampton, of Gloucester. 

END OF ACCOUNT OF BISHOPS. 



n ©fjronoIOQtcar tltet of tf)t mtyop* of Wlinf%t$tn% 



WITH 



CONTEMPORARY KINGS OF ENGLAND AND POPES. 



BISHOPS. 



DORCHESTER. 



Birinns .. 
Agilbert . 



WINCHESTER. 



Wina 

Eleutheriiis . 
Hedda 



SEE DIVIDED. 



Daniel. See again divided . 



Humfred 

Kinebard 

Athelard 

Egbald , 

Dndda 

Kinebert , 

Almund 

Wighten 

Herewith , 

Edmund 

Helmstan 

St. Switbun 

Alfiilb, or Adferth..., 

Dunbert 

Denewulf, or Dennlf. 

Alhelm 

Bertnlf 



Frithstan 

Brinstan 

Elpbege, tbe Bald , 
Alfin, or Elsin 



Consecrated or Installed Died or Translated 



From 



&ngIo=&axon Bsnastg. 



635 

650 



660 

670 
676 



706 

745 
755 
780 
793 
705 
797 
808 
814 
8"27 
834 
835 
838 
863 
871 
879 
887 
892 

905 

931 
934 
951 



To. 



650 

See divided 660 



(Expelled 666 

'Died 675 

674 

Julv7,705 



Resigned. 
Died 



Canterbury. 



Canterbury. 



744) 

745 J 

754 

780 

793 

795 

797 



834 

837 
862 
871 
879 



Resigned 931 



I Died 
Canterbury 



934 
951 
958 



Dorchester 



Winchester 

Winchester 
Winchester 



Winchester. 
Winchester 
Winchester, 
Winchester 
Winchester, 
Winchester. 
Winchester. 
Winchester, 
Winchester 
Canterbury 



Winchester 

Winchester. 
Winchester 



WEST SAXONS 



JKinegils ) 

J Kenewalsh ...\ 
Kenewalsh 



Kenewalsh 

Kenewalsh 
Ina 



Athellard... 

Cuthred .... 

Cuthred 

Sigebert.... 
Kenewnlph 
Kenewulph 
Kenewulph 
Kenewulph 

Egbert 

Egbert 

Egbert , 

Egbert 

Egbert 

Ethelred ... 

Alfred 

Alfred 

Alfred 

Alfred 

Edward .... 

Athelstan... 
Edmund ... 
Edgar 



Popes. 



Honorius I. 
St. Martin I. 



Vitalian. 

Adeodatus. 
Domnus. 



John VII. 

St. Zachary. 
Stephen III. 
Adrian. 
Adrian. 
Leo III. 
Leo III. 
Leo III. 
Stephen V. 
Valentine. 
Gregory IV. 
Gregory IV. 
Gregory IV. 
Nicholas I. 
Adrian II. 
John VIII. 
Stephen VI. 
Formosus. 

Sergius III. 

John XI. 
John XI. 
Agapetns II. 



130 



A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BISHOPS, ETC. 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



33 



Brifbelm 

Ethelwold 

ElphegeH 

Kenulph 

Brithwold or Ethelwold . 
Elsinus or Eadsinus 

Alwyn 

Strand 



Consecrated or Installed 



Died or Translated 



From To 

958 963 

963 Alls: 1, 984 

984 Canterbury 1006 

10061 1°°8 

1008 1 1015 

1015 Canterbury 1038 

1038 



Elmbam 1047 



1047 

5 Canter' cum 1052 1 
Died 1069J 

iSorman Brmastg. 



Buried at 



Winchester. 



Canterbury , 
Winchester. 

Winchester.. 



34lWalkelyn 
35 



36 



57 
38 

39 

40 

u 

42 
43 
44 
45 

46 

47 

-IK 
40 
50 



51 

58 



53 



William Giffard 
Henry de Blois . 



Richard Toclive, alias More 

Godfrey de Lucy 

Sir Peter de Rnpibus 

William de Raleigh 

Etbelmar 

John of Exon, or Oxon 

Nicholas of Ely 

John de Pontessara 

Henry Woodelock, or De 
Merc well 

John De Sandale 

Reginald De Asser 

John De Stratford 

Adam De Orleton 

William Edin^ton 



William Wykeham 

Henry Beaufort, Cardinal. 



William Waynflete, alias Patten 



54 Peter Courteney 

55|Thoma< Langton 

56 Richard Fox 

57 , Thomas Wolscy, Cardinal 



1070 

(Appointed 1100) 

(Consecrated 1107J 

Nov. 17, 1129 



... Jan. 3, 1097-8 
..Jan. 25, 1128 9 

... Aug. 6, 1171 



Winchester., 
Winchester., 



Sbaxon Line HUstorro. 



Oct. 6, 1174 

Nov. 1, 1189 

Sept. 25, 1205 

Norwich 1243 

(Elected 1250) 

( Never Consecrated $ 
1261 



1189 

;*!« i *«* 

June 9, 1238 

, Sept 1*50 

126 

...Jan. 20, 1267 8 

Feb. 12,1279-80 

Dec. 4, 1304 

....June, 29, 1316 



May 27, 1268 

June, 1282 

May 30, 1305 

Elected Aug. 5,1316 

Nov. 16, 1320 Apr. 12, 13*3 

June .(,, 13*3 Canterbury, Nov. 3, 1333 

Worcester, Dec. 1, 1SS3 July 18, 1345 

1345! Oct. 7, 1366 



.Nov. 1319 



Winchester 

Winchester 

Winchester 

Turon 

Paris : Heart in ) 

Winchester $ 

Yiteruium, Italy 

SWaveiley : Heart > 
in Winchester.. J 
Winchester 



Winchester 

St. Saviour's, 
Southwark. 
Avignon 



Lancastrian Line. 



1367 

Lincoln, March 14, 1405-6 



.Sept. 27, 1404, Winchester. 
.April 11, 1447 Winchester. 



|?Qrfe Hinc. 



. July 30, 1447 | . 



Aug. fl, 1486 1 Winchester. 



Pinion of g9orR ana Lancastrian families. 



Exeter Jan. 29, 1486-71 Sept. 22, 1492 

Sarum June, 1493J Jan. 27, 1500 

Durham Oct. 17, 1500 Sept. 14, 1528 

With York, Apr. 11, 15291 . Nov. 29, 1530 



Winchester.. 
Winchester.. 
Winchester.. 
Leicester..... 



Kinffs. 



Edward Mart... 

Ethelredll 

Ethelred II 

Ethelred II 

Canute 

5 Harold I. 
( Hardicanute 
J Edward Conf. ) 
( Harold II J 



William I. II.. 
Henry I 



S Henry I. 
Step. Hen. II. 



Henry II 

Richard I., John... 

John, Henry III... 
Henry III 

Henry HI. 

Henry HI 

Henry III. Edw. I. 

Edward I 

Edward I. II 

Edward II 

Edward II 

Edward II. HI.... 

Edward III 

Edward III 



J Ed. III. Ric> 

,11. Hen. IV... J 

Henry IV. V. VI. 



(Hen. Vr. Ed. 
(jlV.V.Ric.III. 



Henry 
Henry . ; 
Henry VII. VIII. 
Henry VIII. 



VII.. 
VII. 



Popes. 



John XII. 
Benedict V. 
John XIV. 
John XVIII. 
Sergius IV. 
Benedict VIII. 

Benedict IX. 
Damasus II. 



Alexander II. 
Paschal II. 

Innocent II. 



Alexander III. 

Clement III. 

Innocent HI. 
Innocent IV. 

Innocent IV. 

Urban IV. 

Gregory X. 

Martin IV. 

Boniface VIII. 

John XXII. 

John XXII. 
John XXII. 
Benedict XII. 
Clement VI. 



Urban V. 
Gregory XII. 



Nicholas V. 



Innocent VIII. 
\IexamlerVl. 
Alexander VI. 
Clement VII. 



A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OP BISHOPS, ETC. 



131 



58 

59 
60 
61 

62 
63 

64 

65 
66 



67 
68 
69 
70 

71 

72 

73 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 



BISHOPS. 



Stephen Gardiner. 



John Poynet 

John White 

Robert Home 

John Watson 

Thomas Cowper ... 

William Wickham . 



William Day ... 
Thomas Bilson. 



James Montague ... 

Lancelot Andrews . 

Richard Neile 

Walter Carle 

Brian Dnppa 

George Morley 

Peter Mews 



Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Bart. 

Charles Trimnt II 

Richard Willis 

Benjamin Hoadley 

John Thomas 

Brownlow North 



Consecrated or Installed 



From To 



Died or Translated 



Buried at 



. Dec. 5, 1531 



Rochester, Mar.23,1551-2 

Lincoln May 31, 1557 

Feb. 16, 1560-1 

Sept. 18, 1580 

Lincoln.. .Mar. 23, 1583-4 

Lincoln. ..Feb. 22, 1594-5 



Jan. 25, 1595-6 

Worcester, May 13, 1597 



Information. 

f Deprived 15501 

•^Restored 1553 ( 

(Died...Nov.l2,1555) 

April 11, 1556 

Deprived 1560 

June 1, 1580 

Jan. 23,1583-4 

April, 29, 1594 

June 12, 1595 

Sept. 20,1596 

June 18,1616 



Winchester., 
Strasbourg . 



Winchester.. 
Winchester. 
Winchester. 

5 St. Saviour's, 

1 8. 



South wark.. 



Westminster . 



eSnfon of lEnglfgfj anfc £>totc& ©rooms. 



Bath&Wells, Oct. 4, 1616 

Ely Feb. 25, 1618 9 

Durham. ..Feb. 7, 1627 -8 
< Bath and Wells, Nov. > 
I 16, 1632 J 

Sarum Oct. 4, 1660 

Worcester, May 14, 1662 

(Bath and Wells, Nov, 
( 22,1684 

Exeter June 21, 1707 

Norwicb...Aug. 19, 1721 

Sarum Sept. 21, 1723 

Sarum Sept. 26, 1734 

Sarum 1761 

Worcester 1781 



July 20,1618 

Sept. 21, 1626 

York Oct. 1632 

1647 



. March 26, 1662 
...Oct. 29, 1684 



..Nov. 9, 1706 

. July 19, 1721 

1723 

Aug. 1734 

1761 

1781 



Bath 

St. Saviour's, 
South wark. 
York , 



Subberton, Hants.. 



Westminster. 
Winchester... 



Winchester., 



In Cornwall . 
Winchester.. 
Winchester... 
Winchester.., 
Winchester.., 



Kings. 



5 Henry VIII 
jEdw.VI 

Edward VI. Mary 

Mary 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

Eliz. James I 

James I 

James I. Charles I. 

Charles I 

Charles I 

Charles II 

Charles II 

James II. ) 
Will. Mary £ 
Anne ) 

Anne, George I.... 

George I 

George I. II 

George II 

George III 

George III 



Popes. 



Clement VII. 



CIjrotwifoQtcal %i$l of ^rior$ anti Yearns of Wlimi)tfitzt:+ 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

13 

19 
20 
21 

2.' 



24 



Appointed. 



Died or removed. 



2nd Cent. Abbot 

or Prior 

963 

970 



Devotus, or Denotiis. ... 

Britlmoth 1 

Brithwold, or Ethelwold. 

Elfric, or Alfric I 1006 

Wnlfsig 1 

Simon, or Simeon 1065 

Godfrey 1080 

Getfry, or Geotfry 1 1107 

G-ffrj II 1111 

Eustace, or Emtachins 1114 

Hugh 1120, 



Ely 970 

Bishop 1006 

Archbishop of York 1023 

Died 1065 

Ely 1080 

Died 1107 

Deposed 1111 

Abbot of Burton 1114 

Died 1120 



Gerliylll ... 

[ngniphns ' 1126 

Robert I ' 1130 

Robert II.' 

Walter 1171 

John 

Robert HI. surnamed 
Filzhenry 



1126 

Abbot of Abingdon 1130 

S Bishop of Bath and 
Wells 1135 or6 

A bbot of Glastonbury 1 17 1 

Do. Westminster 1175 or 6 

I Died 1187 

1187 Abbot ol Burton 1214 



Ruiier 1124 

Walter II - — 

Andrew 1239i 

Walter III." 

John de Cauz, or Ciiaucc ...' 1247 

Wi'Iiam Tanton J... 1249 



Died 1239 



Resigned 1247 

< Abbot of Peterbo- 

/ roiieh 1249 

(Abbot of Middle- 

{ ton, Dorset 1256 



Appointed. 



Andrew of London 1256 

Ralph Riusel 

Valentin 



John de Durcville 

Adam de Farnham 

William II. de Basynge., 
William HI. de Ba«ynge 
Henry Woodclock, or 

Mereweli 

Nicholas de Tarente 

Richanl de Eniord 

Alexander Heriard 

John III., or de M< rlow 

WillianiIV.Thudd.il 

Hugh II., or ile Basynir 

Robert IV., or de Rudborne 
Thomas Nivil, or Nevyle... 

Thomas Shy re bourne 

William Aullon 

Rieliard Marlbmg 

Robert Wevtaate 

I'liomas 111., or Huiiton .... 
Thomas IV., or Sdkested ... 
Henry Brook 



William V. de Basynge, or) 
Kingsmill S 



1265 

1276 

.1278 or 9 

1284 

1284 



.1295 

.1S05 
.1309 



Died or removed. 



.1349 
.1361 
.1361 
.1384 
.1394 



.1450 
.1457 
.1470 
.1498 
.1524 



Deposed 1261 or s> 

Died 1265 

(Resigned 1267, Re- 

l stored 127 - 

Died Dec. 1278 

Died 1284 

Resigned 1284 

Died 1295 

Bishop 1305 

Died 1309 

Died 1349 

1361 

Laid aside 

Died 1384 

Died 1394 

Died 1450 

Died 1457 

1470 

1498 

Died 1524 

C Gave up his Monas- 
< tery to K. Hen. 
t VIII 1539 



DISSOLUTION OF PRIORY- ESTABLISHMENT OF DEANERY. 



William Basyng' 

Sir John Mason, Kt. M.D 

Layman' 

Edmund Steward, LL. D... 

John Warner, M. D 

[Francis Newton, D. D.' 

John Watson, M. D 

Lawrence Humphrey, D. D 
^lartin Heton, D. D." 

George Abbot, D. D.' 

Thomas Morton, D. D 

John Young, D. D.'° 



Died or renvived. 



March 28, 1540 
Oct. 9, 1549 



March 22, 
...Oct. 15, 
March 21, 
...Feb. 14, 
... Oct. 24, 
March 20, 

...March 6, 

Jan. 3, 

Julv 8, 



1553 
1559 
1565 
1572 
1580 
1588 

1599 

1609 
1616 



Died 1543 

Resigned 1553 

1559 

Died March 21, 1564 

Died 1572 

Bishop 1580 

Feb. 1,1589 

Bishop of Ely,Feb.3, 1599 

J Bishop of Litch. 

( andCov.Di-c. 3, 1609 
Bi-hop of Chester ...1616 



Alexander Hy<]e,LL.D."... 

Uilliam Clark, D. D 

Richard Miggot.D. D 

J.ihn Wickart, D. D 

William Trinniell, D. D 

Charles Naylor, LL. D 

Zachary Pearce, D. D 

Thomas Cheney, D. D 

Jonathan Shipley, D. D 

Newton Oule, D. D 

Robert Holmes' 2 

Thomas Kennel, D. U.'K... 



Appointed. 



M 



..Aug. 8, 
Feb. 11, 
..Oct. 9, 
Jan. 14, 
Feb. 16, 
May 7, 
..Ann. 4, 
arch 25, 



.Oct. 21, 
.Feb. 22, 
.. Dec. 9, 



1660 
1665 
1679 
1692 
1721 
171*9 
1739 
1748 
1760 
1769 
1804 
1805 



Died or removed. 



Bish. of Sal. Dec. 3, 1665 

Died 1679 

Died 1692 

Died 1721 

Died 1729 

Died June 28, 1739 

Bishop of Bai'gor 1748 

Died Dec. 27, 1768 

Bishop of Laiidati....1769 

Died 1804 

Died 1805 



1 See a particular account of him in Bentham's History, 
&c. of Ely. 

* It is supposed ttiere were one or two Priors between him 
and Elfric, whose names arc lost. 

s Rudborne, Hist. Maj. 

* MiVner says be was deposed bv bisbop William de Hairy. 
Hist. Winchester, 126. 



5 Su'rendered Nov. 15, 1539, was installed, according to 
charter, May 22, 1544, and henceforth called William Kings- 
mill, D.D. 

** He was bred a layman. 

7 Storer's list says 1570. 

8 See Bmiham's History of Ely. 

p Afterwards promoted to London and thence loCanlerbury. 



10 Afterwaids promoted to Litchfield and Coventry, and 
thence to Durham. 

11 See Hislorv, &c. of Salisbury Cathedral. 
'» Gents. Mag. 1805, Part ii p. I0K6. 

13 This list furnished by the present learned Dean, who is 
also Master of the Temple in London. 



A 

&tet of asooftg, fEassasis, anti $*rot& 

THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED RELATING TO 

WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL; 

ALSO A LIST OF 

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF ITS BISHOPS. 

THIS LIST IS SUBJOINED TO GRATIFY THE BIBLIOGRAPHER, THE CRITICAL ANTIQUARY, AND THE ILLUSTRATOR; AS 
WELL AS TO SHOW, AT ONE VIEW, THE SOURCES WHENCE THE CONTENTS OF THE PRECEDING PAGES HAVE 
BEEN DERIVED, AND THE FULL TITLES OF THE WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE NOTES. 



DIOCESS, SEE AND CHURCH, &c. 



Before we can write a new book, with any pretensions to novelty, it is necessary to ascertain the 
contents and character of all preceding publications on the same subject. On many occasions 
indeed this is not a very easy, or pleasant task: some are rare, some are dogmatical, some are 
confused and contradictory, some are replete with recondite and abtruse learning, others with fancy, 
and few or none can be safely relied on for fidelity, and discrimination. Thus the cautious and 
sceptical writer is compelled to labour through an intricate and thankless labyrinth ; and required 
to analize, collate, and scrutinise the improbable and contradictory statements that come before 
him. On no former occasion have I felt this exemplified more forcibly than in respect to the 
Cathedral now under consideration. The early writers were credulous, and partial, whilst some of 
those of modern date have come to the task with strong prejudices and predilections ; and from 
neither of these are we likely to obtain the whole truth. \\ hat was formerly written as the history 
of the church, is only the exaggerated and wondrous account of saints and their miracles, super- 
natural agency, martyrs, and visions. From such romances it is not easy to extract much authentic 
history, or probable narration. Most of the oldest chroniclers were bred up and naturalised in 
monasteries. Hence every thing they relate, as matters of dispute between the clergy and laity, is 
given with partiality. The first account we find of Winchester Church, is from the pen of Thomas 
Xtudborne, a monk of the said church, who is said to have lived in the fifteenth century. He 
appears to have written a " History of the Foundation and Succession of the Church if Winches- 
ter ;" also " Annals" of the same, from A. D. 633 to 1277. From the latter date, to the Reforma- 
tion, the succession ot Bishops was furnished by another person. These memoirs were given to the 
public by Mr. Wharton, in " Anglia Sacra," vol. i. in which are the following papers: " A Letter 
from the Monks of \\ inchester, to Pope Alexander II. imploring a restitution of the privileges of 
which they had been deprived; with the Pope's answer, granting their request." — " Lantfred's 
Prologue to the History of the Miracles of St. Sirithun," and " The Succession of the Priors of 
the said Church." " It is unnecessary to observe," writes Dr. Milner, and very truly, " to persons 
who are accustomed to the perusal of Monkish Chronicles, that the above-mentioned works can only 
serve as memoirs for a history, not as histories themselves of the times to which they relate, being 
upon the whole, vague, jejune, and unconnected, redundant in many particulars, and deficient in 
others." 

The " Concilia Magna Britannia" of Wilkins, folio, 1737, contains the following documents re- 
lating to Winchester Cathedral, &c: — Vol.1 p. 244. Charter of King Edgar to the Monks of the New 
Monastery, A. 667- Spelman: — p. 240. Laws of the Monastery, given by Edgar, A. 666. ib. — 
p. 418. Pope Innocent's Letter to Bishop Henry, Legate and Brother to King Stephen, empowering 
him to hear the complaints of the Monks of Westminster, 1138: — p. 420, 421. Councils held 
before the said Bishop. Malmes. — Vol. II. p. 62. Acts against the Confirmation of the Bishop elect. 
Ex.reg Peckham: Archbishop's Letter thereon. A. 1281: — ib. p. 88. Archbishop's proceeding against 
the Bishop [Pontisara]. A. 1282. — ib. p. 16, 275, 6. Letters from the Archbishop, on his privilege in 
the election of a Bishop. A. 1303. Ex. reg Winchelsey, fo. 339, 40:— p. 293. Synodal Constitutions 
by Bishop Henry Woodloke. A. 1308. Ex. MS. Cotton. Otho. A. 15, fol. 141. a. :— p. 454, Edward 



134 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL, LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, &C. 

IPs Letter to Bishop Henry on Tithes : Answer to the King's Letter. A. 1315. Ex. reg. Woodcock. 
Winton. Vol. III. p. 20 Archbishop's Mandate to the Bishop to raise a Subsidy. A. 1352. Ex. 
reg. Islip. 59 : — p. 89, Bishop Wykeham's Mandate, ditto. A. 1370. Ex. reg. Winton. Wykeham. 
3, 44 : — p. 708, Bishop Fox's Letter to Cardinal Wolsey, on the Reformation of the Clergy of 
England. A. 1527- Ex. Autog. in MS. Cott. Faust, c. vii. — p. 752, Bishop Gardiner's Letter to the 
King, on his Opinion as to Doctrine. A. 1532. Ex. regis, convoc. — p. 780, The same Bishop's Oath 
to the King. 1534. Fox's Martyrs, ii. 337. 

The new edition of Dugdale's " Monasticon Anglicanum," contains notices respecting the See, 
and Church, from Stevens and Gale ; — Short accouuts of the Bishops, from Milner, Rudborne, 
Godwin, &c. up to the time of Bishop Gardiner ; also a list of forty-seven Priors; " An Inven- 
tory of the Cathedral Church," as furnished to Cromwell, temp. Henry VIII. from Strype's 
"Memorials of Cranmer;" An Account of the Sale of Church Lands, belonging to this See, during the 
time of the Civil Wars, Sept. 27, 1640. This work also embraces copies of the following documents: 
— "No. I. Ex AnnalibusWintoniensis ecclesie : MS. iu Bibliotheca Cottoniana sub etiigie Domitiani, 

A. 13." — These annals extend only to 1079, when Bishop Walkelyn, re-editied the church from its 
foundation. — " No. II. Autographum penes Decantim et capilulnm Wintonie, 1640," being a 
charter from King Fdward, to guarantee the possessions of the church. Dated A. D. 908. — " No. 
IV. Ex vetusto exemplari penes Thomam dominnm Brudwell. An. 1652. A similar grant to the 
former, dated 975. — " No. V. Sanctus Edelwoldus j actus est episcopus ab bldgaro rege. Ex his- 
toria de primis fundatoribus Abandoniensis Cenobii in Bibliotheca Cottoniana, sub efhgie Claudii, 

B. vi. fol. 85. a." An account of the translation of Ethelwold, from the abbacy of Abingdon, to the 
See of Winton, with the appointment of Osgar, to the former, in 96.1. — " No. VI. Fumtalores prin- 
cipalis Cathedratis ecclesie sancti Sivithuni Winton Lei. Col. vol. i. p. 613" [428], with lists of 
Kings, Bishops, and Saints buried iu the church. — " No. VII. Innocmtii Charta. Ex. Chron. S. 
Swithini Winton, p. 8 :" being grants of lands, and churches, to the Prior, and Mouks. — " No. VIII. 
Alia ejusdem Papa Innocentii bulla, ibid." On the same subject. — " No. IX. Charta Edgari 
Regis pucifici, pro rcnovr.lione terre de i hiltecumbe,et prointroductione M»naehorum, ib. p. 10." 
— " No. X. Carta de llursbourne Edwardi Senioris." — " No. XI. King John's Charter, allow- 
ing certain Duties to be collected on the liiver Ilchin, by the Bishop of Winchester. Appendix 
to Milner's History of Winchester, from Trussel's MSS." — " No. XII. ( harta Edgari regis, qua 
nullos unquam fttisse perhibet in Wintoniensi hoc canobio Monachos ante hos quos ipse jam intro- 
duxit a Monastcrio Abingtoniensi. Wilkinsii Concilia, vol.i. p. 244." — " No. XIII. Ada contra 
Covfirmationem electi Winton. Episcopi. [1281.] Ibid. vol. ii. p. 62 Ex. reg. Peckham, fol. 13, 
b." — " No. XIV. Archiepiscopi Cantuar. literec de eodem. Ibid, ibid." — " No. XV. Archiepiscopi 
Cantuar. processus contra episcopum Winton. Ibid. vol. ii. p. 88. Ex. reg. Peck. fol. 16. a." The 
three last documents refer to the election of Richard More, Archdeacon of Winton, who was 
chosen Bishop by the Monks, and approved by the King ; but was strongly opposed by Peckham, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, ou account of his having held a plurality of benefices: he was finally 
rejected by the Pope. — " No. XVI. Episcopi II intun. mundatum pro stibsidio regio colligendo et 
solvendo. Ibid. vol. iii. p. 89. Ex. reg. Winton. Wykeham. 3 part, fol. 44." — " No. XV11. Bulla 
Urbani Pdpe Quint i super administratione ecclesie Winton. E. Registro Wykeham. Part I. fol.l." 
This instrument is directed to William of Wykeham, Archdeacon of Lincoln, administrator of the 
spiritual and temporal concerns of the church of Winton, requiring him to provide pastors for the 
vacant churches, and to supply all deficiencies in the administration of the See. — "No. XV II I Bulla 
domini Pape directa domino episcopo Wintonien. E. Registro Wykeham, part tcrt. a fol. 135." 
Pope Gregory here announces, that lie has received ambassadors from the Kings of England, and 
France, for concluding a peace between them ; and calls upon the clergy of England, lor a subsidy 
to defray the expences which the holy see had sustained in the war. — " No. XIX. lie Cantaria 
Wilhelmi Wyhehttm Episcopi llynton. Ex Libro evidentiarum ecclesie cathedralis Winton, No. 
I. fol. 18." Specifying the several masses and services to be performed in St. Mary's College of 
Winchester. — " No. XX. [Bibl. Cotton. Cleop. E. iv. 8 pag. 258. a.] Com. South. Valor omnium 
et singulorum, caslrorum, honor um, vianeriorum, terrarumet lenementorumac aliarum possessio- 
num quurumcunque ; nee non omnium el singulorum prqjicuum p. roven. de spiritual, et jui isdic- 
tionibus spiritual. pettinen. sire speclan. tarn episcopatui Winton. et monaster, sancti Swithini, 
Winton, predict, quam omnibus et singulis aliis monaster, priorat. archidiaconat. colleg. rector, 
eicar. cantar. ac liberis capellis, nee non omnibus aliis promotionibus spiritual, in com. predict, 
prout ralent commanibus annis." 



WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL: — LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, &C. 1 35 

" The History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Winchester : containing all the Inscrip- 
tions upon the Tombs, and Monuments : with an Account of the Bishops, Priors, Deans, and Pre- 
bendaries; also the History of Hyde Abbey. Begun by the Right Honourable Henry, late Earl 
of Clarendon, and continued to this time, by Samuel Gale, Gent. Adorned with Sculptures. 
London, printed for E. Curll, at the Dial and Bible, against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet-street, 
M.DCC.XV." Octavo. Some on large paper. Some copies have a reprinted title-page, with the 
following imprint : — " London, printed for W. Mears, at the Lamb, without Temple Bar, and J. 
Hooke, at the Fleur-de-luce, against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet-street, MDCCXXII1." — Upcoit. 

List of Plates, by V. dr. Gucht, except 13, 15, 16, and 17.— 1. View of the Cathedral, folded, 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Five Plates of the Font.— 7. The Entrance to the Choir, the work of Inigo Jones, 
folded. — 8. The Chests of the West Saxon King9, &c. on the North Wall of the Presbytery, and the 
Tomb of William Rufus, before the Altar, folded. — 9. No title ; but showing the south side of 
Fox's Chantry— 10. " Tomb of Bishop Wainfleet."— 11. "Tomb of Richard, son of William the 
Conqueror."— 12. " Monument of Richard, Earl of Portland," folded.— 13. " Tomb of William 
Wyckham, Bishop, Founder of Winchester College," Hulsbergh, sc. — 14. Slab, with Arms for 
Baptista Levinz, Bishop of Sodor and Man. — ]5. " Monument and Statue of Sir John Clobery." — 
16. " Monument of John Nicholas, S. T. P." Prebendary of Winton. — 17- " Monument of 
William Harris, S. T. P." Prebendary of Winton.— 18. Seals of the Cathedral, and of Stephen 
Gardiner, Bishop. These plates are not only bad specimens of art, but extremely inaccurate and 
unsatisfactory. The most useful part of this volume, is the list of charters in the tower relating to 
the churches, &c. of Winchester ; and the collection of monumental inscriptions contains some that 
have been since destroyed. 

" A Description of the City, College, and Cathedral of Winchester. Exhibiting a complete and 
comprehensive Detail of their Antiquities and Present State. The whole illustrated with several 
curious and authentic Particulars, collected from a Manuscript of Anthony Wood, preserved in the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford ; the College and Cathedral Registers, and other Original Authori- 
ties, never before published." 12mo. pp. 108. London, no date. [" Price one shilling."] 18 
pages are appropriated to the city ; from 22, to 68, to the College ; thence to 108, to the Cathedral. 
There is no name ordate to this vade mecum, but the Rev. R. Slant, in his Memoirs of T. Warton, 
ascribes it to that learned historian of English poetry, and supposes it was published in two small 
tracts, about 1754. " A surreptitious and imperfect edition of it," says Mr. Mant, " was soon 
afterwards printed by W. Greenville, Winchester 1 ." 

" The History and Antiquities of Winchester, setting forth its Original Constitution, Govern- 
ment, Manufactories, Trade, Commerce, and Navigation ; its several Wards, Parishes, Precincts, 
Districts, Churches, Religious and Charitable Foundations, and other Public Edifices : together 
with the Charters, Laws, Customs, Rights, Liberties, and Privileges of that ancient City. Illustrated 
with a variety of Plates." In two volumes 12mo. — vol. i. pp. 237; exclusive of preface, title, and 
dedication, vol. ii. pp.299. Winton, 1773. These volumes contain twelve " cuts," and, besides 
accounts of the city, cathedral, &c. comprehend histories of the College, and of St. Cross. They 
are evidently compiled by a person, or by persons, who were little versed in topographical and 
antiquarian literature. Formerly they were said to have been written, or arranged, by the Rev. 
Wm. Wavel, but some descendants of that gentleman, have disavowed his connection with the 
work. Dr. Milner, in his prelace, shows that the work is replete with " flagrant errors," enough 
" to require a whole volume to detect them all." 

" The History, Civil and Ecclesiastical, and Survey of the Antiquities of Winchester. By the 
Rev. John Milner, M. A. F. S. A." In two volumes, 4to. Winchester, 1793. " Vol. I. being the 
Historical Part, Vol. II. the Survey of the Antiquities." With plates, and a plan of the city. 

A second edition was published in 1809, with considerable additions, and a copious postscript, in 
which the several strictures contained in the reviews, &c that had been published on the work, are 
detailed and discussed. 12 copies printed on large paper of the first edition, and some large paper of 
the second. The following extract from the advertisement will explain the difference between the two 
editions : — " A copious postscript is annexed to the present edition, in which the several strictures 
contained in the reviews and other works that have been published on the subject of the history, are 
detailed and discussed. Several considerable additions are interspersed throughout the work, and 

1 This work, says Dr. Milner, " is exceedingly defective and erroneous;" some instances of which the Doctor 
points out in the tenth page of his preface. 



130 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL :— LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, &C. 

particularly amongst the notes ; one of these contains observations upon a work lately published, in 
two octavo volumes, called British Monachism. Another addition consists of a whole new chapter, 
being a survey of the most remarkable modern monuments in Winchester Cathedral. 

" Certain notes, which seemed to be of little importance, are abridged or omitted in this edition, 
and the whole preface to the second volume is left out, as the substance of it is contained in the 
postscript. 

" The style of the whole work has been carefully revised, and (it is hoped) considerably 
improved. 

" Lastly, the plates have not only been re-touched, but also corrected and improved. Three 
new plates are also given in this edition." 

This work, from the principles and opinions of the aulhor, occasioned a warmly contested con- 
troversv, between himself, Dr. Sturges, Dr. Hoadley Ashe, and several anonymous writers in the 
Antijacobin Review, British Critic, Hampshire Repository, and other critical journals. These 
disputts were chiefly on matters of opinion, — on subjects that always have been, and ever will be 
unsettled and uncertain; and therefore liable to sectarian interpretation. "Zealous bigots" have 
always injured the cause of truth and history, by partial and intemperate representations. On Dr. 
Miner's work, the following comments have been recently published : — 

" T. Warion, in his Description of Winchester, had said of the college library, that it was made 
by Warden Pinke, which Milner, vol. ii. p. 144, calls an unpardonable error, in a Wykehamist. Dr. 
Milner's is a good and useful history in many particulars; but he should have been aware of charg- 
ing any other w liter with errors. In this very sentence he has made an error of the same sort, and 
as great as that which he censures. T. Warton, was not a Wykehamist, as any member of the college 
could have told him; and with as little trouble he might have learned what ground there was for 
saying that Warden Pinke made the library ; for, though T. Warton 's expression was careless, yet in 
the main it was true. In the same part of the volume, besides this mistake concerning T. Warton, 
there are left, between Dr. M. and his printer, more errors than pages for a dozen together. Again, 
p. 141, Dr. M. sa\s of Warton's book, that the errors of the press are exceedingly numerous 3nd 
gross, p irticulaily in the epitaphs. Now he himself has given eight of those epitaphs, in each of 
which, laking one with another, he has made two errors ; and in vol. ii. p. 27, he has printed 
William of Wykeham's epitaph, in which he has made as many faults as lines." History of Win- 
chester College, with plales, 4to. 1806, p. 40, published by Mr. Ackermann, London. 

" Reflections on the Principles and Institutions oj Popery, with reference to Civil Society and 
Govt rnincnt, especially that of this kingdom; occasioned by the Rev. John Milner's History of 
Winchester. In Letters to the Rev. John Monk New bolt, Rector of St. Maurice, Winchester. By 
John Sturges, LL.D. Prebendary of Winchester, Chancellor of ihe Diocese, and one of bis 
Majesty's Chaplain's in ordinary." 8vo. Winchester, pp. 2J)8. 

" Letters to a Prebendary : being an Answer to Reflections on Popery, by the Rev. J. Sturges, 
LL.D. Prebendary and Chancellor of Winchester, and Chaplain to his Majesty ; with Remarks on 
the Opposition of Hoadhism to the Doctrines of the Church of England, and on various publica- 
tions occasioned by the late Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Winchester. By the Rev. John 
Milner, M. A. F. S. A." 4to. Winchester, 1800, pp.300. Six editions of this have been since 
printed in octavo. 

In the " Hampshire Repository," vol. i. and ii. is a Review of Milner's " History and Antiquities 
of Winchester.' Its beauties and defects are pointed out, and its errors refuted. The conductor 
of the Repository defends himself from the censures and reflections cast upon him by Mr. Milner. 
Dr. Sturges's " Reflections on Popery," and Mr. Milner's Answer thereto, are also briefly noticed. 

" An Historical and Critical Account of II inchester Cathedral ; with an engraved View and 
Ichnographical Plan of that Fabric, extracted from the Rev. Mr. Milner's History and Antiquities 
of Winchester. To which is added, a Review of its modern Monuments." 1801, 8vo. pp. 148. 

" The History and Antiquities vf the Cathedral Church of Winchester," in sixteen pages, with 
eight prints, and a plan, constitutethe fourth number of " A Graphic and Historical Description 
of the Cathedrals of Great Britain," 1813, demy 8vo. 7s. 6d., super-royal 8vo. 12s., and quarto 
II. Is. The plates are, a ground plan : — PI. 1, *' great west door-way," or porch : — PI. 2, west front, 
from north west angle: — PI. 3, view of the north side of nave, west side of north transept: — PI. 4, 
distant view from the ruins of Wolvesey : — PI. 5, N. E. with houses in the foreground : — PI. 6, 
S. transept, upper part of the choir, &c— PI. 7, part of S. side of nave, and W. side of transept ; — 
PI. 8, interior view of N. transept. 



fltet of Wv ittt*> 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 



Subjects. 



I 
II 

III 

IV 

V 
VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

— XI 

XII 
XIII 
XIV 

XV 

XVI 



XVII 
XVIII 

XIX 

XX 
XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 
XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 
XXVII 

XXVIII 

XXIX 
XXX 



Drawn by 



Engraved by 



Ground Plan of the Cathedral 
Plan and Section of the Crypts, &c 

< Views of Capitals and Bases of 
( the Nave and Choir 

View of the West Front 

Section and Plan of ditto 

View of the North Transept, <Scc. 

< View of North Side of Choir, J 
I from N. E $ 

View of the East End 

South Transept, with Ruins 

View of the Nave, looking East... 
View acrossthe Nave, from N. toS 

(View of the North Transept,? 

\ looking N.E J 

View of Ihe Choir, looking West.. 

J Part of the Stalls of the Choir. > 

I For the Title Page \ 

View of the Altar Screen 



View of Wykeham's Chantry, &c... 

(View of Beaufort's Chantry,) 
} with Part of Fox's and Wayn-C 
( flete's ) 

t Waynflete's Chantry ,with those ) 
J for Chandler and Beaufort... J 

(Groined Roof of Waynflete's ) 
■< Chantry, and Plans of Clus-> 

I tered Columns ) 

\ Elevation of Three Compart-? 
I men is on the North Side ... J 

Carved Wood Work 

< Parts of Altar Screen; Old) 
\ Screen ; and Fox's Chantry $ 

5 Section and Elevation East of > 
the Altar Screen $ 

(Elevation and Section of the) 
1 Church and Tower from N.V 

( to S ) 

C Monumental Effigies of Bis j) 
< hops Edington, Wykeham, s 

t- and Waynflete * 

5 Side of an ancient Tomb, and ) 

I Two Effigies S 

5 Nave, One Compartment, ex- } 
( ternally and internally S 

S Elevation, interior and exte- 
rior, near the Altar 

Arches and Parts of the Tower.. 
Two Viewsof the Font 



E.W.Garbett 
E.W.Garbett 

C. F. Porden. 



E. Blore... 

E. Blore... 
E. Blore... 

E. Blore.., 

E. Blore.. 

E. Blore.. 

E. Blore.. 
E. Blore.. 

E. Blore.. 

E. Blore.. 

E. Blore. 

E. Blore.. 



E. Blore., 



G. Gladwin... 
J. Roffe 

T. Ranson 

J. Le Keux... 

E. Turrell 

J. Le Keux... 

J. Le Keux... 

R. Sands 

R. Sands 

Edwards 

W. Radclyffe 

R. Sands 

W. Radclyffe 

H. Le Keux... 

H. LeKeux... 

W. Radclyffe 



E. Blore. 



Inscribed to 



E. Turrell. 



E. Blore.. 



E. Blore. 



E. Blore... 
E. Blore... 
E. Blore... 



J. Le Keux. 



R. Roffe . 



J. Roffe 

E. Turrell . 
G.Hollis... 



E. Blore 

C. F. Porden. 

E. Blore 

E. Blore 

E. Blore 

E. Blore 

E. Blore 

E. Blore 



( Hon. aud Rev. Arch- 
( deacon Legge... 



Sir Thomas Baring, Bart... 
Rev. Dr. Nott 

Rev. H. Lee 

S Rev. Dr. Rt nnell, Dean 
I of Winchester 

B. Winter, Esq 

Rev. Archdeacon Hook... 

Dr. Powell 



J. Le Keux... 
H. LeKeux... 

Edwards 

H. LeKeux... 
J. Le Keux... 

H. LeKeux... 

G.Hollis 

J. Le Keux... 



Rev. E. Poulter 

(Warden and Fellows of] 
J New College Oxford,( 
} and of Winchester^ 
College J 



fPresident and Fellows 1 
< of Magdalen College > 
f Oxford ) 



Rev. F. Iremonger . 
W. Garbett, Esq 



81, 2, 3. 
87. 



88. 

88. 
89. 

90. 

90. 

90. 

90. 
91. 

91. 

91. 

92. 
92. 

93. 



94. 

96. 

97. 

82, 6, 97. 
98. 

98. 

98. 
99. 

101. 

83, 102. 
10?. 

103. 

104. 
104. 



A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 

OF THE 

AGES AND STYLES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE CHURCH, &c. 



bishops. 



Kings. 



Walkelyn.. 



William I. 



Hen. de Blois Henry I 
De Lucy 



5 Rich. I. . ? 
}Jobn J 



N. Eliensis.... 



5 Hen. ill. ) 
\ Ed. I. II. j 



Edingtou Edward III 



Wykeham . 



Beaufort 

Wayntiete.... 

Courteney ... 
Langton 



5 Edw.III. ? 
t Rich. II.. J 



Henry IV 

Henry IV 

Edward IV... 
Henry VII.... 



Fox 



Ditto. 



Gardiner Henry VIII. 

Rich. Ncile... CharlesI 



Temp. 



1079 

to 
1093 



1129 

1189 

to 

1206 

1480 

to 
1310 



1330 



1370 

to 
1400 

1410 



1480 
1493 

1500 

1540 
1C27 



Parts of the Edifice. 



'Crypts under the Preshytery and^ 
Ailes, also under de Lucy's work. 
Part of the Chapterhouse, Tran- I 
«( septs and Tower, Internal Parts f 
of the Piers, and Walls of the 
Nave, afterwards cased by 
L Wykeham. Font 

Arches in S. Transept 



(Chantry Ailes, east of the Altar^ 
j Screen, with Part of the Ladyf 
S Chapel, the Two h'ide Chapels.f 
( and Staircase Turrets J 

( Preshytery from the Tower, to the j 

< Altar Screen J 

( Old Screen, with Niches, &c 



' Stalls of the Choir 

) West Front, Two Windows on the ) 
) North, and One on the South ... ) 
. Edingtnn's Chantry 



\Nave and Ailes ' 

) Wykeham's Chantry and Tomb... I 

Beaufort's ditto 

Waynflcte's ditto, and Altar Screen < 

St. Mary's Chapel, Pulpit j 

Langton's Chapel 



C Fox's Chantry Chapel, Windows of 
< Presbytery and its Ailes, and 
( the Screens 

Gardiner's Chantry 



5 Fitting up Altar Screen, Screen to 7 
I Choir, &c J 



57, 8, 9... ( II 
70,77.... 1 
91,99,87 I 



57 

711 
'.'1 

105. 



III. VI. IX. XII. 
XIII. XXIII. 
XXIV. XXIX. 



XXX. 



60,104... XXIX. 



60,97., 



103. 



63,92. ... 
64, 88, 09 
101 



65,75.... 
102,91... 

101,93... 



94 

101,98... 
96, 92.... 

67, 76.... 
97,90.... 

67,77,83 



67,94.... 



96. 
80. 



III. VII. VIII. 
XVII. XVIII. 
' XX. XXIII. 



XIII. XXVIII. 
XXII. XXIII. XXVI. 

XIII. XIV. 
IV. V. XL 
XXV. 

5 III. IX. X. XL XIII. 
I XXVII. 

5 xvi. xvii. xviii. 

\ XIX. 

XVII. XVIII. XXV. 

5 xv. xvii. xxii. 

I XXIII. XXV. 

Win. xx. xxi. 

XVII. XXL 

5 vii. ix. xv. xvi. 

I XXII. 

5 xvni. xxiil 

I XXVIII. 
X. XXIV. 



138 WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL : — LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, &C. 

8. James Montague : 4to. S. Pass. onel2rao. one by Elstrake one 24mo. by S. Pass, 

1617 one in the " Heroologia," copied. Bromley. 

9. Lancelot Andrews : J. Payne, f. 1632, Frontispiece to his " Exposition of the Ten Com- 

mandments," fol. This is copied by R. White, in 12mo. R. Vaughan, sc. 4to. Hollar, f. 

1643, 12mo. In Bishop Sparrow's " Rationale of the Common Prayer," in which are several 
other heads by Hollar. — Prefixed to his " Preces Privatse," D. Loggan, sc. 1675, 12mo.— Fron- 
tispiece to his " Devotions," 18mo.— By Simon Pass, without his name, 1618, 4to. By 

Simon Pass, looking to the left, 1616, 4to. (rare), inscribed "Episcopis Winton." From 

his Monument at St. Mary Overies, two different aspects. Granger and Bromley. 

10. Walter Curle : fol. T. Cecil, sc Another by Droeshout. Bromley. 

11. Brian Duppa: R. W. (White), sc. before his " Holy Rules and Helps of Devotion," &c. 
small 12mo. 1674 A Portrait of him at Christ Church, Oxford. Bromley. 

12. George Morley: P. Lely, p. R. Tompson, exc large h. sh. mez. — Lely, p. Vertue, sc. 

1740. In the collection of Gen. Dormer, at Rowsham. lllust. Head. — Sitting in a chair, h. sh. 
mez. A portrait of him at C. Ch. Oxford. — Bromley and Granger. 

13. Peter Mews : D. Loggan, ad vivium del. et sc. h. sh. Two oval prints, no name. — A 

portrait at St. John's College, Oxford. Bromley. 

14. Jonathan Trelawney : portrait at C. Ch. Oxford. Bromley. 

15. Charles Trimnell : mez. J. Faber. Noble, Bromley. 

16. Benjamin Hoadley : aet. 67, 1743, sitting in robes, sh. W. Hogarth, p. B. Baron, sc. — 

set. 80, Profile prefixed to his " Works," fol. 1773, N. Hone, p. J. Basire, sc. 1772. Oval, 

iu a canonical habit, J. Faber, mez. Altered to a bishop's, with Simon's name. 

Canonical habit altered to a bishop's, la. fol. G. Vertue, sc. — Oval, in a canonical habit, 4to. 
mez. — One by M. V. Gucht, 8vo. oval in wood before his " Life." Bromley. 

17. John Thomas : standing in the robes of the garter, mez. B. Wilson, p. R. Houlston, sc. 1771. 

PORTRAITS OF DEANS OF WINTON. . 

1. Lawrence Humphrey: in the " Heroologia," by Pass. Another in " Boissard." Bromley 

2. Richard Meggot : la. fol. G. Kneller, p. D. Loggan, sc. Another la. fol. G. Kneller, 

R. White. One prefixed to his " Sermons, 1685, 8vo. R. White. Bromley. 

3. Zachary Pearce : prefixed to his " Works," 1777, 4to. Penny, 1768, T. Chambars.- 

Three quarters length, sitting, mez. T. Hudson, 1754, J. Faber, sc. Bromley. 

4. Jonathan Shipley : oval frame, mez. J. Reynolds, p. J. R. Smith, sc. 1777. Prefixed to 

his " Works," 1792, 8vo. J. Reynolds, p- T. Trotter, sc. Bromley. 

VIEWS AND PRINTS OF THE CHURCH, AND OF ITS MONUMENTS. 

In addition to the prints already specified as belonging to different books, the following have 
been published : — Sovth protpect of the Cathedral, by Dr. King, in Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. i. 
In Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," are the following : Wil. de Basyng's coffin lid, vol. i. pi. ii. 
p. 63: — Inscriptions from the Church, ib. vol. ii. pt. i pi. xxxii: — in Carter's " Ancient Architec- 
ture of England," the following subjects are represented, viz. Tomb of William Rufus : — An Arch 
in the wall of the west aile of the south transept: — one compartment of the North Transept, with 
details at large : — Door-way, formerly in the wall of the south transept : — view of one side of the 
Font .— also elevations of the two sides charged with sculpture, and of the upper surface. — Other 
prints of this font are given in the " Archaeologia," vol. x. also in " Vetusta Monumenta," vol. ii. — A 
South-east view ol the Cathedral, drawn and etched by J. Buckler, and aquatinted by R. Reeve, 
was published in 1808 : — a North-west view of the Cathedral, drawn and etched by J. C. Buckler ; 
and a Southeast view, by the same artist, are published in No. IV. of " Etchings of the Cathedral, 
Collegiate, and Abbey Churches."— In Carter's " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture, and Painting," 
are four etchings of tlie Paintings on the Walls of St. Mary's Chapel, with a long dissertation on 
the subjects by the Rev. J. Milner.— A view of the Nave of the Cathedral, engraved by D. Havell, 
from a very beautiful drawing by F. Mackenzie, is published in Ackennann's " History, &c. of 
Winchester College," 4to. 1816. 



WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL :— LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, &C. 137 

In the second volume of '• Vetusta Monumenta" are long accounts, by R. Gough, of the Chan- 
tries of Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop Waynflete, and Bishop Fox; with anecdotes of each prelate, 
and six engravings by Basire, from drawings by Schnebbelie, representing the said chantries, and 
some of their ornaments. Had these plates been accurately drawn and engraved, they would have 
proved highly interesting and valuable ; but the slovenly style in which they are executed, seems 
rather to tantalize than gratify our curiosity. In Cough's Sepulchral Monuments, are similar 
accounts. 

ACCOUNTS OF BISHOPS. 

" The Life of William of Wykehanr, Bishop of Winchester; collected from Records, Registers, 
Manuscripts, and other authentic Evidences. By Robert Lowth, D. D. Prebendary of Durham, 
and Chaplain in ordinary to his Majesty." 8vo. pp. 404, 1758. This is the title to the first 
edition: a second was printed in the following year, " with additions," and a third in 1777- Dr. 
Milner says, that this volume " contains much useful information, and also many mistakes." 

" Historica Descriptio complectens Vitam ac Res Gestas Beatissimi viri Gulielmi Wicami quon- 
dam Vintoniensis Episcopi, et Anglise Cancellarii, et Fundator is duorum Collegiorum Oxoniae et 
Vintoniae. Oxoniae, e Theatro Sheldoniano, An. Dom. 1G00. 4to. 137 pages." With the arms of 
William of Wykeham to front the title-page. 

N. B. The author of this Memoir, was Dr. Thomas Martin, Chancellor of this Diocese, under 
Bishop Gardiner, and it was first printed in 4to. in 1507. — Gough. 

" The Life of William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, Lord High Chancellor of England, in 
the Reign of Henry VI. and Founder of Magdalen College, Oxford : collected from Records, 
Registers, Manuscripts, and other authentic Evidences. By Richard Chandler, D. D. formerly 
Fellow of that College." 8vo. pp. 428, London, 1811, with Plates. 

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF THE BISHOPS OF WINCHESTER. 

1. William of Wickham : lloubraken, sc. I h. sh. from a picture in Winchester College. Ulust. 

Head. — Whole lcpgtlr, from the picture in Winchester College, Grignion, sc. — tomb of. sh. by 
J. K. Sherwin. — Large 4to. New College, Wiutou, ,/. Faber, f.— From effigy on his tomb. 
Grignion. — One by Parker. Granger and Bromley. 

2. Henry Beaufort, at Mr Walpole's, done for Ilarding'sShakspeare, by./. Parker. Granger. 

3. William Waynflete : lloubraken, sc. 1742, from a print at Magdalen College, Oxford, 

large h. sh. lllust. Head. — Gulielmus Patten, alias Waynflete, Maria; Magdalen College, Oxou, 
1459, ./. Faber, f. large 4to. inez. — One by Parker. Granger and Bromley. 

4. Richard Fox: Johannus Corvus Flandrus faciehut, Fertile, sc. 1723. In Fiddes' " Life of Car- 

dinal Wolsey," from the original picture at C. C. C. Oxon. — G. Glover, sc. — Sturt, sc. — A 
small oval, for Dr. Knight's " Life of Erasmus " — One of lire founders, J. Faber, fc. large 4to. 
mez. 151(5. — One by Parker. Granger and Bromley. 

5. Thomas Wolsey: Ilolstein, p. Faber, sc. One of the founders, 4to. mez — A label from his 

mouth, inscribed " Ego uicus et rcx,"4to. — Two, with and without arms, prefixed to Iris " Life" 
by Cavendish. Elstrake, sc. 4lo. — Head by Loggan, in Bnrnefs" History of the Reformation.'' 

in Holland's " Heroologia," 8vo. — W. M. (Marshall) sc. small in Fuller's " Holy state." 

— P. Fourdriner, sc. h. len. h. sh. in his " Life," by Fiddes, fol. 1724. lloubraken, sc. 

lllust. Head, in the possession of Mr. Kingslcy. Desmchers. sc. 4to. — inscribed C. W. 

Verlue, sc. a small oval. One by Parker'. Granger and Bromley. 

G. Stephen Gardiner : in Harding's Shakspeare, 1700, 1V.N. Gardiner, by Gunst. Bromley. 

7. Robert Horn e: inscribed " Stephen fiardiuer," fol. Holbein. R. \\ kite. Granger and Bromley 1 . 

1 " There is no head of Wolsey which is not in profile." Bromley. 

1 " It seems now pretty clear, that this print is really the pprtiail of Bishop Home, as appears from the figure of 
the person, and the arms, " three bugle horns." Edmund Tumor, Esq. of Sackville-street, who did me the honour 
of communicating this article, purchased at a sale, a portrait of a bishop, with the arms of the See of Winches- 
ter impaled with B. a cross, or ; between four birds heads, erased of the second, in the centre of the cross a cinque foil, 
gules: which wen- the arms granted to Bishop Gardiner. Mr. T. afterwards compared it with an undoubted por- 
trait of that bishop in the lodge of Trinity Hall, in Cambridge, (whereof Gardiner was some time master,) and found 
it to be the same countenance exactly, but iti better preservation, Bromley. 

S 



INDEX. 



AGiLBERT,bp. account of, 26. 

Alfred, King, crowned in Winchester Cath. 33. 

Alfrith, or Adferth, bp. 32. 

Altar Screen, PI. XV. ; described, 92; of St. Al- 
ban's, 93, n. ; PI. XXII. ; described, 98. 

Alwyn, bp. account of, 42. 

Andrews, bp. 127. 

Arches, early pointed with ornaments, PI. XXIX. ; 
described, 104 ; semicircular ditto, pointed ditto, 
60. 

Architecture, Ancient, only to be understood by 
Plans, Sections, &c. 88. 

Asser, Reginald de, bp. 116. 

Athelm, bp. 34. 

Austen, Jane, 109. 

B. 

Balguy, Dr. Thomas, 107. 

Banbury, Earl of, 108. 

Beaufort, Henry, bp. 122. 

Beaufort's Chantry, PI. XVII.; described, 95. 

Bertulf, bp. 34. 

Bilson, Thomas, bp. 127. 

Birinus, extraordinary Miracle of, 23. 

, death of, 26. 

Bishops, Seven consecrated in one day, 35. 

Bishop's Throne, 76. 

Blois, bp. de, 54 ; Account of, 112. 
. Brinstan, or Birnstan, bp. 36. 

Buttress, Profile and Plan of, PI. V.; Views of, PI. 
VI.; various, PI. VII. 
C. 

Calefactory, 100. 

Canute, King, 42. 

Capitular Chapel, 82. 

Cathedral Church begun, 48; converted into a 
Heathen Temple, 22; fortified, 31; Chapter- 
house, 83 ; Choir, 76, 80 ; described, 91 ; Crypt, 
58, 77; described, 86; Nave, 75; described, 
102; Tower, 56, 78; Norman Roof, 57; Exte- 
rior described, 73 ; Interior, 74. 

Cathedrals considered as national property, 78, n.; 

disgraced by trifling tombs, 79, n. 

Cerdic, obtained possession of Venta, 22. 

Chapter-house, 83 ; Plan of, PI. I. ; Ruins of, PI. IX. 

Cheney, Dean, 107. 

Chests, with remains of Saxon Kings, &c. 103; 
one of them shown, PI. XV. 

Christianity, conversion of the Britons to, 10. 

Choir, 76, 80 ; View of, PI. XIII. ; described, 91. 

Civil Wars between Stephen and Matilda, 54. 

Clobery, Sir John, 109. 

Cloister Wall, extent of, Plan I. 

Columns, Plan of, PI. I. VI. ; one of the Crypts, PI. 
II. 3, 6; Clustered, Caps, Eases, and Plan of, 
PI. III. ; Plans, PI. XIX. 

Cooper, bp. account of, 127. 

Cceur-de-Lion, Rich, the First, 54 ; account of, 113. 

Courteney, Sepulture of, 84 ; bp. account of, 123. 



Cross, St., Hospital and Church, 112. 

Crypts, 77; Plan and Section of, PI. II. ; described, 

86. 
Curfew Bell first established at Winton, 47. 
Curie, bp. 128. 

D. 
Daniel, bp. 28. 
Davies, Colonel, 109. 
Day, Wm. bp. 127. 
Defects of Exterior, 78. 

of Interior, 79. 

Denewulf, or Denulf, bp. 33. 
Dorchester Church, Account of, 24. 
Dunbert, bp. 33. 
Duppa, bp. 128. 

E. 
Eadmund, or Edmund, bp. 30. 
East End, View of, PI. VIII. ; described, 90. 
Edington, bp. account of, 117 ; Chantry, PI. XL 
Edington's Effigy, PI. XXV. ; described, 100. 
Edward the Confessor, 43. 
Edwy, Coronation of at Winchester, 37. 
Effigies of a Knight, PI. XXVI.; described, 102; 

of a bishop, ditto. 
Effigiesr)f Beaufort, &c. 81 ; Edington, Wykeham, 

and Waynflete, PI. XXV. 
Egbert, King, crowned King of all Britain at Win- 
chester, 29. 
Eleutherius, bp. 27. 
Ely, Nicholas of, bp. 116. 
Elphege, St. the second, bp. 41. _ 
Elsin, or Alfin, bp. 36. 
Emma, Queen, Fiery Ordeal of, 43. 
Ethel wold, St. bp. 38. 

Ethclmar, bp. Sepulture of, 91 ; account of, 115. 
Exon, or Oxon, bp. 116. 
Eyre, Dr. 108. 

3 F. 

Foix, Wm. de, Effigy of, described, 102. 
Font, two Views of, PI. XXX. ; described, 104. 
Fox, bp. his Architecture, 86 ; Chantry, PI. XVII. ; 

described, 94; Part of, PI. XX.; described, 98; 

PI. XXII.; described, 98, 99; Account of, 124. 
Free-masons, 113. 
Frithstan, bp. 36. 

G. 
Garbett,Mr. his Architectural Account of Winton 

Cathedral, 55. 
Gardiner's Chantry, PI. XVIII. ; described, 96, 99; 

bp. account of, 125. 
Giffard. Wm. bp. 50; account of, 111. 
Ground Plan, 81. 
Groining of Roofs of Nave and Ailes, PI. I. and 

PI. V.; of Waynflete's Chantry, PI. XIX. 
Guardian Angels, or Portland Chapel, 83. 

H. 
Harris, Dr. Wm. 108. 
Hedda, bp. 28. 
Herefrith, bp. slain at Charmouth, 30. 



INDEX. 



Hclnistan, or Helinstan, bp. 30 
Hoadlv, Ben. bp. 128. 
Holland, Sir Nath. 109. 
Home, Robt. bp. 108, 126. 
Huntingford, Jas. 108. 

Improvements made by Dean and Chapter, 78. 

K. 
Kenelwalsh, King, founded the See of Winton,25. 
Kenitlpli, or Elsius, bp. 41. 
Kinegils, death of, 25. 
KiDgsmill, Dean, 108. 

Liu 
Lady or Virgin Chapel, 82; Windows, Plan, &c. 

86; Elevation of PI. XX.; described, 97; PI. 

XXI. p. 98. 
Langtou Chapel, 77, 83, 96 ; Wood-work of PI. 

XXL; described, 98. 

, bp. account of, 124. 

Lucius, a British King, enquiry concerning his 

history, 12; death of, 14. 
Lucy's, bp. de. Architecture, 86; Columns of, 88; 

Elevation of, PI. XX. 97 ; Section of Three Ailes, 

PI. XXIII.; described, 98; account of, 113. 
M. 
Mayor appointed, 63. 
Mews, bp. 128; Vault of, 83, 87. 
Minstrels Gallery, 88 ; View of. PI. V. 
Misereres, or Scats, 92. 
Montague, bp. 127. 
Montagu, Eliz. 108. 

Monuments and Slabs generally injurious, 79. n. 
Morlcy, bp. account of, 128. 
Mullions of Windows, PI. I. 

N. 
Nave, 75; Plan of Pier, PI. III.; described, 88; 

View of, PI. X. XL; described, 91 ; Elevation of 

one compartment, PI. XXVII. ; described, 102. 
Naylor, Dean, 108. 
Neile, bp. account of, 127. 
O 
Orlcton, bp. 116; death of, 83. 

P. 
Panelling over West Front, PI. IV. 
Pinnacles of West Front, Pi IV. 
Potitissara, bp. de, 116. 
Portland, Earl of. and Chapel, 83, 87. 
Poynet, bp. account of, 126. 
Presbytery, 76; Column of, 88; Elevation of one 

Compartment, PI. XXVIII.; described, 103. 
Pulpit, 76; PI. XXI. ; described, 98. 
Pylc, Edm. 108. 

Q- 

Quilchelm baptized at Dorchester, 24. 

R. 
Richard (Coeur-de-Lion) crowned a second time, 

54; account of, 113. 
Ralcy, bp. de, account of, 1 15. 
Rums, Wm. death of, 49; Tomb, 91. 

ERRATA. 

Page 48, line 15, for " three dayt," read/our days andfeur nights, as stated by Rudborne, Annales, p. 295. 
Page 62, lines 17, 10, &c. omit, and substitute, " the face of the work, as well as the mouldings, are wrought with 
care and accuracy." 

END. 



Rupibus, bp. Effigy of, PI. XXVI. ; described, 102 ; 
account of, 114. 

S. 

Screen to Choir, 80 ; to Altar, 81 ; behind Altar, 
PI. XXII. ; described, 98. 

Silkstede's Chapel, 83 ; Sepulture of, 85. 

Stalls of Choir, PI. XIV. ; described, 92. 

St. Paul, doubts of his residence in Britain, 12. 

Stigand,bp.44 ; death of iu Winchester Castle, 45. 

Stratford, John de, bp. 116. 

Swithun, St. bp. 30 ; died, 32; tomb of, 86. 
T. 

Thomas, bp. 108. 

Toclivc, bp. account of, 113. 

Tower, 78 ; Section of, PI. XXIV. ; described, 100 ; 
Part of, PI. XXIX. ; described, 104. 

Transepts, South and North, 76, 80; exterior View 
of the latter, PI. VI. ; described, 90 ; S.Transept, 
View of PI. IX.; described, 90; interior of N. 
PI. XII. ; described, 91; West exterior of N. ; 
described, 99; interior of S. PI. XXIV.; des- 
cribed, 100. 

Trelawney, bp. 128. 

Tribune, or Minstrels Gallery, 88. 

Trimncll. bp. 108 ; account of, 128. 
V. 

Vcnta, Church of, rebuilt, 21 ; obtained the rank of 
a Metropolis, 22. 

W. 

Walkclyn, bp. 46 ; account of. 111 ; curious grant 
of Win. the Conqueror to, 48. 

Walton, Isaac, 109. 

Warton, Dr. Jos. 109. 

Watson, bp. 108, 127. 

Waynflclc, bp. account of, 122; Chantry, PI. 
XVIII.; described, 96; Roof of, PI. XIX.; de- 
scribed^ ; Effigy of, PI. XXV.; described, 101. 

Wert Front, View of, PI. IV.; Section of, V.; de- 
scribed, 88, 89. 

White, John, bp. account of, 126. 

Wickham, Win. bp. account of, 127. 

W ighten, bp. 30. 

"\\ illis, bp. 107, 128. 

Wina, bp. 27. 

Winchester partly destroyed, 52; partly restored, 
53; Castle begnn, 47 ; conquered and occupied 
by French troops, 54 ; place of importance at an 
early period, 10. 

Windows, Plans of live, PI. I. ; Great Western, PI. 
IV.; square-headed ditto; Elevation and Sec- 
tion of, PI. V. ; Circular, PI. VI. ; of Nave, PI. 
XXVII.; of Presbytery, PI. XXVII.; of-East 
End. 

Woodlokc, or Merewell, bp. 116. 

Wolsey, bp. account of, 125. 

Wykeham's Chantry, ill placed and bad in design, 
79; PI. XVI. ; described, 93; Architecture of, 
PI. XXIV. ; described, 100; Elligy, PI. XXV.; 
described, 101 ; account of, 118. 



THE 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 

OF THE 

SEE AND CATHEDRAL CHURCH 

OF 



ILLUSTRATED EY 



A SERIES OF ENGRAVINGS, 

OF 

VIEWS ELEVATIONS, PLANS, AND DETAILS 

OF THE 

&vs%it$ttnve of tbt orimttf) : 

WITH 

BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF THE BISHOPS 

OF 

LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY. 



BY 

JOHN BRITTON, F.S.A. 



EontJon : 

PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, PATERNOSTER ROW; 
THE AUTHOR, 10, TAVISTOCK PLACE; AND J. TAYLOR, 59, HIGH HOLBORN. 

1820. 






C. WbitliDgham, College House, Cliiswick. 



TO 
THE VERY REVEREND 

JOHN CHAPPEL WOODHOUSE, D.D. 

DEAN OF LICHFIELD : 

AND 

TO THE REV. CHARLES BUCKERIDGE, D.D. 

PRECENTOR, AND CANON RESIDENTIARY: 

THE REV. HUGH BAILYE, M.A. 

CHANCELLOR, AND CANON RESIDENTIARY: 

THE REV. EDWARD OUTRAM, D.D. 

TREASURER, AND CANON RESIDENTIARY: 

THE REV. JOHN NEWLING, B. D. 

CANON RESIDENTIARY: 

THE REV. ROBERT NARES, M.A. 

CANON RESIDENTIARY: 
AND TO 

THE REV. SPENCER MADAN, M.A. 

CANON RESIDENTIARY: 

®f)i0 Volume, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE CATHEDRAL, OVER WHICH 
THEY PRESIDE, WITH DISTINGUISHED HONOR TO THEMSELVES, 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 

December, 1819. 



PREFACE. 



It is a common remark, that " church work is slow;" and it may 
be also inferred, by the practice of authors and artists, that literary 
and embellished works on antient Architecture are also slow. Two 
years have elapsed since the present volume was announced ; and it 
may have surprised and disappointed some persons to have watched 
its tardy progress and final completion. As now presented, it has 
not been accomplished without considerable difficulties and solici- 
tude ; and though it may not afford that general satisfaction which 
the author is always anxious to impart, or be equal to his intentions 
and wishes, it is hoped that it will be interesting to many of the 
collectors of this species of literature. It must be allowed by the 
impartial critic, that the architectural forms, proportions, and or- 
naments of the church have never before been given with equal 
accuracy ; and it is presumed that its history and description will 
be found carefully investigated and developed. In this, as in all 
other literary works, the author has anxiously endeavoured to 
ascertain facts, and to elucidate those points of history which have 
hitherto been obscure or questionable ; yet he cannot help re- 
gretting that he has on the present occasion sought in vain for 
original documents and evidence. His practice has been to com- 
pare and analyze the contents of all published works, and to obtain, 
if possible, access to new and authentic sources of information. 
From these he deduces historical data, and in every instance refers 
to authorities. Fastidious and scrupulous himself, he concludes that 
his readers may require the same demonstration and validity of 
evidence which he regards as necessary to produce conviction. 
He is also willing to believe that the purchaser of this work, whe- 
ther architect or antiquary, will be satisfied with nothing less than 

a 



PREFACE. 

accurate delineations of the o-eometrical forms of arches, and other 
parts of the edifice, by which alone substantial knowledge can 
be obtained. Many persons, no doubt, prefer pretty picturesque 
views and artificial effects of light and shade ; thev seek only to 
please the eye, and do not wish to trouble the thinking; faculties 
with doubts and investigations. To such persons, however, the 
Cathedral Anticpiities is not addressed ; for this is intended to 
elucidate and define the ecclesiastical architecture and antiquities 
of our native country ; which can only be done by plans, sections, 
and elevations of buildings. Much controversy and discussion 
have been employed respecting the shapes and varied gradation of 
arches ; and there still exists much uncertainty and confusion on 
the subject. All this may be avoided by having them correctly 
drawn, in elevation, and their mouldings and ornaments defined 
by horizontal sections. This system is attempted in the present 
work ; in the ground plan, sections of the west front, transept, &c. 
and in the elevations of the same, with parts at large. 

It is but justice to the respectable members of this church 
establishment, to acknowledge their polite attentions to the author, 
and readiness to give him every assistance and every facility of 
ingress and egress to their cathedral, its books, and its archives. 
Unlike some ecclesiastical officers, who either deny access, or 
render its attainment difficult and vexatious, here the worthy 
dean and chapter seemed as if they were the obliged, rather than 
the obliging parties. The author therefore begs to present his best 
thanks to the following gentlemen, for their many marks of personal 
civility and assistance during: his execution of the volume now 
submitted to the public : — The Dean of Lichfieed ; the Rev. Dr. 
Beckeridge ; the Ret. Hugh Bailye ; the Rev. Archdeacon 
Nares ; the Rev. John Newling ; the Rev. Henry White ; 
R. J. Harper, Esq. ; Wm. Hamper, Esq. ; Mr. Potter, Jun. ; 
Mr. Johnson ; and Mr. Lomax. 



I^tetorp an& antiquities 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL CHURCH. 



<£fjap. £♦ 



LICHFIELD, THE BIRTH-PLACE AND HOME OF PERSONS OF TALENT: THE 

ORIGIN AND NAME OF LICHFIELD : TRADITION RELATING TO BRITISH 

MARTYRS: — ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE KINGDOM OF 

MERCIA, AND OF THE FIRST MERCIAN BISHOPS: HISTORY OF THE SEE OF 

LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY. 



The name of Lichfield is intimately associated with the history and litera- 
ture of the kingdom. In the early annals of Britain we frequently find it 
mentioned in the accounts of several religious and military events. It 
is connected with our national literature as the natal spot, or the home, of 
many distinguished authors, particularly of Dr. Johnson, David Garrick, 
Bishop Newton, Joseph Addison, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, Mr. and 
Miss Edgeworth, Dr. James, Gilbert Walmsley, James Day, Dr. Darwin, 
Miss Seward, and Richard Green. Many of the Prelates and Deans of the 
See have also been distinguished for their literary, or ecclesiastical talents: 
and have been promoted to high stations in the church or state. Every 
reader who has a heart to feel, and a head to appreciate the profound 
lucubrations of the stern moralist Dr. Johnson, must experience a degree 
of reverence and respect for the place where he first drew his breath and 



8 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

derived his early perceptions. In the character of this colossus of litera- 
ture, we observe a strange and anomalous mixture of wisdom and weak- 
ness, of philosophy and credulity; whilst the consummate histrionic 
talents, and professional jealousies of a Garrick, naturally excite the 
mingled emotions of pleasure and of pity. From such contemplations we 
may infer that Providence organizes and regulates the mental as well as 
the material world on a plan above our comprehension, by blending wis- 
dom and folly, good and evil, light and shade, so intimately, but incon- 
gruously together, that what mankind esteem perfection is never to be 
found. Of Gilbert Walmsley, who was registrar of this See, Dr. Johnson 
observes, in his Life of Edmund Smith, that he was " not able to name a 
man of equal knowledge. His acquaintance with books was great; such 
was his amplitude of learning, and such his copiousness of communication, 
that it may be doubted whether a day now passes in which I have not 
some advantage from his friendship. At this man's table I enjoyed many 
cheerful and instructive hours with companions such as are not often 
found; with one who has lengthened, and one who has gladdened life; 
with Dr. James, whose skill in physic will be long remembered; and with 
David Garrick, whose death has eclipsed the gaiety of nations, and impo- 
verished the public stock of harmless pleasure." Thus, by the power of 
exciting particular reflections and sentiments, certain spots of the earth 
become endeared to our memories, and consecrated to our admiration ; 
and this interest belongs preeminently to the birth-place of genius and the 
asylum of talent. Hence Woolsthorpe is justly immortalized for a New- 
ton: — London for a Milton : — Plyinpton for a Reynolds : — Stratford-upon- 
Avon for a Shakspeare, and Lichfield for a Johnson. It is thus that 
places and persons become mutually associated and linked together, and 
produce those " Pleasures of Imagination" which at once afford exercise 
and delight to the thinking faculties. Influenced by this feeling, we shall 
view with additional gratification the beautiful cathedral of this city. As 
an object of architecture and antiquity it excites our admiration : but 
examined in all its relations and connexions with the history of religion, 
the progress of art, the varied states of civilization, and with the good 



NAME OF LICHFIELD. 9 

and eminent persons whose ashes repose beneath its roof, it is replete 
with interest and importance. It invites at once the contemplations of 
philosophy, and the pleasing toil of antiquarian research ; which, if judi- 
ciously directed, cannot fail to elicit additional objects of mental reci'eation 
and pleasure. Let us proceed to verify this position by a brief view of the 
history of the See and Cathedral of Lichfield. 

When the fierce and credulous Anglo-Saxons were induced, by the mis- 
sionaries of the Roman pontiffs, to exchange their gloomy superstition for 
the name, rather than the principles of Christianity, and to transfer their 
idolatry from the blood-stained altars of their imaginary gods to harmless 
relics and images, a radical alteration commenced in their manners, institu- 
tions, and policy, and rapidly produced the most important results. A 
faithful and comprehensive history of these events would be peculiarly 
interesting and instructive; but most of the meagre records of the Anglo- 
Saxon age have long since perished, and those which remain abound 
with gross fabrications. The most blind and ignorant credulity, and 
the most humiliating submission to ecclesiastical despotism, were suc- 
cessfully inculcated by the Roman emissaries, and adopted by their Saxon 
converts as the primary articles of their new religion ; and the principal 
object of the histories or legends of the times was to extend and perpetuate 
those delusive notions. Hence we are disgusted by their clumsy miracles, 
shocked at the misapplication of the most sacred epithets, and compelled 
to view their simplest statements of facts, apparently indifferent, with 
doubt and suspicion, because we know not how far the interest of the 
writers may have influenced their assertions. Such are the materials 
however from which the early history of the English episcopal sees must 
necessarily be collected, not only by patient and laborious investigation, 
but by the exercise of rational discrimination. 

The introduction of Christianity into the kingdom of Mercia, the insti- 
tution of the Mercian episcopacy, the establishment and history of the See 
of Lichfield and Coventry, are subjects on which antient authorities are 
so discordant, that the most opposite conclusions have been drawn from 
them. The following account, it is hoped, will be found the most clear and 



10 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

satisfactory which has hitherto appeared : it has at least been procured with 
great care and research from original sources of information. Nothing is 
advanced without authority; no single authority has been implicitly relied 
on; nor have even the most rational conjectures been assumed as facts. 
Where certainty could not be obtained, the author has submitted his own 
opinions, or those of former writers, which in his judgment were well 
founded, together with the grounds on which those opinions have been 
formed. 

The name of Lichfield is of Saxon origin, but its etymology has long 
been a subject of dispute. In the Saxon Chronicle the word is written 
Licet/eld; in Bede, Lyccetfelth, and Licitfeld; subsequent writers call it 
Licethfeld, Lichesfeld, and Lychfeld. By some authors it is derived from 
" leccian," to ivater; as being watered by the river; by others, from " laece," 
a physician ; perhaps it may with more probability be supposed to have 
originated in the verb " licean," or "lician," to like 1 , or be agreeable; and 
therefore, to signify Pleasant Field. But it has generally been considered as 
derived from " lie," a dead body, and consequently as signifying " cadaverum 
campus," the field of dead bodies. This derivation is however conceived to 
be supported by a tradition, which prevails very generally in Lichfield, of 
the martyrdom of a great number of British Christians there, during the 
persecution under Dioclesian and Maximian. As this tradition has been 
noticed in every history of the cathedral, and in some is adduced as the 
reason for the establishment of the See on the spot consecrated by an event 
of such religious importance, it cannot, with propriety, be neglected in this 
place. The substance of it is, that a thousand Christians, the disciples of 
St. Amphibalus, suffered martyrdom in the time of that persecution, on 
the ground whereon Lichfield was afterwards built. " Whence the city 
retains the name of Lichfield, or ' cadaverum campus,' the field of dead 
bodies, and bears for its device, rather than arms, an escutcheon of land- 

1 To like was formerly used in the sense of " to be liked." Thus " the offer likes not," in 
Sbakspeare's Henry V. (Act III. chorus) means, ' the offer is not liked.' In Hamlet, "it likes 
us well," is used for 'it is well liked by us;' or, as we should now say, ' we like it well.' Act 11. 
Scene 2. 



KINGDOM OF MERCIA. 11 

scape with many martyrs in it in several ways massacred 2 ." But as this 
device could not have been used in any authentic shape before the incor- 
poration of the guild in 1387, (when it might be borne in the common 
seal) it can add little weight to the tradition of a fact so very remote. 
Several writers of eminence are of opinion, that St. Amphibalus (like St. 
Veronica, and several other Saints in the Roman calendar,) never existed ; 
that his name originated in a mistake made by Jeffrey of Monmouth, and 
that the whole legend relating to him was fabricated after the time of that 
historian 3 . 

The first authentic mention of Lichfield occurs in Bede's Ecclesiastical 
■History, where it is alluded to as the see of an Anglo-Saxon Bishop, nearly 
four hundred years after the date ascribed to the martyrdom of the dis- 
ciples of Amphibalus. In that long interval the Romans had been com- 
pelled to abandon the province of Britain, in order to defend the centre of 
their falling empire : the Britons, overpowered by their more warlike neigh- 
bours, the Scots and Picts, had summoned the Saxons, an idolatrous nation 
of Germany, to their aid: the latter having possessed themselves of the coun- 
try they were invited to defend, had driven its aboriginal inhabitants into 
Wales and Cornwall ; established seven kingdoms in Britain ; and almost 
universally adopted the Christian religion. The conversion of the kingdom 
of Mercia, of which the present diocess of Lichfield and Coventry antiently 
formed a part, must however engage our present inquiry. 

Among the kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy, that of Mercia, under 
its pagan monarch, Penda, was the most extensive and powerful. The 
neighbouring princes had embraced the profession of the Christian faith, 

1 Plot's " Natural History of Staffordshire," cb. x. § 12. p. 398. This account is given on the 
authority of John Ross or Rous, whose work is quoted by Plot in several places thus, " Ex libro 
Johannis Rufi, MS. de episcopis Wigorn." Bishop Nicholson says he should not have believed 
the existence of this MS. had it not been quoted by Dr. Plot. (Historical Library fo. 1736, 
p. 135.) And Shaw seems disposed to think that it never existed, and misquotes Bishop Nichol- 
son in support of his opinion. (Hist. Staffordshire, vol. i. p. 298.) But the MS. is quoted to 
the same effect by Speed. (Hist. Great Britain, fol. 339.) 

3 Lloyd's " Historical Account of Church Government," &c. p. 151, 152; and Archbishop 
Usher's work, " De primordiis Ecclesiae Britannicae," p. 15], 156, 159, 641. 

B 



12 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

and as Penda was continually engaged in successful warfare against them, 
he has been erroneously characterized as a sanguinary persecutor of the 
Christians \ But there is no reason to believe that he ever attacked any 
of his neighbours on account of their religion 5 . The nominal Christians 
of those, and of subsequent times, were more addicted to such impious 
aggressions than the Mercian idolaters, or any other pagans : and it is not 
improbable that Penda himself fell a victim to their fanatical zeal. This 
monarch had delegated to Peda, his eldest son, the government of the 
Middle Angles, who inhabited Leicestershire. That young prince, in 653, 
visited the court of Oswy, the Christian king of Northumberland, and 
became a suitor to his daughter, Alcfleda. Oswy consented to their union, 
on condition that Peda would renounce idolatry; which he agreeing to, 
was baptized, and soon afterwards married. On returning to his province 
he was accompanied by four priests, for the purpose of instructing the people 
in the Christian faith 6 . Within two years after these events, Penda was 
defeated in battle by Oswy, and slain ; and Peda was deputed by the victor 
to rule the Mercians, south of the Trent, who occupied the most considerable 
portion of Penda's dominions. Although the monastic historians represent 
Penda as the aggressor, and tell us that Oswy, with a small band, over- 
came the mighty host of the Mercians, through the special interposition of 
Providence, the modern reader may be allowed to distrust this marvellous 
tale. Peda does not appear to have combated for his father; on the con- 
trary, we find him, after the victory, high in Oswy's favour: and although 
it is not recorded that he, with his newly converted subjects, followed the 
banners of Oswy in this war; yet we must at least conclude that he ob- 
served a neutrality, which would deprive his father of a very material part 
of the aid he had a right to expect. But Peda was not long permitted to 

4 " luimanissimi tyranni, et pagauis ritibus deditissimi." Ang. Sac. v. i. p. 423. 

5 " Nor did King Penda obstruct the preaching of the word among his people, that is, the 
Mercians, if any were willing to hear it ; but, on the contrary, he hated and despised those whom 
he perceived not to perform the works of faith, when they had received the faith of Christ ; 
saying, They were contemptible and wretched, who did not obey their God, in whom they 
believed." Bede's Eccles. Hist. 1. iii. ch. xxi. p. 234. Translation of 1?23. 

6 Bede's Eccl. Hist. ut. sup. 



FIRST BISHOPS OF LICHFIELD. ]3 

share the extensive sway of Oswy, being murdered, about twelve months 
after the death of his father. Common report imputed the deed to the 
treachery of his wife, the daughter of Oswy 7 . From this period the Nor- 
thumbrian king possessed the throne of Mercia nearly three years without 
partner or rival ; when some of the Mercian nobles, unable longer to endure 
his yoke, raised an insurrection, expelled his forces from their country, 
and placed Wulfere, the younger son of Penda, on the throne 8 . When 
we consider the inveterate enmity between Penda and Oswy, the impla- 
cability and ferocity of the latter 9 , the critical period of Peda's conversion, 
and his untimely fate so speedily following the overthrow of his father, it 
is impossible not to suspect that the conversion of the Middle Angles was 
undertaken for the purpose of dividing the power of Penda: and that 
Peda was instrumental in advancing the ambitious Oswy to the Mercian 
throne. The crimes and follies of mankind are often seen to aid in fulfil- 
ling the benevolent purposes of the Almighty : thus the ambition of Oswy, 
and the fatal passion of Peda for an unworthy object, introduced the 
Christian faith into the most powerful kingdom of the Saxon Heptarchy. 

This important event happened in 656, when Oswy and his son-in-law, 
Peda, founded the Mercian Church, by appointing Diuma, one of the four 
priests who had accompanied the prince on his return from Northumbria, 
to preside as bishop over the Mercians, Middle Angles, the people of Lin- 
disfarue, and the neighbouring provinces ,0 . Cellach succeeded Diuma, but 
retired on the revolution which raised Wulfere to the throne, who nominated 
Trumhere to this bishopric. Jarumann succeeded Trumhere, and upon the 
death of Jarumann, the famous Ceadda was appointed to this diocess 11 . 
This prelate had been consecrated Bishop of York, and had governed that 
diocess for three years. But on being reproved by Theodore, Archbishop 

7 Bede, 1. iii. ch. xxiv. 8 Ibid. 

9 Witness his base assassination of Oswin. Bede, 1. iii. ch. xiv. 

10 Bede's Eccl. Hist. 1. iii. ch. xxiv. 

" Many particulars of the life of Ceadda will be found dispersed through Bede's Ecclesiastical 
History ; and little reliance can be placed on any anecdotes or legends relating to him that are 
not derived from that source. 



14 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

of Canterbury, as irregularly ordained, the submissive Ceadda, with great 
humility, offered to resign the episcopal dignity ; and although Theodore 
would not accept his abdication, he retired to his monastery of Lastinghain, 
which had been founded by his brother Cedd, then Bishop of Loudon. 
From this seclusion, Ceadda was summoned by Theodore, in 669, to 
assume the government of the Mercian diocess, vacant by the death of 
Jarumann. The monks of Medeshamstead, or Peterborough, invented a 
romantic tale respecting the conversion of King Wulfere by this bishop I2 . 
It relates, that while Ceadda was living in a cell by the side of a spring, 
where he was nourished by the milk of a Doe, the two sous of King Wulfere 
accidentally discovered his retreat; and, being converted by the hermit to 
Christianity, frequently repaired to his cell for purposes of devotion. But 
the cruel pagan, their father, having watched their movements, slew them 
both in the presence of their instructor. Being afterwards distracted with 
remorse for these unnatural murders, he sought the pious bishop, who had 
fled from his cell, aud earnestly implored his forgiveness and intercession 
with heaven. Ceadda embraced this occasion to impress on his mind the 
truths of Christianity ; but, unwilling to trust too much to his admonitions, 
adopted the expedient of banging his cloak upon a sunbeam! which notable 
miracle completed the conversion of the penitent idolater 13 . But if this 
story had not been totally unfounded, it would surely have been noticed 
by Bede, who gives a very particular and sufficiently marvellous account 
of St. Ceadda 14 ; nor does either the Saxon Chronicle, or William of 
Malmesbury's History, allude to any such events. 

" Leland's Collectanea, vol. i. p. 1. The account of this conversion is abridged by Leland, 
from a book " Autoris incerti nominis, sed monachi, ut cotligo, Petroburgensis." Speed also 
relates this affair on the authority of " the Liger-Booke of the Monastery of Peterborow." 
Hist, of Great Britain, book vii. p. 35G. — In Gunton's " History, &c. of the Church of Peter- 
burgh," this account is noticed in some monkish verses from the Cloister Windows. 

a See Gunton's " History of the Church of Peterburgh," pp. 2 aud 3, with the Supplement 
by Dr. Patrick, pp. 229 to 233, where this silly and impious story is treated as the forgery of an 
old anonymous writer. 

'* The Legend states, that the monastery of Peterborough was founded by Wulfere in expiation 
of his crime ; but Bede ascribes the foundation to Sexulf, its first abbot, afterwards Bishop of 
the Mercians. In the Saxon Chronicle it is attributed to King Peda. It is to be remarked, that 
Wulfere is always mentioned by Bede as a zealous Christian. 



DIVISION OF SEES. Jg 

" Ceadda," according to Bede, " had his episcopal see in the place called 
Licitfeld, in which he also died, and was buried ; where also the see of the 
succeeding bishops of that province still continues. He had built himself 
an habitation not far removed from the church, wherein he was wont to 
pray and read with a few, that is, seven or eight of the brethren, as often 
as he had any spare time from the labour and ministry of the word 15 ." 
After presiding upwards of two years, he died in 670, and was first buried 
near St. Mary's ehurch l6 ; but afterwards, when the church of St. Peter was 
built, his remains were removed into that edifice 17 . Miraculous cures were 
said to have been wrought by his relics ; and a story having been indus- 
triously circulated that his death was announced, and his departure 
solemnized by the songs of angels, his sepulchre became the resort of 
numerous superstitious devotees ls . 

In 673, Archbishop Theodore assembled a synod at Heorutford 19 , 
wherein ten of the canons, chiefly relating to ecclesiastical discipline, were 
propounded by the archbishop, nine of which were agreed to ; but one, 
which directed that more bishops should be made, as the number of the 
faithful increased, was for that time passed over 20 . Winfrid, the successor 
of Ceadda, was soon afterwards deposed, on account of some disobedience, 
(says Bede) ; whence it has been rationally inferred that he had refused his 
consent to the ordination of more English bishops ; a measure devised by 
Theodore chiefly to effect a division of the immense province of Mercia, 
which comprised nearly half of England, and was then under the government 

15 Eccl. Hist, book iv. ch. iii. Translation of 1723. 

• 6 This is the earliest mention of a church at Lichfield ; which appears to have been dedicated 
to St. Mary : it was probably one of the monasteries founded by Oswy after his victory over 
Penda. See Bede, Eccl. Hist, book iii. ch. xxiv. Or perhaps it was one of the parish churches 
then lately raised under the auspices of Archbishop Theodore. 

" Bede, ut sup. ,s Ibid. 

" Generally supposed to be Hertford, but more probably Retford in Nottinghamshire, as 
Bede dates this council in the third year of King Egfrid, in whose dominions it must therefore 
be supposed to have been held. Carte, Hist. England, vol. i. p. 246. 

20 Bede, lib., iv. ch. v.. Wilkins's Concilia, vol. i. p. .41. 



16 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



of the Bishop of Lichfield 21 . This object was steadily pursued, and at length 
procured by the archbishop 22 ; but the dates and particulars of the several 
alterations and divisions are involved in almost impenetrable obscurity* 3 . 
The learned editor of " Anglia Sacra," having minutely and patiently 
investigated the subject, by comparing all the authorities, the account given 
by him, and supported by numerous references, will here be chiefly relied 
on 24 . Sexulf, the successor of Winfrid, manifested a partial compliance 
with the views of Theodore, by instituting the See of Hereford in 676. 
Between the years 670 and 675, King Ecgfrid 25 , of Northumberland, having 
defeated Wulfere, reduced the province of Lindsey under his own domi- 
nion; which, therefore, according to the law of that age, became separated 
from the Mercian See, and incorporated with that of Wilfrid, the Northum- 
brian bishop. In 678, after much contention with Wilfrid, Theodore pre- 
vailed on King Ecgfrid to divide the Northumbrian province into several 
bishoprics ; among which he assigned the district of Lindsey to Eathed, 
whose see he fixed at Sidnacester. In the following year the Mercians 
recovered Lindsey, and restored it to the See of Lichfield ; but this re- 
union was of short duration, for Theodore having procured the confirmation 
of the Synod of Hatfield to the decree for increasing the number of bishops 
in the same year, 679, prevailed on the king of Mercia to divide the 
remainder of the Mercian diocess (that of Hereford having already been 
taken out of it) into four bishoprics, viz. Lichfield, Legecestre (supposed 



11 Warton's Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 426, note. 

" Theodore was equally distinguished as a prelate, a scholar, and a Christian? and his religion 
seems to have approached nearly to the primitive standard. His extraordinary talents were 
uniformly exerted for the purposes of extending and inculcating the pure doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. With equal firmness he maintained his own legitimate jurisdiction, and resisted the 
ambitious encroachments of the court of Rome. In the History of Canterbury Cathedral (now 
preparing for the press) the author will attempt a sketch of the biography of this truly eminent 
divine, to whom the church of England is probably more indebted than to any other of the 
prelates who presided in it before the Reformation. 

23 " Our history here is very dark : and the succession of the first bishops of Rome is not more 
involved than is that of Lichfield." Johnson's " Ecclesiastical Laws," Part I. dclxxiii. 

14 Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 423. !5 Called Egbert by Warton. Ang. Sac. ut sup. 



FIRST CATHEDRAL. A. D. 700. 17 

by Johnson to be West-Chester 26 , but by William of Malmesbury and 
Camden 27 , stated to be Leicester) Lindsey, and Worcester. The See of 
the first remained at Lichfield, the second was placed at Leicester, the 
third at Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, and the fourth at Worcester. Sexulf 
being allowed his choice, preferred Lichfield, which still retained by far 
the most extensive jurisdiction. Soon afterwards Cuthwin, who had been 
appointed to Leicester, resigned, or died; after which Sexulf governed 
both bishoprics till the time of his death, which happened in 691. At that 
period, Wilfrid, having been expelled from the See of York, resided with 
Ethelred, king of Mercia, who committed to his care the diocess of Lei- 
cester; while Hedda obtained that of Lichfield. But Wilfrid being de- 
prived, by the Synod of Nesterfeld, in 703, both dioceses again coalesced 
under the authority of Hedda; nor were they disunited during the time of 
his successor, Aldwin. But on the death of the latter, Huicta, or Witta, 
was appointed to Lichfield, and Totta to Leicester. Henceforth the diocess 
of Lichfield experienced no further alteration in its limits until, in a sub- 
sequent age, that of Chester was dismembered from it. Hedda erected 
the cathedral church of St. Peter at Lichfield, which he consecrated, 2 Kal. 
January, 700, and the bones of St. Ceadda were then translated into the 
new edifice as already mentioned 28 . 

About the year 785, OfFa, King of Mercia, who had subdued the respective 
kings of Kent, of the East Angles, and of the West Saxons, conceived the 
idea of exalting the diocess of Lichfield to the dignity of an archbishopric. 

26 Ecclesiastical Laws, Part 1. dclxxiii. 

27 De Gest. Pontif. lib. iv. de Epis. Legecest. Rer. Angl. Scrip, post Bedam praecipiu, 1601. 
Gough's Camden, vol. ii. p. 202. Much confusion has arisen from the similarity of the Anglo- 
Saxon names of these cities, which are frequently mistaken for each other by historians. Lei- 
cester was called Legerciester, Lygeraceaster, Legraceaster, Ligoracester, and Ligora — Chester, 
Legecestre, and Legeacester. Yet Malmesbury applies the word Legecestra to Leicester. See 
Ormerod's " History of the County Palatine and City of Chester," vol. i. p. 70, &c. It is with 
peculiar pleasure that I refer to, and recommend this valuable work to the attention of all lovers 
of topography. 

28 Thoinse Chesterfeld, Canonici Lichfeldensis, Historia de Episcopis Coventrensibus et Liche- 
feldensibus. Ang. Sac. vol. i. p. 428. 



18 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

To this measure he was induced partly by a jealous dislike of Janbrycht, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and partly by the desire of increasing the im- 
portance of his native kingdom, and emancipating its bishops from the 
jurisdiction of the Kentish prelate, which, after the conquest of Kent by 
the Mercians, was incompatible with the civil state of the respective king- 
doms. A synod of English bishops, assembled at Calchyth, compelled 
Janbrycht to resign all jurisdiction over the Mercian and East Anglian 
Sees, which were made subordinate to Higebert, then Bishop of Lichfield. 
Application was immediately made to Rome for a pall, but it was not 
received during the life of Higebert, who died in 786. But the representa- 
tions and munificence of Offa obtained this favour for the succeeding pre- 
late, Aldulf, who enjoyed the archiepiscopal dignity during the life of that 
prince. But Kennlph, the succeeding king of Mercia, at the instigation of 
the English clergy, petitioned Leo III. then pope, to reverse the edicts 
made under the influence of Offa 29 , and obtained a decree that the See of 
Canterbury should be restored to all its rights and privileges. Under this 
sanction, a synod held at Cloveshoe, in 803, unanimously pronounced the 
grant of the pall and metropolitical dignity to the Bishop of Lichfield to 
be null and void, as surreptitiously and fraudulently obtained. The name 
of Aldulf is signed to this council, with the addition of " Episcopus." 

The history of this See presents nothing more of particular interest until 
after the Norman Conquest; when the national council, held at London, in 
1075, resolved upon the removal of the Sees of Sherburne, Selsey, and 
Lichfield, to the cities of Salisbury, Chichester, and Chester, according to 
the decrees of the councils of Sardica and Laodicea, which prohibited the 
establishment of episcopal sees in villages 30 . The Saxon prelates however 
had never been disturbed in their preference of solitude and retirement, 
and this measure was, in reality, only part of the Norman policy, which 



29 See the epistle of Kenulpb, and decree of Leo, in Will. Malmes. de gestis Regum. Angl. 
lib. i. ch. iv. Also an epistle of Leo to Keuulph, and another from the English clergy to the 
Pope, in Ang. Sacra, vol. i. p. 460. 

30 Wilkins's Concilia, vol. i. p. 363. 



NORMAN BISHOPS: — PREBENDS. 19 

aimed at the entire subjugation of the English. Norman bishops had 
been introduced into almost every diocess, and their sees were now to 
be fixed in towns overawed by Norman garrisons. Accordingly Peter, 
then Bishop of Lichfield, transferred his See to Chester, where he was buried 
in 1085 or 1086. His successor was Robert de Lymesey, who removed 
the See to Coventry, attracted, as it is said, by the immense riches of the 
monastery which had been originally founded there by Canute, and after- 
wards restored and greatly enriched by Leofric, Earl of Hereford, and the 
celebrated Lady Godefa, or Godiva, his wife, about the year 1044. De 
Lymesey is accused of having plundered the monastery of its treasures, 
and of oppressing the monks; but the monastic historian who charges him 
with these crimes is not remarkable for impartiality in cases concerning the 
regular clergy 31 . Robert Peche, chaplain to King Henry I. was consecrated 
bishop of this See in 1117; and, according to some authors, he was the 
first who established prebends in this church; the number of which was 
augmented by the succeeding Bishop, Roger de Clinton™, who was con- 
secrated in 1128. This bishop was a great benefactor both to the city and 
to the cathedral church of Lichfield, the latter indeed he is said to have 
rebuilt. A modern author attributes the present fabric to him, but it may 
be confidently said, that the greater part of it is subsequent to the time 
of this prelate, as will hereafter be shown. De Clinton restored the See 
to Lichfield, and assumed the title of ' Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry'. 
The succeeding bishops were, until the establishment of the modern diocess 
of Chester, sometimes called Bishops of Lichfield, sometimes of Coventry, 
and often of Chester 33 , having episcopal residences in each of those places. 
The title of Coventry and Lichfield' was that most frequently borne, until 
Bishop Hacket, on the restoration of monarchy, placed the name of Lich- 

31 William of Malniesbury, De Gest. Pontif. ut supra. 

32 In Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, (vol. i. p. 425) this account is maintained to be correct, 
contrary to the assertion in the Chronicle of the Church of Lichfield, which ascribes the institu- 
tion of prebends to Athelwald, who was bishop in 847. — Thomas de Chesterfield, ut sup. p. 431. 

33 Ormerod's History of Cheshire, vol. i. p. 70. 



20 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

field before that of Coventry, on account of the approved loyalty of the 
former city. " Rob. de Peche — Rog. de Clinton — Walter Durdent — Ric. 
Peche — and Gerard de Pnella," all successively styled themselves Co- 
ventrice Episcopi only; and had a fair palace at the north-east corner of St. 
Michael's church yard. Du<>dale's Warwickshire, p. 101. 

The violent dissentions between the chapters of Lichfield and Coventry, 
with regard to their respective rights in the election of bishops, which long 
agitated this diocess, afford some remarkable instances of the ambition 
and obstinacy of the monks. These disputes commenced on the election 
of a successor to Roger de Clinton ; although it was the first occasion on 
which a licence to elect had been granted ; the preceding bishops having 
been appointed by the king, by investiture with a ring and pastoral staff. 
As no election could be made, in consequence of the disputes of the chap- 
ters, King Stephen appointed Walter Durdent to this See". By the me- 
diation of Henry II. the succeeding bishops, Richard Peche, Gerard de 
Pnella, or La Pucelle, and Hunk de Nonant, were elected without any 
material commotion 3i . The latter was an implacable enemy of the monks, 
on account of their unjustifiable interference in secular affairs, and ejected 
those of Coventry from their monastery. They were afterwards recalled 
by Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, who, having been himself a monk, 
in some measure favoured their proceedings. Not long after their restora- 
tion a new quarrel occurred, in which they beat and wounded the bishop 
and his attendants, and drove them out of the church of Coventry. For 
this outrage he procured their solemn excommunication ; and, but for the 
opposition of the archbishop, would probably have succeeded in expelling 
the monks from every cathedral in England. He was obliged however to 
confine his exertions to his own diocess, and prosecuted his complaints at 
Rome with such effect, that his enemies were at length formally ejected 
from the monastery of Coventry, where secular priests were established in 
their stead 30 . But in 1198, during the exile of this bishop, the monks 

". Warton Aogl. Sac. vol. i. p. -J34. 

JS Vita Hugouis dc Nonant Giralili Canibrensis Speculo Ecclesia;. Ang. Sac. pars ii. p. 351. 

35 Vita Hugonis de Nonant, ut sup. 



bishops: — 1228, etc. 21 

were restored by the influence of their patron, Archbishop Hubert, under 
the authority of a papal decree. On the death of Nonant, in 1 199, Geofliy 
de Muschamp was elected by the monks and canons, at the recommenda- 
tion of Hubert 37 . But on the next occasion, both chapters being left to their 
own uninfluenced choice, the monks elected Josbert, their prior; while the 
canons chose Walter de Grey, afterwards Archbishop of York. Both parties 
adhering obstinately to their respective nominations, Pandulf, the pope's 
legate, annulled all the proceedings, and afterwards induced them to concur 
in the election of William de Cornhull, Archdeacon of Huntingdon. To 
this prelate the chapter of Lichfield is indebted for the right of choosing its 
dean 38 . The next licence to appoint a bishop was granted " to all those who 
ought and used to elect," upon which the canons entered a protest against 
any person to be brought in by the monks : they nevertheless chose their 
own prior; but confirmation was refused, and the election annulled. The 
monks, however, appealed to Rome, and a tedious litigation ensued; but 
in order that the See might not remain vacant, the Pope, Honorius III. 
prevailed on both parties to commit their powers to him on that occasion, 
and he assigned Alexander de Stavenby to the vacant See. In 1228 a 
compromise was effected by Gregory IX., whereby it was decreed that 
the chapters should unite, and form one body of electors, and that the 
appointment should take place alternately in the churches of Coventry and 
Lichfield 39 . According to this agreement, on the death of Stavenby, Wil- 
liam de Raleigh was elected in the church of Coventry ; but being at the 
same time chosen for the diocess of Norwich, he preferred the latter; 
upon which the monks insisted that a new election should take place at 

37 Thomas de Chesterfield, ut sup. 

18 " Iste Willielmus episcopus capitulo Lichesfeldensi prirao liberam in Domino concessit potes- 
tatem eligendi aliquem de gremio in Decanum Lichesfeldeusis Ecclesiae. Confirmata est hsec 
concessio per Papam Honoriam IV. Nam antea, usque ad hoc tempus, episcopus solebat coii- 
ferre Decanatum sicut et Canonicaturn." Thomas de Chesterfield, ut sup. 

39 " Quod una vice in Coventrensi ecclesia conventus Coventrensis et capitulum Lichesfeldense 
electionem episcopi celebrent, et altera vice similiter ab utrisque in ecclesia Lichesfeldensi 
electio celebretur." Thomas de Chesterfield, ut sup. 



22 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

Coventry, the former being rendered nugatory ; while the canons main- 
tained that it must be held at Lichfield, as Coventry had had its turn. 
This dissention again produced two elections, that of Nicholas de Farn- 
ham by the monks, and that of William de Manchester by the canons. 
The latter, however, declined the See in favour of the former, to whose 
election the canons agreed, saving the question of right. But Farnham also 
declined the episcopal dignity. A third election was therefore made by 
the two chapters, jointly, at Coventry, when Hugh de Pateshulle, a Canon 
of London, and Treasurer of England, son of Simon de Pateshulle, 
formerly Chief Justice, was duly chosen, and consecrated in J 240. The 
election of the succeeding prelate, Roger de Weseham, was preceded by 
new differences, and an appeal to the court of Rome; in the course of 
which proceedings, the canons and monks entered into an agreement that 
each party should vote in all future elections by an equal number of 
persons. This agreement was reduced to writing, and sealed, in 1255. 
These disputes were not again revived until after the death of Bishop 
Walter de Langton, in 1321; when a new quarrel arose on the subject 
of the number of electors, the monks refusing to abide by their solemn 
agreement. An appeal was instituted by the canons, pending which, 
Pope John XXII. appointed Roger de Norburgh to the vacant See, who 
was accordingly consecrated in 1322. 

As the little which is known of the history of the fabric of Lichfield Ca- 
thedral will be noticed in the succeeding chapter, the next remarkable aera 
in the history of the diocess is the thirtieth year of King Henry VIII., when 
the church of Lichfield was despoiled of its ornaments. The statues of 
saints, shrines of gold and silver, gems, and other valuable articles, were 
converted to the use of the crown, with the exception of the shrine of St. 
Ceadda, which, on the petition of Bishop Roland Lee, the king granted to 
the use of the church. The monastery of Coventry was surrendered to the 
crowu, and its fine church, notwithstanding the urgent remonstrances of the 
bishop, was entirely demolished. An act was then passed, that the pro- 
ceedings of the dean and chapter of Lichfield should be as valid, without 
the chapter of Coventry, as the joint acts of the two chapters had formerly 



EXTENT OF DIOCESS. 23 

been 40 . And the monastery of St. Werburg, in Chester, having also been 
suppressed, was by letters patent, dated July 16, in the thirty-third year 
of King Henry VIII. (1542) made the episcopal See of the diocess of 
Chester, then created ; the limits whereof include a very considerable 
portion of the district formerly within the jurisdiction of the bishops of 
Lichfield and Coventry. This new diocess was made suffragan to the 
Archbishop of York. 

The diocess of Lichfield and Coventry now contains the whole county 
of Stafford, (except Brome and Clent, which belong to Worcester,) all Der- 
byshire, the greater part of Warwickshire, and nearly half of Shropshire. 
It is divided into the archdeaconries of Salop, Coventry, Stafford, and 
Derby. That of Salop comprises the deanries of Salop and Newport, 
whilst that of Coventry contains the deanries of Coventry, Arden, Marten, 
and Stonely, in the county of Warwick ; the archdeaconry of Stafford 
includes the deanries of Lapley and Treizull, Leek and Alton, Newcastle 
and Stone, and Tamworth and Tutbury, all in the county of Stafford; 
and the deanries of Derby, Castillar, Chesterfield, Ashbourne, High Peak, 
and Repington, all in the county of Derby, appertain to the archdeaconry 
of Derby. There is no archdeacon denominated from Lichfield, which is 
the only cathedral (except Peterborough and Bristol, which are of Henry 
the Eighth's foundation) that does not give title to an archdeacon. The 
parishes within the city of Lichfield are in the peculiar jurisdiction of the 
Dean of Lichfield. This diocess contains, according to Heylin, five 
hundred and fifty-seven parishes; and the clergy's tenths amount to 
£590. 16*. lid. 41 . 

*° 33 Henry VIII. Gulielmi Wliitloeke, Contiuuatio Hist. Liclifeld. Ang. Sac. pars i. p. 458. 
See also Dugdale's "Antiquities of Warwickshire." 

4 ' Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, vol. i. p. 371. 



<£J)ajh M* 



HISTORICAL NOTICES OF THE CATHEDRAL; — ITS FOUNDATION, ERECTION, 
SUCCESSIVE ALTERATIONS AND ADDITIONS — WITH AN ACCOUNT OF ITS 
PRESENT STATE. 



It is generally said that King Oswy, and his son-in-law, Peda, founded the 
Cathedral of Lichfield ; and Bede relates that the Mercians received the 
Christian faith, and that Diuma was appointed their hishop in 605. Thomas 
Chesterfield, however, who wrote the " Chronicle of the Church of Lich- 
field"' in 1350, asserts, that the Mercian Church was formed, and a cathe- 
dral founded, anterior to the time of Diuma. His account does not how- 
ever appear entitled to much credit. According to Bede, Ceadda had his 
episcopal See in this place, where he was buried, and where the seat of 
the succeeding bishops still continues. Warton, in Anglia Sacra, (1-424) 
infers, that the prelates who preceded Ceadda, " had no cathedral, or 
certain See appointed them, but were content to live in monasteries." We 
have already related that Ceadda resided in a habitation built by himself, 
and after death was first interred in the church of St. Mary, but his 
remains were afterwards removed to that of St. Peter. This church may 
be regarded as the original cathedral, and, as before shown, was finished 
and consecrated by Hedda in January, a. d. 700. 

There is some reason to suppose that the church was commenced by 
Jarumann, the predecessor of Ceadda '. It probably occupied the site of 

1 la the Harleian MSS. 3839, it is staled that Dugdale found an old document in the treasury 
that uoticed the consecration of ihe church in the close by Bishop Jarumann, the predecessor 
of Ceadda, in 666. 



LICHFIELD CLOSE. 25 

the existing edifice, and continued to be the cathedral church of the 
diocess until after the Norman conquest 2 . 

An inscription, formerly placed over the great western door, obscurely 
attributes the foundation to Oswy ; but as it purports to have been 
written above a thousand years after that event, it has no pretensions to 
authority 3 . 

From the time of Hedda to that of Bishop Roger de Clinton, who suc- 
ceeded to this See in 1128, a period of four hundred and twenty-eight 

3 A memorial from the archives of the church, printed in Angl. Sac, (pars i. 459) and in the 
Monasticon, (vol. iii. p. 219) which must have been written after the twelfth century, details 
the following particulars ; " the city of Lichfield was formerly called Liches, from War. In 
it are two monasteries ; one in the eastern part called the Station of St. Ceadd, or Stow : the 
other in the western, dedicated to the Virgin, and inclosed with ditches and fences ; and 
formerly decorated with many gifts by the Mercian kings. In this was the Archbishop's See. 
And this monastery is situate between Leman Sych, and Way-cliffe. The close of this monas- 
tery is divided into two parts, the greater and the less. In the greater, the bishop's dwelling 
stands in the eastern corner of the north side, and contains in length three hundred and twenty 
feet, and in breadth one hundred and sixty feet. The dean's habitation, adjoining the bishop's, 
contains half the dimensions of the former in length and breadth. The dwellings of the canons, 
built round the monastery, each contain half the dimensions of that of the dean : except that 
mansion which lately belonged to Master Odo de Bikennar, because he purchased from the 
bishop a certain place in Lemanskey, and inclosed it with stone. There are in the said close 
twenty-six mansions, including that of the bishop." 

3 As this inscription is mentioned in every history of the church, and incorrectly quoted by 
several authors, it has been considered proper to introduce it here. 

Oswyus est Lichfield fundator, sed reparator 
Offa fuit : regum fama perennis erit : 
R.ex Stephanus, rex Henricus, primusque Ricardus, 
Rex et Johannes plurima dona dabant. 
Supra, haec millenos ecclesia floruit annos, 
Duret ad extremum nobilis usque diem, 
Daque, Deus, longum ut haec sacra floreat cedes, 
Et celebrent nomen plebs ibi sanctum tuum. 
Fundata est ecclesia Merciensis 
Qua; nunc Lichfeldia dicitur 
Facta Cathedralis, 
Anno Domini 
^ DC LVII. — Dugdale's Visitation of Staffordshire. 



26 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

years, the history of this edifice is wholly unknown. Of the last named 
prelate the chronicle asserts, that " he raised the church of Lichfield, as 
well in fabric as in honour ; — increased the number of the prebends, — 
fortified the castle of Lichfield, — surrounded the town by a wall, or vallum, 
and infeoffed knights*." 

This is all the information which history affords on the subject of the 
erection of a church here by De Clinton ; but modern writers have sup- 
plied the deficiency from their own imaginations. By merely assuming 
that the whole of the present edifice was built by De Clinton 5 , it has been 
found easy to describe his work with minute accuracy 6 . But a moderate 
acquaintance with ecclesiastical architecture will be sufficient to convince 
any observer that little of De Clinton's architecture now remains. 

* " Ecclesiam erexit Lichesfeldensem, tarn in fabrica quam in honorc, numcrum praebendaruui 
augendo, castruni Licbesfeldense muniendo, villain vallo vallando, uiilitcs infeodando." Ang. 
Sac. pars i. p. 434. Tbe meaning of the latter words is, that lie granted the church lauds to 
be held as knights fees; of which, according to Stow, the religious houses before their 
suppression possessed 28,015, each containing, as Coke asserts, twelve carrucates, or plough 
lands. 

5 It is not very extraordinary that Plot and Bishop Godwin should, in the absence of direct 
historical evidence on the subject of the erection of the existing edifice, have concluded it to be 
the work of Clinton; but that Mr. Carter's architectural experience should not have prevented 
his committing the same error, is certainly unaccountable. See the Gent. Mag. vol. lxxix. part ii. 
p. 607, and vol. lxxx. part i. p. 525. It has been however the common practice of this visionary 
antiquary to ascribe, if possible, every antient edifice to the date of its original foundation; and 
if precluded by notorious facts from indulging this propensity, to seize on the most remote date 
the circumstances of the case would permit, without regard to the known progress of our national 
architecture. 

6 Jackson, in bis " History of the City and Cathedral of Lichfield," p. 75, states, (without 
giving any authority) that "Clinton pulled down the old church, 48 Henry I. 1148, (which year 
was not the 48th of Henry I., who only reigned thirty-five years, but the 13th of Stephen; and 
was the very year of Clinton's death) and rebuilt it upon its present magnificent style — roofed 
it, with that noble stone vault, which is the admiration of architects, and then covered the 
whole with lead." This account is evidently erroneous: as may be inferred from its own state- 
ment, and as may be clearly perceived by the varied styles of architecture in the church. 
Browne Willis construes more rationally the Lichfield Chronicle, in stating that Bishop Clinton 
" built good part of tbe church." Survey of Cathedrals, vol. i. p. 377. 



BUILDING THE CATHEDRAL. 27 

In 1235, King Henry III. granted to the dean and chapter a licence to 
dig stone in the forest of Hop was 7 for the fabric of the church of Lichfield, 
and in the precept then addressed to the Sheriff of Staffordshire, com- 
manded him not to impede the workmen on the occasion. Only three years 
afterwards another precept was issued to Hugh de Loges, then keeper of 
the same forest, to allow the canons of Lichfield to dig more stone from the 
same quarries to carry on the works at their church 8 . From these docu- 
ments it is evident that some buildings were prosecuting at that time, but 
we do not find any evidence as to the parts of the edifice then raised. From 
the year 1200 to 1385, all the bishops of this See were interred in the ca- 
thedral, whence it may be inferred that the church, during that time, was in 
a condition for the performance of public service. It is also very probable 
that the greater part of the present fabric was raised in the same time. 
The registers of the bishops who presided during the progress of the work, 
would probably have furnished the dates of its erection, in the accounts 
and documents relating to the expenses of the building; but these records 
were unfortunately destroyed during the civil wars of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when the close being fortified and garrisoned, the cathedral alternately 
suffered the injuries of a siege from each party; and when in possession 
of the parliamentary forces, its monuments, ornaments, and records were 
spoiled and demolished, to gratify their avarice and fanaticism. 

Walter de Langton who succeeded to this See in 1296, was one of the 

7 This forest extended over a large tract of country on the south side of the city. 

8 Pro nova fabrica Eccl. Lichf. tem. R. H. III. — Mandatura est Vicecomiti Staffordiae, quod 
non impediat vel impedire permittat decanum et capitulum Lichfeldiae, quo minus fodere 
possint petram in forest^ regis de Hopwas, ad fabricam ecclesiae suae de Lichfeld, sicut earn fodi 
fecerunt ante tempus suum. Teste rege apud Wallingford xii Junii. (Claus. 19, H. III. m. 9.) 

Mandatum est Hugoni de Loges quod permittat Canonicos de Lichefeld, fodere petram, ad 
fabricam ecclesiae suae de Lichefeld in quarrera de Hopwas ; ita tamen quod hoc fiat sine detri- 
mento forestae nostras. Teste Rege, &c. xxviii April, Claus. 22, H. III. m. J 5. 

Mon. Angl. vol. iii. p. 239. The expression, ad fabricam, used in both these writs, has been 
supposed to imply that the work then proceeding consisted merely of repairs. But Dugdale un- 
derstood it to allude to a new building, as appears by the title, pro nova fabrica, which he has pre- 
fixed to these records. It is conceived that it would be equally applicable to either case ; and 
therefore that it affords no light to guide us in developing the history of the fabric. 

D 



28 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



most liberal benefactors to the church and city. He surrounded the close 
with a high stone wall, and constructed " two beautiful gates" on the west 
and south sides of the close ; inclosed the relics of St. Chad in a magnifi- 
cent shrine, at the expense of two thousand pounds ; founded and raised 
part of the Lady Chapel at the east end of the cathedral, and constructed 
the vaulted roofs of the transept; but dying in 1321, before it was finished, 
he bequeathed a sum of money for its completion. His successor, Roger 
de Norburg, or Norbrigge, removed Langton's remains from the Lady 
Chapel to a more appropriate sepulchre on the south side of the high 
altar, where there are some vaults and chantries very singularly situated 
and designed. According to Fuller, the cathedral had attained its final 
completion in the time of Bishop Heyworth, who was consecrated in 1420 9 . 
Early in the sixteenth century, some extensive repairs appear to have taken 
place ; and Bishop Blythe contributed fifty oaks, and the sum of twenty 
pounds towards the same. The destruction of the shrines and ornaments 
at the Reformation has been already mentioned. In the wars between 
Charles I. and his parliament, this church suffered great injury. The close 
being surrounded by a wall and ditch, presented an eligible situation for 
defence; and it was accordingly garrisoned early in 1643, by the royalist 
inhabitants of the city and neighbourhood, under the command of the 
Earl of Chesterfield. The parliamentary forces, not only anxious to dis- 
lodge them, but zealously intent on pillaging and defacing the cathedral, 



9 " But now in the time of the aforesaid William Heyworth, the cathedral of Lichfield 
was in the verticall height thereof, being (though not augmented in the essentials) beautified in 
the ornamentals thereof. Indeed the west front thereof is a stately fabric, adorned with exqui- 
site imagerie, which I suspect our age is so far from being able to imitate the workmanship, that 
it understandeth not the history thereof. Surely what Charles the Fifth is said to have said of 
the citie of Florence, that it is pitie it should be seen save only on holydayes ; as also that it was 
fitt that so fair a citie should hare a case and cover for it to keep it from wind and weather, so, in 
some sort, this fabric may seem to deserve a shelter to secure it. But alas, it is now in apittifull 
case indeed, almost beaten to the ground in our civil dissentions. Now, lest the church should 
follow the castle, I mean, quite vanish out of view, I have at the cost of my worthy friend here 
exemplified the portraiture thereof: and am glad to hear it to be the design of ingenious persons 
to preserve antient churches in the like nature, (whereof many are done in this, and more ex- 
pected in the next part of Monasticon) seeing when their substance is gone, their very shadows 
will be acceptable to posteritie." Fuller's Church History, cent. xi. book iv. sect. iii. p. 175. 



CIVIL WARS. 29 

that hated temple of episcopacy, as they termed it, soon besieged the 
close. Their leader, Robert Lord Brook, is said to have invoked some 
special token of God's approbation of the enterprise ; and it is certainly 
remarkable that on the commencement of the cannonade, this commander 
was shot in the head by a gentleman posted at the battlements of the 
great tower 10 . This event happened on the 2d of March, the festival of St- 
Chad, to whose influence the cavaliers superstitiously attributed their 
success. Sir John Gell of Hopton succeeded to the command of the par- 
liamentary troops on the following day, and so vigorously pressed the siege 
that the garrison surrendered on the 5th, " upon condition of free quarter 
to all in general within the close 11 ." In April following Prince Rupert 
marched to Lichfield, aud commenced another siege of the close, which 
was now better fortified, and was resolutely defended for ten days by the 
parliamentary forces, under Colonel Rouswell, or Russell. At length the 
prince succeeded in draining the moat, and springing a mine, which 
enabled him to storm the place ; yet he was repulsed with great loss. 
But the garrison, unable to withstand a second siege, made proposals of ca- 
pitulation on honourable terms, which being accepted, the whole evacuated 
the place on the 21st of April, 1643 12 . It was then garrisoned by the 
king's troops, under the command of Colonel Harvey Bagot. 

The most sacrilegious conduct is attributed to the parliamentary forces 
during their short possession of the cathedral. They demolished and de- 
faced the monuments, stripped the grave-stones of their brasses, broke 
the painted windows, and destroyed the records. We are also told that 
they " every day hunted a cat with hounds through the church, delighting 
themselves in the echo from the goodly vaulted roof; and to add to their 
wickedness, brought a calf into it, wrapt in linen ; carried it to the font, 
sprinkled it with water; and gave it a name in scorn and derision of that 
holy sacrament of baptism ; and when Prince Rupert recovered that 

10 Dugdale's " Short View of the late Troubles in England," p. 117. 

11 Historical Tracts collected by R. Holme. Harleian MSS. 2043, p. 24. 

" A perfect Diurnal of some passages in Parliament, 1643. Clarendon's History of the Re- 
bellion, book vii. p. 313. 



30 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

church by force, Russell the governor carried away the communion plate, 
and linen, and whatsoever else was of value 13 ." 

The close was occupied by the king's garrison till July, 1646, when the 
king's affairs had become desperate, and the parliamentary forces, under 
the command of Adjutant-general Lowthian again besieged this devoted 
place. The governors, Sir Thomas Tyldesley, and Colonel Bagot, being 
satisfied by the report of Colonel Hudson (who had gone out of the 
garrison to obtain information, and had been permitted to return to it) " that 
the king had no army in the field to the amount of one hundred men, nor 
any one garrison unbesieged," agreed to articles of capitulation, whereby 
their lives and some part of their arms and property were secured to them, 
and surrendered the place on the 10th day of July, 1646 '*. 

During these vicissitudes of war, the cathedral suffered most extensive 
injury. It is calculated that two thousand cannon-shot, and fifteen hundred 
hand grenades had been discharged against it. The centre spire was bat- 
tered down; the spires of the west end nearly demolished ; the roof beaten 
in; the whole of the exterior greatly damaged ; and the beautiful sculpture of 
the west front barbarously mutilated. The bells, lead, and timber were 
afterwards purloined during the protectorship of Cromwell; so that when 
Dr. Hacket succeeded to this See in 1661, he found the cathedral in a most 
desolate condition; and with a truly laudable zeal immediately com- 
menced the necessary repairs. " The very morning after his arrival in 
Lichfield, he roused his servants by break of day, set his own coach 
horses, with teams and hired labourers, to remove the rubbish, and laid 
the first hand to the work he had meditated. By his large contributions, 
the benefactions of the dean and chapter, and the money arising from his 
assiduity in soliciting the aid of every gentleman in the diocess, and almost 
every stranger that visited the cathedral, he is said to have raised several 
thousand pounds. In eight years he restored the beauty of the cathedral, 
to the admiration of the country ,5 ." Besides a grant by King Charles II. 

13 Dugdale's " Short View of the late Troubles in England," p. 560. 

,+ These articles of capitulation are printed in Jackson's History of Lichfield. 

15 Life of Bishop Hacket, by Dr. Plume, prefixed to his Century of Sermons. 



MODERN REPAIRS AND RESTORATIONS. 31 

of " one hundred fair timber trees out of Needwood Forest," the subscrip- 
tion for the repairs amounted to 90921. Is. l\d. The bishop himself con- 
tributed no less than 1683/. 12s. Having completed the repairs, and fitted 
up the choir with new stalls, pulpit, and organ, he reconsecrated the 
church with great solemnity on the 24th of December, 1669. In the fol- 
lowing year he contracted for six bells ; the first of which only was hung 
during his last illness. " He went out of his bed-chamber into the next 
room to hear it, seemed well pleased with the sound, and blessed God 
who had favoured him with life to hear it ; but at the same time observed 
that it would be his own passing bell ; and retiring into his chamber, he 
never left it until he was carried to his grave 16 ." 

Since that event, the cathedral church of Lichfield has only suffered 
from the effects of time and weather ; and the ravages of those destructive 
agents have frequently called forth the zeal and liberality of the clergy and 
laity of the diocess. 

The general appearance of this building was considerably improved by 
several judicious alterations effected about the year 1760 ; when the ca- 
thedral library, built by Dean Heywood, and an adjoining house, very 
incommodiously situated between the church and the deanery, were de- 
molished ; the ground of the cemetery was at the same time levelled ; the 
tomb-stones were laid flat ; some useless walls and gates were removed : 
and slates were substituted for the old leaden covering of the roof. But in 
1788 it was found that the fabric itself was in so dilapidated a state that a 
heavy expenditure would be required for its restoration. For this pur- 
pose, subscriptions were immediately raised throughout the diocess; 
which, chiefly through the zealous activity of Dean Proby, produced a sum 
of money considerable in itself, but inadequate to the requisite expense: 
The present worthy bishop not only contributed liberally on this occasion, 
but exerted his influence in obtaining an act of parliament, by which a 
fund was provided, not only applicable to the future support of the fabric, 
but to the discharge of the debts which it was unavoidably necessary to 
contract for completing the repairs then in progress. Dean Proby is 
said to have advanced, as a loan, 250/. for these purposes. 
■ 6 Life of Bishop Hacket, by Dr. Plume. 



32 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



A thorough and substantial repair was accordingly commenced under 
the direction of the late Mr. James Wyatt, and was completed, with many 
improvements, iu the year 179-5. Besides the general restoration of the 
doors, windows, and flooring throughout, two of the spires were partly 
rebuilt, the ends of the transepts were strengthened by new buttresses, 
the external roofs of the ailes were raised, and five divisions of the stone 
roof in the nave were taken down, and replaced with plaster. The Lady 
Chapel was united to the choir, by removing a screen which had been 
erected by Bishop Hacket. On taking this away, the workmen discovered 
the beautiful old screen which formed in all probability the original parti- 
tion when the Lady Chapel was completed by the executors of Walter de 
Langton. This elaborate piece of architecture was in a very mutilated 
state ; but Mr. Wyatt, having restored it, by the assistance of Roman 
cement, to a very perfect condition, appropriated part of it to the new 
altar piece, and the remainder to the organ screen, or partition which 
divides the nave from the choir. 

The Stained Glass which embellishes some of the eastern windows of the 
Lady Chapel, formerly decorated the magnificent chapel of the abbey of 
Herckenrode, a wealthy convent of Cistertian nuns, in the bishopric of 
Liege, in Germany. The chapel of Herckenrode abbey was rebuilt in the 
sixteeuth century, when the windows were adorned with these choice 
specimens of the art of glass-staining. On the establishment of the 
French republic, this abbey was suppressed with many other religious 
houses. Sir Brooke Boothby, who happened to be then on the continent, 
purchased the stained windows for the moderate price of two hundred 
pounds, and very generously transferred this extraordinary bargain to the 
dean and chapter; who expended about eight hundred pounds more in the 
importation, repair, and arrangement of the glass in its present situation. 
The Rev. W. G. Rowland, of Shrewsbury, superintended the latter opera- 
tions, and furnished desigus for the requisite accessary and ornamental 
works, the staining of which was executed by Sir John Betton, of Shrews- 
bury, knight. A large window at the end of the north transept is filled with 
stained glass by the latter gentleman, from designs by I. J. Halls, Esq., an 
artist of considerable talent. 



mm* ee& 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FORM, ARRANGEMENT, AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE 

CHURCH : OF ITS EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BEAUTIES AND DEFECTS : 

REMARKS ON ITS STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE, AND ON THE VARIOUS POR- 
TIONS OF THE EDIFICE; WITH REFERENCE TO THE ACCOMPANYING 
PRINTS. 



The Cathedral Church of Lichfield possesses many singularities and 
beauties. Its plan, design, general features, present state, and situation, 
are all peculiar, and calculated to prepossess the stranger in its favour. 
Unlike the generality of cathedrals, which are surrounded and encroached 
on by common dwellings, shops, and offensive appendages, this is com- 
pletely insulated, and every part of its exterior may be readily examined. 
It is placed in an open lawn or close, which is environed with handsome 
or very respectable detached houses. These have their respective gardens 
and plantations ; and on the north and eastern sides of the close are some 
fine forest trees. Hence the external appearance of the church and effect 
of the whole on the visitor are pleasing and interesting. An air of rural 
simplicity, and genteel life, pervades the precincts of the edifice, and im- 
presses the mind with quiet, respectful, and religious sentiments. About 
one hundred yards from the south side is a large piece of water, or lake, 
which may be regarded as a pleasing appendage : and but for a few houses 
which are placed between it and the church, would be a beautiful and 
unique accompaniment. In Plate vi. the Cathedral is shown as it would 
appear, if some houses were removed from the south-east; and no person 
can deny the improved effect that might be thus made. Such a material 
alteration in the value and property of the ground, though it may be wished 



34 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

for, cannot however be reasonably expected. Another singularity in the 
edifice, now under notice, is its general exterior form. At the west end are 
two towers, surmounted by spires, and at the intersection of the nave with 
the transept, is another tower, with a spire more lofty than those at the west 
end. Hence every approach to the city is distinguished by the varied 
combination of these acute pyramids 1 . From the east and west they 
are seen grouped in a cluster; whilst, from the northern and southern 
sides the two western spires seem attached; and the central one is shown 
as springing abruptly from the middle of the roof, and rising much higher 
than the others. As a distant object, however, this church has no preten- 
sions to grandeur or beauty. Very little but the ridge of the roof, and the 
three spires, are presented above the houses and contiguous trees. From 
the east, at Stow-pool, the view is picturesque and pleasing, as the three 
spires are seen grouped together, rising above the surrounding trees and 
houses ; but the church constitutes only a small object in the scene. 

The only approaches to Lichfield Cathedral from the city, are on the 
south-east, and on the west ; and these present the best and most interest- 
ing features of the edifice. The south side of the Lady Chapel, with its 
tall, narrow windows, the clerestory of the choir, and its southern aile, 
with the present vestry, south transept, part of the nave, central and 
western lowers and spires, are successively displayed from the former 
approach ; whilst the latter presents the western front in all its richness 
and variety of ornament. Though now much mutilated and disfigured by 
the corrosive effects of the weather, this front still displays simplicity of 
design, and richness of ornament. It is nearly a flat facade, with small 
octangular buttress-turrets at the angles. A large double door-way, re- 
cessed, is seen in the centre, and two smaller lateral door-ways: each of 
these was formerly much ornamented with insulated columns, bold archi- 
volt mouldings, charged with foliage, statues, &c. Externally the church 
may be said to be more picturesque than beautiful. It has no pretensions 

1 Rippon Minster had formerly three leaden spires, similarly situated with those at Lichfield ; 
but these are now pulled down. 



C-^THEI>!Lf-T- . 




I-r»-w-i ty rJIi^miu . 



J*r./5i*^ **, ,*r t «*K*U Sat^ini. 



Etrr*«d by O Gladwin.. 



-neiHiiFnEiLiE cathiees 






CP.orSD PUS 
WITH INDICATION T3.Jtc. 



ZnfavJWUU ' -jjinai t ^Jkww/w ^«. 



STYLE OF THE CHURCH : — PLAN. 35 

to grandeur; and therefore cannot vie with the noble and imposing cathe- 
drals of York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Wells, or Durham : nor is it so pic- 
turesque or beautiful as Salisbury. The natural colour and quality of its 
materials indeed detract from its beauty ; for the stone is of a dusky red, 
and of a crumbly, ragged character. Though deprived of strongly marked 
beauties, yet it displays many pleasing and even interesting features. The 
architectural antiquary will find in it much to admire ; for if the ope- 
rations of time, of wantonness, and of bad restorations, have tended to de- 
face and injure it, there is enough left to indicate its original and pristine 
design. The exterior, it is true, displays five or six different styles and cha- 
racters of architecture ; but these are not of very opposite and incongruous 
forms. All is in the pointed style, and of quick succession as to dates, 
and proportions. There is no part of the circular, or Norman style, and 
none of the last period of the pointed. These remarks, however, do not 
apply to the centre spire, or modern restorations. The general character 
of the interior of the Church is cleanness, cheerfulness, and elegance. Every 
part is preserved in good condition, and displays the laudable exertions 
made by the present dean and chapter to uphold its stability, and im- 
prove its beauty. Their conduct, in this respect, is not only highly praise- 
worthy, but ought to excite the emulation and shame of the curators 
of some other national churches. 

The more particular characteristics of this Cathedral will be noticed in 
referring to the accompanying illustrative plates. 

Plate I. Ground Plan, with reference to the monuments, indications of 
the groining, &c. The Roman capitals, from a to w, refer to different 
parts of the church; and the Arabic figures point out the situations of 
the principal monuments. It will be seen from this plan that the church 
consists of a nave, d. with its ailes, e. and p. :— a transept, h. and I. branch- 
ing from the centre tower, g. : — an eastern aile to the transept, k. and l. :— a 
choir, from m. to p. :— with ailes, n. and o. :— a lady chapel, q.:— a vestry, r : 
— an inner vestry, or chapel, s. : — a vestibule to the chapter house, t: — and 
a chapter house, w. At the west end are three entrance door-ways, a. b. c, 
deeply recessed in the wall, and richly adorned in their sculptured mould- 



36 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

ings and capitals, a. communicates to the nave, b. to the north aile, and c. 
to the south aile. On the north and south sides of the west end it is shown 
that the walls project beyond those of the ailes, and thus form a sort of 
small trausept. These walls, with the octangular buttresses at the western 
angles, square buttresses at the eastern angles, and two large piers at the 
west end of the choir, support the two western towers and spires. The 
figures refer to, 

1. A font: — 2. Stair-case to the north-west tower: — 3. to the opposite 
tower, which is entered at present by a door-way on the outside, as cor- 
rectly shown in the plan, Plate IV.: — 4. ascending steps to the door-way 
of the south transept:— 5. door-way to the north transept, with steps de- 
scending to the church : — 6. the dean's consistory court, or eastern aile of 
the south transept, in which are placed busts of Dr. Johnson and Garrick, 
7. and 22. : — and the monument of Mr. Newton, 8.: — 9. and 20. point out 
the places where the effigies of Bishops Pateshull and Langton, and the 
remains of Hacket's tomb, are laid in recesses under the windows: — 10. 
is the famed modern tomb, by Chantrey : — 11. altar table: — 12. stair-case 
to the library over the chapter house: — 14. effigy of Sir Thomas Stanley : — 
15. an antient effigy in a niche in the wall: — 1G. 17. 18. point out the situa- 
tions of three old effigies in the walls: — 19. an old tomb in the wall, sup- 
posed to be of the founder of the chapel. The measurements are figured 
on the plan. 

Plate II. View of the West Front. The point chosen for taking this 
view is at such a distance from the church, that the whole facade is dis- 
played to advantage, and exempt from quick perspective which is often un- 
pleasing, and calculated to distort the objects delineated. By taking a dis- 
tant station, and standing at, or near the middle, as in the present instance, 
the proper forms and proportions of the front are shown : and when these 
are in unison and harmony, the effect must be pleasing to the eye, and be 
well adapted for pictorial delineation. Believing that the west front of Lich- 
field would be best represented in this way, and that its three spires would 
form a pleasing pyramidal group, was the reason for choosing the point of 
view now alluded to. It is true there are some small houses that inter- 
cept part of the church from the station chosen ; but this did not pre- 






CATHEBTRAL ANTIQUITIES. 



pjL.n. 




jEngrw/e& 1-v KZe Kni.vtrcm aDrawirm ly F. Mackenzie-. 

JLEfT-MIFILlSILiE) (CATMIEMSAIL. (DHTtJISEffiL 

WEST FRONT. 
TO THE MOST NOBEli. THE MARQUIS OF ANGLESET, IAHL OF UXBRTD GE &c Sec kc 
This Plate is respectfully inscribed "by ^AUTHOR. 
Zendm.Tublished Octf1.16zo.by Zongman, & C? Paternoster Row. 

Printad bv Havwu-d 



CATJEEDaLAZj ^HTraOmTIES 




Drawn 'by F. Mackenzie 



BriaxnJ girtery kc.of Ltrhfirfd Cathedral. 

JLECMFKlEILffi) CATMIEBI&AIL CIHIU1K.CM, 

VIEW OF THE WESTERN E OCR WAY. 

TO MATTHEW ROBINSON BOULTON. ESQ? jjf ji&tf/RER OF ANTIE1TT jSRClftTECTURE See . 

This Plate is iriflcH-bea.-bVj.BRn.ToN. 
Itmdcrv, FUBSshed/jtugH lMzo.tfy Longman, &t 'fHazrnostser Saw- 

Printed. \iy ti»vwaj-d. 



EngravedTy JXe Kenx. 



WEST FRONT. 37 

elude the artist from representing the true architectural forms of the 
building as it would appear if these obstructions were removed. In addi- 
tion to what has been already said of the western facade, it may be de- 
scribed as consisting of three leading divisions, in height; viz. two towers 
with spires of nearly corresponding design, and a central compartment, 
with a door-way, a large window, and an acute pediment. The whole 
front has been richly and beautifully adorned with architectural ornaments, 
and sculpture. These comprised niches, arched mouldings, columns both 
insulated and detached, niches, canopies, pedestals, statues, doors, windows, 
and tracery. At each angle of this elevation is an octangular stair-case tur- 
ret, corresponding in divisions and ornaments, with the front ; and having 
the same divisions, &c. returning round the north and south sides. Both 
turrets are terminated with stunted pinnacles, with crockets at the angles, 
and finials at the top : and attached to these are square pinnacles, which 
serve to connect the former to the spires. The upper part of each tower 
is finished with a band of lozenge mouldings, inclosing quatrefoil and tre- 
foil panels. The spires are divided into six compartments, four of which 
have open windows, with acute pedimental mouldings in each face, whilst 
the fifth has only panels separated by crocketed ribs. The upper story is 
plain, but has some small windows. These spires are open from the bottom 
to the top, and without any timber or cross beams of any kind. (See 
Plate IV.) 

By the accompanying plate it will be seen that a series of statues still 
remain in niches over the western doors. It is unusual to see a west end of 
a cathedral without windows to the ailes. In the third story are windows 
to the belfry floors. The central window, as well as the- niche and statue 
in the pediment, do not harmonize with the other parts of this front. The 
statue is meant to represent Charles II., and is said to have been executed 
by a stone cutter, named Wilson, of Sutton Coldfield, who was knighted 
for his loyalty. Disfiguring as it does this beautiful front, it is hoped that 
it will be speedily removed. 

Plate III. View of the principal Door-way in the West Front, which 
may be regarded as one of the most beautiful designs in the country. It 
may be compared, in some respects, with the very elegant door-way on the 



38 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

south side, near the east end of Lincoln Cathedral 1 , which is nearly of the 
same style and period of erection. Both are peculiarly rich and fanciful, 
and calculated to excite the warmest admiration. The present door-way 
was profusely embellished with sculptured foliage, and figures, running 
round the architrave mouldings, and between the columns. These are 
now. so much battered, that not only their beauty is greatly injured, 
but it is almost impossible to ascertain the characters of some of the 
statues. The door-way is divided into two openings, by a clustered 
column in the middle, to which is attached a figure, said to personify the 
Virgin Mary. There are also two corresponding statues on each side of 
the door, standiug on beautifully formed brackets, and surmouuted by 
equally beautiful canopies. Stukeley conjectures that these figures 
were meant for the Evangelists, and that two other statues on the 
outside of the door-way, represented Moses and Aaron. These are 
destroyed, as well as their accompanying canopies, &c. The two doors 
are covered and strengthened with ornamental iron hinges, or scroll work, 
which appear to be original 2 . 

Plate IV. Section of the Southern Tower and Spire, of the Nave, and 
North Ailc, also an Elevation of the Eastern Side of the North Tower and 
Spire, with Ground Plan. The architect and architectural antiquary will 
immediately understand the design and construction of this part of the 
fabric by the annexed plate. It shows the thickness of the south wall of the 
tower, with the situations of the two windows in it, the return of its octa- 
gon buttress, the floors and timber roof in the tower, with the face of the 
western wall, and the interior of the spire. This section is made through 
the centre of the south tower, and continued in the same line to the middle 
of the nave, when the line of section is taken through the first division and 

' A view of this door-way will be given in " The Chronological and Historical Illustrations of 
the A ntient Architecture of England." 

' Mr. Carter made a drawing of this west front for the Gentleman's Magazine, 1810, in which 
he represented the statues and ornaments as in a perfect state. He has shown the middle spire 
lower than those at the west end, as they really appear when the spectator is near the church. 
In his " Antient Sculpture and Painting," folio, 1780, he has given an etching of " the porch or 
principal entrance'— and promised to furnish " a particular description of it," but never fulfilled 
his engagement. 



<-_.7::e:..- .<i'-.T".'. 




Driwu by Joa. Potter. 



Britbmj Strtcry tee, of liOiiirf.1 I'atiirriral 

SECTION" &c ,'OF THE Y7ESTEKN WWEKS. 
TO THE ICEV* CHA3U.ES BUCKF.RIDGE , D .1) . FXECZNTOR 8c C&NON JtZSJDKBTJABY OFLICHFIELD CJTREDRAI 



Engravod. bj- H Le Zeux. 



This Plate is rnscTi'bea. by 



J.BR1TTON . 



Louden- Tubiu-hed' Dee'.i.idig.bv Lonanum k C.P.i[ertwster Mow. 



CATHEDRAL ANTIQUITIES 




Drawn by F Mackenzie 



3LSCCIHIF21Sa.lE) CATSG D i'/JIECHE, 

DOOR Wl-QT IN N . TRANSEPT . 

TO SIR THOMAS LAWRENCE rjtZ.WE.VT I'F J'JIK ROYAL .-tO.WLMr Ln-SNUJ^lND/a Ice. 
Thl.< Hate U msm W hy ^ j^m^ 

JL.'tnf.-'i jnUfluhed Jurtr 1,282a >■< ;■ Z.'HiWiitn It Cf Tattrru-.'ltr Jfow- 
Printed bTBinnd 



■■I try t Li* Kcux. 



DOOR-WAY OF NORTH TRANSEPT. 39 

window of the north aile. This should have been indicated on the plan, 
but was omitted by mistake. By the present plate, the real proportion of 
the arch of the north aile, (and the south is the same,) is displayed, and 
the section of the arch,- with the size of the columns and piers under the 
tower, are shown. Over the northern pier is a section of the triforium 
arch, as well as of the clerestory window over it. A profile and elevation 
of the two buttresses at the north-east corner of the tower, with their 
plans, are represented; and the. design of the eastern face of the north 
tower and spire, with its panelled and purfled pinnacles, are shown. In 
the centre we perceive the double doors, with an ogee moulding, an em- 
battled gallery above, and behind that the chief window. This is termi- 
nated with a flattened roof, over which is the high pitched roof, with its 
timber ties. It is also seen, that a lofty wall screen, with an acute pedi- 
ment and crocketed sides, rise considerably above the roof. 

Plate V. A perspective View of the Door-way in the Northern Transept 
is a fine and peculiar specimen of this style of architecture. It consists of 
a deeply recessed arch, divided into five principal and several smaller 
mouldings, the former of which are charged with sculpture. Two of these 
consist of foliage, scrolls, &c. and the other three are enriched with ovaler 
compartments, inclosing basso-relievos in groups, of angels, saints, patri- 
archs, &c. Among them are two figures supposed to represent St. Chad 
baptizing the Saxon Prince Wulfere. On each side of the door-way are 
detached and clustered pillars, with fine foliated capitals, with five rows of 
ornament, commonly called the dog-tooth moulding. In the centre is a 
clustered column, composed of four pillars, with a very richly cut capital, 
and supporting a double archivolt moulding, also covered with foliated 
sculpture. 

Plate VI. Is a view of the whole Church, from the south-east, and 
displays the general forms and tracery of the windows in the Lady Chapel, 
the choir, the aile of the choir, the south transept, and the clerestory of 
the nave. Beneath the windows of the Lady Chapel are three recesses, or 
arched vaults, with pedimental roofs, and which appear to have constituted 
sepulchral chambers for some distinguished members of the church. It is 



40 LTCHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

supposed that Bishop Langton's remains were finally placed in one of them. 
The clumsy modern buttresses, to the south transept, are shown conspicu- 
ous, and the lofty crocketed pinnacles to the vestry are also prominent 
features in this view. The flattened arched window, with several perpen- 
dicular mullions, and the circular window, with the small triangular one 
above, in the gable of the south transept, are all delineated. Beneath the 
aile window of the transept is an arched recess, containing a mutilated 
statue. This view has been already noticed. 

Plate VII. View of the Nave, looking east. As the style, or treat- 
ment, of this plate has been objected to, it may be proper to remark, that 
I directed this view to be drawn and engraved in outline, as a mode best 
calculated to define and characterize the architectural members of the nave. 
Here are many lines of columns, mouldings of arches, enriched capitals, 
and other ornaments; and had these been covered over with colour, for the 
purpose of imitating the effect and perspective of the scene, the detail of 
the architecture would have been inevitably obscured and sacrificed by the 
process. Having seen several interesting architectural subjects spoiled, and 
the real forms disfigured, by attempts to represent a real perspective and 
the accidental effects of light and shade in similar scenes, I am convinced 
that it can only be satisfactorily displayed by an outline, or with a slight 
degree of shadowing. In subjects with large columns, and plain arches, 
&c. as in the nave of Norwich Cathedral, a high degree of finish and 
bright effect may be successfully and pleasingly employed, without sacri- 
ficing any essential details of the building; but in such a subject as the 
one now under notice, or the chapels of King's College, and Henry the 
Seventh, it would be absurd and unjust to attempt to display, in a small 
scale, their numerous beautiful members and details, in union with pictu- 
resque effect. 

The Nave of Lichfield Cathedral is a beautiful and interesting part of 
the Church. Its piers are solid and large, and consist of several attached 
and insulated shafts, with deep mouldings between. These are raised on 
bases of many mouldings, and are terminated at top with richly sculptured 
foliated capitals. From the latter spring the architrave mouldings of the 



CATHEBBAL ANTIQUITIES. 

mm 




Drawn trr F, Mackenzie . 



Srittgrix MLrtaru kc-.t>fZtihfield CaOidntl. 

HAVTE , LHJOKraC JEAST . 
TO THE REV? JOHN WEWLTNG, B . TJ . CANON JLESIDENTLUOT OF LICHFIELD CATKEDSdL . 

This YlaXe is inscribed "by ., BBrrTo;N . 
London,Tttilirhed.^iv r il i . i$ip. hu Longman kC-fiiternosterltow. 

Priiucd "bv HayFani- 



Engraved, by J.LcKcux, 



\ "Z2" :«-.:. .-"■::. .v: .ul.: 



pi m 




Drawn br Tio* '■»"-■"■ 



Engraved "by 3 . ^c Eeai . 



HALF SECTION. HALF EI^VATIOOT OF THAN SEPT fce. 

"HZ REV? HENRY WHITE . *t a mark or esteem t>y ttie . , . 

■ JUMutod Janfi iSio.Sy Zangman/kCTitomanr Mew. 

AiQl«a hr Co* i- < ' ' 



— M 



H 

:> 







TRANSEPT AND CENTRAL TOWER AND SPIRE. 41 

arches, which are numerous and bold, and produce a fine effect. Between 
every two arches is a cluster of three demi-columns, rising from the base 
to the springing of the vaulting, and sustaining five ribs, which diverge to 
a central rib and to a small transverse one. The two last are ornamented 
with foliage, and bold rich bosses at the junction of the different ribs. 
The spandrils of the arches are adorned with trefoil panels. Above these 
arches is the triforium, each compartment consisting of a double arch, and 
each arch again divided into two others. The clustered columns, deep 
arches, rich capitals, and dog-tooth moulding, combine to produce a 
peculiarly fine and elegant effect. The elaborately sculptured capitals of 
the lofty pilaster columns, the ornamented string course, and numerous 
ribs and mouldings, tend to render this portion of the Church highly in- 
teresting and sumptuous, without being overcharged with minute detail. 
In the clerestory we perceive a triangular window of rather unusual shape 
and style. Latterly the inner mullious of these windows have been filled 
in with trefoil mouldings. The interior and exterior elevation of the nave, 
with the arcade and window of the aile, are shown in Plate IX. c. d. 

Plate VIII. Section of one half, and Elevation of the other half of the 
Church, from north to south, looking east. This plate shows the forms 
and designs of the windows of the transepts, both externally and internally, 
the style of the buttresses, the section of the north aile of the nave, with 
its roof and flying buttress above, the form of the great arch under the 
centre tower, with the external and internal peculiarities of that and the 
spire. Beneath the arch of the tower is the organ screen, with a glazed 
window above, which separates the nave from the choir, and serves to 
render the latter more warm and comfortable in winter. It will be seen by 
this section, that the ground is higher than the level of the floor on the 
north side, and that there is a descent of some steps on the south side. It 
also shows that the design of the transepts is very different to that of the 
nave, in arches, piers, triforium, clerestory windows, &c. 

Plate IX. Elevation of one compartment of the Choir, externally and 
internally, a. and b., and of the Nave c. and d. The latter has been already 
described, and the former will be noticed in referring to the next plate. 



42 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

Plate X. View of the Choir, looking west. For the reasons already 
assigned, this plate has been executed in outline; and it must be admitted 
that the surface of the plate is abundantly covered with work, indicating 
the mouldings of the arches, clustered columns, &c. The present choir of 
Lichfield Cathedral is noted for its length and narrowness, the former of 
which is occasioned by the whole extent from the organ screen, under the 
tower, to the east end being an uninterrupted open space : and the latter, 
by the filling up the side arches to the ailes. These two great innovations in 
cathedral architecture were advised by Mr. Wyatt, in 1788, and have been 
much censured by some antiquaries, whilst others approve of the change. 
Since Mr. Wyatt's time an essential improvement has been adopted, by 
widening the choir. This celebrated architect had directed a plain walled 
skreen to be raised flush with the inner face of the arches, and thus forming 
a flat surface on each side of the choir. This wall has been removed, 
and re-erected farther back; thus showing nearly the whole of the clustered 
columns with the soffits of the arches to the choir: the general architec- 
tural design of this part of the Church is accurately delineated in Plate 
IX. a. b. In this elevation is shown the styles and marks of two distant 
dates: as the clerestory windows are evidently of a later period than the 
arches beneath. Here is no triforium in these divisions, but merely blank 
panelling beneath the windows, with an open ornamented parapet. The 
jambs and soffits of the windows are adorned with quatrefoil panels; and 
thus, as well as in its windows, greatly resemble the choir part of Norwich 
Cathedral. The groining of the roof nearly corresponds with that of the 
nave. 

Plate XI. View of the Lady Chapel, looking east. Although this 
subject is rather elaborate in detail, and abounds with ornaments, yet I 
was induced to attempt a finished plate, in consequence of the beautiful, 
delicate, and true effect which the artist had given to his drawing. This 
Lady Chapel may be regarded as one of the finest and most elegant 
examples of the ecclesiastical architecture in England. Its semi-octangular 
form is well adapted to display both its sumptuous painted glass win- 
dows and its numerous and rich sculptured ornaments. The whole is cal- 



CATHEDRAL ANTIQUITIES. 




Dra-Wii "by T.KackeYLzie. 



' grtu.ms History LcpfZicftneZd aahe&vl-. 

ILKOEFHEILB CATTTHUfiUMBAk SffiTUmCM. 

TKCIR LOOKING "WX3T, 
7U 1WTEWAHT GEKERAL THE HONORABLE SIR EDWARB PAGET . C. C.B. S--C.fa.fec. 
This Plltt is -respectiblly inscribed Vftie AUTHOR. 
Xciuton.ltiMiriied Xorcli i.iBio.by ■ Longman li CI ■ FtOpimster Jbn : 



Engraved ty Jonn Cleghum. 



CATHEDRAL ANTlCtTrTJES 




Inrawn "by F. Mackenzie. 



%titti"iit JTisr.-r-v .<-,- <-f7Jr/iririJ Ottfiedral 

3LECIHI3F1II11LE; (SATIHIIIIMEAIL (DEHUIEtDIHI, 

LADY CHAPEL. 
TP GEOHGE WATSON TAyLOR.ESQ!< A FATBOX OF THE FINE ARTS Sc FCZITE IZTE/Li TFHE . 

This Plate is inscribed "by^ AUTHoa , 
J.?n./.-it,riditi.r>ie,l Jum i . ilio lylm.iinMiS: C l ErtrnesKr Hew. 



Engraved Tjy-WBarlclyffe 



-.^'SAL ant: [ 




fcrj^m bv P.llaOcnxie, 



-■JOIMJEILJE (DATIHIEMEAJL CfflUIlEClBI . 

IBTLK TO CHAPTER HOUSE. 
ESSE WATTS RUSSELL ESQ? I..L.D. HIGH SHERIFF PF THF COt'XTY I'F STAFFORD, kc. ice. 
His Plate is respectfully inscribed \sy } BHIT . raN 



tngTflvpd >w W. Woolnotii. 



J.sriJ?n .TubUitud July : ills ty Zmgmtn ^-"' l-twni-strr Sa«, 




3mifflM®aMkm mmzw B & M 



VESTIBULE AND CHAPTER HOUSE. 43 

culated to seduce and convert even infidelity itself; for cold and callous 
must that person be, who can contemplate such a scene, and such lessons 
as here exhibited, without emotions of admiration and some degree of en- 
thusiasm. Here the two branches of art seem to vie with each other for 
superiority 5 Architecture prefers her claim to dignity, beauty, and utility, 
whilst Painting vaunts her captivating powers of pleasing every eye and 
fascinating the enlightened mind. This Lady Chapel, or as it may be now 
termed, the chancel, is of the same height as the choir, and nearly of the 
same width: it is lighted by nine tall windows, with mullions and varied 
tracery. Seven are filled with antient and very fine stained glass ; whilst 
the two nearest to the choir are embellished with modern glass, which 
appears gaudy and meretricious compared with its elder neighbours. Six 
of the very elegant sculptured brackets of this chapel are delineated in 
Plate XIV. This cathedral, like Salisbury, has no crypt beneath, and its 
pavement is level from east to west, excepting at the altar table, where 
there are three steps. 

Plate XII. Vieiv of the Vestibule, or entrance passage to the chapter 
house, marked I. in the ground plan. The architecture of this apartment 
is simple in forms, but from the depth and boldness of the mouldings and 
ornaments, is calculated to produce very fine effects. The bases, capitals, 
bosses, &c. are all cut in bold and powerful relief. On the west side is a 
singular passage, or arcade, of thirteen arches, beneath the windows ; the 
original intention of which is not ascertained : whether to receive the 
thirteen minor canons or priest-vicars belonging to the cathedral, or for 
communication with the outside, as there is a small aperture behind each 
recess in the wall, is not known. The opposite side of the vestibule has 
eight niches, or spaces between the columns, and suited to receive the 
eight choristers : and on the same side are entrances to the chapter house 
and to a staircase leading to the library over it. The niches at the north 
end, and the plain window above, are modern, and the latter is executed in 
a very bad style. 

Plate XIII. Arches at the East End of the Chapter House. These are 
of the same style and date (beginning Henry III.) as the arches in the 

F 



44 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

vestibule; but the capitals and bracket are more profusely enriched, and 
the outer hollow moulding of the arches are filled with the dog-tooth, 
ornamented. The capital of the centre column, or clustered columns of 
the chapter house, is shown, with six brackets, in 

Plate XIV. This capital is very highly ornamented with a series of 
trefoil leaves, fancifully and variously disposed, and many of them cut in 
complete relief. The cluster consists of a large central column, with ten 
smaller detached shafts, resting on a base with many mouldings, and a 
plinth of ten sides. From the capital diverge twenty ribs, which spread 
across the roof, and terminate against the exterior walls in thirty ribs. 

Plate XV. Is a View of the Door-way to the Chapter House, with a 
representation of the interior of that apartment. 

Plate XVI. View of a Monument raised to the memory of two daugh- 
ters of the Rev. Wm. and Ellen Jane Robinson : the black slab behind the 
tomb records the decease of the father, who was a prebendary of this 
cathedral, and died March 21, 1812, aged 35. In a subsequent page will 
be given a description of this tomb, with remarks on its merits. 



CATHEDRAL ANTIQUITIES . 




by F Mackenzie. 



Briaanj fflttery i- r .•rL,rfa\dd farAt&al 



ILECEHFIIEILID) ©ATMIEBIEAIL ©HEHJ3EC1HI, 

1 . CAPITA!. IN CHAP? EOUSJS. 2. 3.-2. 5.6. 7. BEACE1TS IH LADY CHAPEL. 

TO THE REV?, JOHN NEWLING.B. D. CANOIT RESIDENTIARY OF LICHFIELD CiTHEDX.1L. 

This Hale is inscribed by THJ . AUTH0R 

Londan.TuZ'lisTied Jitlu 2 . i8iq , by Longman tc C? J'aterncster Ttow. 

I r .lm. ed. by Qjywnrd 



Engraved by J. Le Ke 



CATHEDRAL ANTIQUITIES 




Drawn "by T.MacltenKte . 



JBrdterfs Mstsry kc<yriicMleld aahalral . 

ILIKDHIFIIIEILHD CATHIE JBJEAIL (DMTOSIHI, 

SOOA'VAT TO TBTE CHAPTETR HOTUSTE. 

TO feOBERT JOHN HAEBEa,Z5(? s F.£A.as a testimony of respect, TtdaHflte ^s irL3Clibeo- "by ^ a^hor. 

Xon.&en,JhdtUs1ied Dec r i iByf ,by Lcwman Sc C Hwrncstzr Raw. 



Engraved "by J..Le IKcox. 



ACCOUNT OF THE MONUMENTS AND PAINTED GLASS. 



Perhaps there is not a cathedral in England that has been so completely 
stripped of its antient monuments and brasses as that of Lichfield. We 
look in vain for fine specimens of old monumental sculpture, engravings on 
brass, and inscriptions. Excepting two mutilated statues of bishops, and 
two or three other fragments, all have been destroyed. There are, how- 
ever, a few sepulchral memorials which claim attention, for the talents 
and virtues of the individuals to whom they are raised, rather than for any 
excellence of sculpture. In noticing the monuments, I cannot neglect 
the opportunity of reproving the common-place practice of opposing white 
marble slabs by black backgrounds ; and inserting both in the walls, or 
against the pillars of a fine church. Where an edifice, like Lichfield Cathe- 
dral, presents a general effect of symmetry and harmony, it is painfully offen- 
sive to have the eye and attention distracted by spots of black and white 
—by the obtrusion of subordinate parts on the attention as principals. If 
monuments be admitted within a fine church, they should be made subser- 
vient to general effects ; and, what is still of greater consequence, they 
should not be indiscriminately inserted in or attached to beautiful and 
substantial parts of an edifice. It is, however, merely justice to observe, 
that the present worthy dean and chapter are laudably careful in preserv- 
ing the stability and beauty of their Cathedral, and I am confident would 
not, knowingly, permit any thing to be done injurious to its walls or 
to its architectural ornaments. 

It appears by Dugdale's " Visitation of Staffordshire," in the Herald's 



46 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

College, that this cathedral, previously to the civil wars, contained many 
handsome tombs, coats of arms, effigies, brasses, and inscriptions 1 . Of 
these monuments the wrecks, or fragments, of four only remain: viz. a 
part of an effigy, or statue, representing the human body in an emaciated 
state, which formed a portion of a large monument, raised to the memory 
of Dean Hey wood, who died in 1492, and who had been a liberal bene- 
factor to the church. The tomb was battered down in the time of the 
civil wars, but an idea of its character may be formed by a print in Shaw's 
Staffordshire, from Dugdale's " Visitation." 

A mutilated effigy, placed in the wall of the south aile, supposed to 
represent Captain Stanley, son of Sir Humphrey Stanley, knight of the 
body to King Henry the Seventh. Pennant, in his " Tour from Chester to 
London," says that Captain Stanley was excommunicated, but was allowed 
to receive funeral rites, in holy ground, having evinced signs of repentance, 
on condition of having his monument distinguished by certain marks of 
disgrace. 

In the south aile of the choir are two broken effigies, in purbeck marble, 
of prelates, said to commemorate Bishops Langton and Pateshulle. These 
are shown in Plate XVI. but not in the situation in which they are now 
placed. Gough, in " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. i. part 2, has given a 
plate of these figures, from drawings by J. Carter, and relates some particu- 
lars of Langton, p. 84. The former effigy has been finely executed, and 
had some peculiarities in design. 

In the south wall of the nave are parts of tivo monumental effigies, 
singularly placed in square holes, and showing only the heads and lower 
parts of the figures, whilst the bodies, or intermediate parts, are either 
concealed iu the wall, or were never formed. They are said to represent 
two old canons of the church; and are evidently of antient date, as they 
appear to have been placed in the present situation at the time of building, 
or finishing the nave. 

The monuments erected since the restoration of Charles the Second are 

1 See also Abingdon's " Antiquities of Worcester, with the Antiquities of Lichfield," 8vo. 1723. 



MONUMENTS. 47 

numerous ; and some of them commemorate persons of the first celebrity, 
while others attest the domestic virtues of individuals whose lives were 
confined to a more limited sphere of action. Few of them, however, are 
remarkable for any particular excellence in design or execution. 

In the south aile of the choir is a table monument, sustaining an effigy of 
Bishop Hacltet, who died October 21, 1670. It is placed beneath a win- 
dow, the soffit of which is ornamented with a profusion of sculptured 
foliage. On the face of the tomb is an interesting, well written Latin in- 
scription, eulogizing his merits, and recording his preferments; and stating 
that the whole was executed by the direction of Sir Andrew Hacket, 
Knight, the son of the bishop. 

At the western end of the north aile of the choir, is a marble figure of a 
female, to the memory of Lady Mary Worthy Montagu, with an inscrip- 
tion recording her philanthropic exertions in the introduction of inocula- 
tion for the small pox into this country; by which that fatal disease has 
for nearly a century been checked in its destructive career. Lady Mary 
was born at Lichfield, and, whatever were the faults or follies of her private 
life, her benevolent character and eminent literary talents will always 
render her memory dear to her native city. " Her letters," says Smollett, 
" will be an immortal monument to her memory, and will show, as long as 
the English language endures, the sprightliness of her wit, the solidity of 
her judgment, the elegance of her taste, and the excellence of her real 
character." 

Against the west wall of the north transept is a marble monument, with 
a statue in relief of a female, by R. Westmacott, with a simple and affect- 
ing inscription to the memory of Mrs. Buckeridge, wife of the Rev. Charles 
Buckeridge. 

In the east aile of the south transept, (called the Dean's Consistory 
Court) is a bust of Dr. Samuel Johnson, a native of this city, whose name 
and memory are commemorated by the inscription, written by the doctor's 
friends, " as a tribute of respect to the memory of a man of extensive 
learning, a distinguished moral writer, and a sincere Christian." Had all 
the admirers of Johnson been content with this moderate and justly 



48 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

merited praise, his weaknesses would never have been drawn iuto that 
public notoriety, which makes the present generation hesitate to rank 
him with the truly great. In early life, Johnson attempted to establish a 
school at Lichfield, for preparing gentlemen for the universities. Of his 
three pupils, David Garrick was one ; and, after a short probation, the 
master and the scholar migrated together to the metropolis, in search of 
more congeuial pursuits. This journey ultimately led the way to fame and 
fortune for the latter, and literary fame to the former. Their friendship 
was only terminated by death. Mrs. Garrick erected a cenotaph, after a 
design by James Wyatt, to her husband, near that of Dr. Johnson, with 
a bust by AVestmacott. 

A fine marble monument with figures, by R. Westmacott, R. A. adjoin- 
ing, attests the extensive charities of Andrew Newton, Esq. a native of 
Lichfield, who founded a noble institution in the Close for the widows and 
orphans of clergymen, by a donatiou of twenty thousand pounds in his life 
time, and a testamentary bequest to the same amount. Mr. Newton died 
January 14, 1806, aged 77. 

In a recess of the north transept, against the aile of the choir, is a 
handsome monument, designed and executed by Mr. Bacon, jun. in 1813. 
It was erected by order of Miss Ann Seicard, who died March 25, 1809, 
aged 66, to the respective memories of her father, mother, and sister 2 . A 
female figure, intended to personify filial piety, is represented as weeping 

■ The Rev. Thomas Seward, father of Miss Seward, was a prebendary of Salisbury, a canon 
residentiary of Lichfield Cathedral, and rector of Eyam, in Derbyshire. He was a poet, as 
may be seen in Dodsley's collection, and also edited an edition of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
plays in 1750. The poetical and epistolary talents of Miss Seward are rendered familiar to the 
general reader by an edition of her Poems, in 3 vols, with a biographical preface by Walter 
Scott, Esq.; and of her LetUrs, in 6 vols. The former she bequeathed to the accomplished and 
cxhaustless author of " Marmion," Ac. &c. and the latter to Mr. Constable, of Edinburgh. 
Whilst the Poems manifest considerable fancy and facility at versification, the Letters at once 
characterize the benevolence, weakness, and vanity of the writer. Rhodes, in his interesting 
work on the " Peak Scenery of Derbyshire," happily remarks, " A fire that sparkles and dazzles, 
but warms not, pervades the productions of Miss Seward and Dr. Darwin ; pictures for the eye, 
and not the mind, crowd on their respective canvasses, and towards the close of their intimate 
connexion there was a marvellous assimilation of style and construction of their verse." 






MONUMENTS. 49 

over a tomb, Avhile her harp hangs on a willow. The inscription, by 
Mr. Scott, concludes thus, 

" Honour'd, belov'd, and mourn'd, here Seward lies ; 
Her worth, her warmth of heart, our sorrows say, — 
Go seek her genius in her living lay." 

In the nave and its ailes, and in the transepts, are many mural tablets, 
among which is a large slab of marble, placed on the north side of the 
west door, to the memory of Dean Addison, who died 1703, aged 71. 
Against the same wall is an inscription to Gilbert Walmesley, Esq. who 
died August 3, 1751, aged 71 : he was registrar of the ecclesiastical court 
at Lichfield ; and of his learning and abilities Dr. Johnson has passed a very 
high encomium, in his life of Smith 3 . A plain tablet records the decease 
of Richard Smallbrooke, D. D. " who was consecrated Bishop of St. 
David's, February 2, 1723 ; confirmed bishop of this diocese, February 20, 
1730, and died December 22, 1749, aged 77." 

Against the west wall of the north transept is a mural slab, inscribed to 
the memory of the Rev. Wm. Vyse, LL.D. Chancellor of the diocess of 
Lichfield and Coventry, &c. who died February 20, 1816, aged 75. 

At the eastern extremity of the south aile is a modern monument, 
which justly attracts the attention and admiration of all visitors. Though 
it be not the chief province of this work to animadvert on the produc- 
tions of living artists, yet the present subject has such imperious claims 
on the critic and historian, that they would neglect their duty, were 
they to pass it without comment and without praise. It is a small tomb, 
raised to commemorate the guileless characters and elegant forms of 
two female children of the Rev. W. Robinson, and Ellen Jane, his 
widow. This memorial may be regarded as original in design, and 
tasteful in execution ; and, as calculated to commence a new era in our 
national monumental sculpture, must be viewed with exultation by every 
real lover of art. From the demise of Henry the Eighth to the beginning 

3 See ante, p. 2. 



50 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

of the present century, the sculpture of this country has rarely presented any 
thing admirable or excellent. It has either exhibited a vulgar imitation of 
vulgar life, in monstrous costume, or tasteless copies of Greek and Roman 
models. The present age, however, is likely to acquire a better, and indeed 
a good character, and prove to surrounding nations, that while Britain is 
justly renowned for science, commerce, and arms, she boldly and confi- 
dently prefers a claim to competition with former ages in her artists. Some 
departments have certainly failed, either for want of talents or for want 
of patronage ; but the sculptor is now publicly employed and publicly 
rewarded : and if something truly English, original, and interesting is not 
produced, we shall still have cause to attribute the failure to the ungenial 
climate of Britain, or the want of talents in our countrymen. In traversing 
the abbey church of Westminster, and that of St. Paul's, we look in vain for 
tasteful and apposite English sculpture. Almost every subject is disfigured 
by unintelligible emblems, mythology, and allegory; and crowded with lions, 
fames, and angels. It is time this incongruity of composition, this viola- 
tion of taste, be avoided, and that a little of nature, of Shakspeare, and of 
England, be substituted in the place. 

To appreciate Mr. Chantrey's monument fully and justly, we should 
inquire what has been effected by the sculptor; what is usually done, and 
what the art is susceptible of. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans have 
certainly left behind them many works of peculiar beauty and excellence; 
they have also bequeathed to us many pieces of inferior workmanship. In 
the former we readily perceive their reference to nature as a prototype ; 
and in the latter, the presumptions of art. It is thus with sculptors of the 
present age : most of them are wholly educated in the school of art — 
in studying and copying from the antique ; whereas the greatest masters of 
the old world sought beauty of form and truth of expression in the inimit- 
able and diversified face of nature. Hers is an unerring and unmannered 
school : it is untrammelled by laws and regulations ; every student may 
readily obtain admission into it, and freely pursue the bent and energy of his 
genius. From this school arose the artist who executed the monument 
now under notice: he looked at living models and English forms for proto- 



chantrey's sculpture. 51 

types; and has skilfully extracted from the shapeless marble the resem- 
blance of two pleasing female figures. These, however, are not common- 
place forms, nor imitations of Vennses, Graces, or Hebes ; — but they 
faithfully and feelingly resemble the persons of young and lovely maidens. 
These are represented as lying on a couch; the head of the eldest impress- 
ing the downy pillow, and that of the youngest reclining on the other's 
bosom. One of its arms is beneath her sister's head, and the other extends 
over the body. In one hand is a bunch of snow-drops, the blossoms of 
which are apparently just broken off, but not withered. The faces of both 
incline towards each other with apparent affection — the eyelids are closed, 
and every muscle seems lulled into still and serene sleep : all the other 
bodily members partake of the same serenity and repose. The arms and 
the legs, the fingers, and the very toes, are all alike equally slumbering : the 
drapery is also smooth and unruffled, and is strictly in unison and in harmony 
with every other part of the design. The whole expression seems to 
induce silence, caution, and almost breathless solicitude in the observer. 
A fascinating and pathetic sympathy is excited; at least these were the 
effects and sentiments produced on myself in contemplating it alone, and 
towards the close of day. Analyzing it as a work of art, and endeavouring 
to estimate its claims to novelty, beauty, and excellence, I must own 
that all my powers of criticism were subdued by the more impressive 
impulses of the heart. With these sensations, and with mingled emotions 
of admiration at the powerful effects of English art, and the appeals to 
nature through this medium, I was turning away from the pleasing 
group, when the plaintive song of a robin, which had perched in the 
adjoining window, diverted the train of reflection, but touched another 
chord of the heart, which vibrated in perfect harmony 4 . 

Painted Windoivs. — The magnificent display of stained glass which dis- 
tinguishes this cathedral, cannot fail to attract the admiration of the spec- 
tator. Seven of the principal windows at the east end are enriched with 

4 If the fastidious critic examines these remarks with a wish to find fault with either the senti- 
ment or language, I have only to observe, in explanation, that they were penned in Lichfield 
Church, on a fine summer evening, and with the monument immediately before me. 

G 



52 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

verv fine specimens of this exquisite species of decoration. Five of the win- 
dows are filled with scriptural designs, but one on the north side contains 
several portraits aud legendary subjects. They are supposed to be executed 
from designs of Italian and Flemish masters. In the first compartment of 
the north-east window, the Annunciation to the Virgin and her visit to 
Elizabeth are represented ; above this are two compartments, representing 
" Jesus crowned with thorns, derided, and beaten," and " Jesus scourged." 
The east window, over the altar-piece, presents two appropriate subjects, 
" Jesus with the two disciples at Emmaus," and the Ascension. In these 
pieces the figures are of a large size, and are finely designed and drawn; 
the faces in the Ascension are touched with peculiar force and spirit. The 
south-east window contains three compartments, enriched with the follow- 
ing subjects, 1. "Jesus washes his disciples feet, and then takes the pascal 
supper with them." " Judas Iscariot goes out to betray him," (John xiii. 
4 — 0.) 2. " Jesus enters into Jerusalem, and afterwards the Greeks are 
brought to him," (Mark xi. 7 — 9.); and 3. " Jesus betrayed by Judas," (Luke 
xxii. 51.) The glass of these pictures has suffered some injury from the 
attacks of time and weather, but the parts which remain perfect are very fine. 
The first window ou the south side from the east end, contains three subjects, 
viz. 1. "The Last Judgment;" 2. " The Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the 
Apostles;" and, 3. "The Incredulity of Thomas, reproved." These are justly 
admired for composition and execution. The next window, on the same side, 
is divided into four compartments, which are embellished with 1. " Pontius 
Pilate delivering Christ to be crucified," (Mat. xxvii. 24 — 27.) 2. "Jesus 
going forth to Crucifixion," (John xix. 17.) 3. " The Descent from the Cross," 
(John xix. 38, 40.) and, 4. " The Resurrection of Christ," (Mat. xxviii. 4.) 
All these are rich in architectural ornaments, and executed after designs of 
considerable excellence. The two easterly windows, on the north side, are 
filled with portraits of distinguished characters connected with the abbey of 
Herckenrode. Among them are said to be Matilda de Lechy, or Lexy, 
abbess of Herckenrode, in 1532. St. Bernard, who was abbot of Clairval 
in the twelfth century ; Humberlina, his sister, and the Emperor Lotharius 
the Second. In the larger window are Cardinal Evrard, or Erard de la 



PAINTED GLASS. 53 

Marck, enthroned Prince Bishop of Liege, in 1505 ; Floris, Count Egmont; 
Maximilian, Count Egmont; John, Count Horn, and his Lady Anne. 
These portraits, with many shields of arms, are richly emblazoned. 

The westerly, or episcopal window, on the south side, contains the 
armorial bearings of the Bishops of Lichfield and Coventry, from the period 
of the Reformation to the present time, impaled with the arms of the see 
over which each prelate presided at the time of his death. This heraldic 
window was executed under the direction, and in part from the designs, 
of the Rev. W. G. Rowland, of Shrewsbury, prebendary of Curborough, 
by Sir John Betton, of the same place. The expense amounted to £226, 
of which the Hon. and Right Rev. James Cornwallis, the present bishop, 
most liberally contributed £163. The westerly window, on the north 
side, or prebendal window, is divided into three columns j the first contain- 
ing the arms of the deans aud residentiaries, and the second and third 
those of the prebendaries, who were possessed of stalls during the time this 
window was under the hands of the respective artists, i. e. from 1806 
to 1808 inclusive. 

In one compartment of a window in the South Aile of the Choir, is the 
portrait of a knight worshipping, supported by St. Hubert, the patron of 
hunters. Another compartment contains the armorial bearings of the same 
knight; and between those compartments is a beautiful picture of a dead 
Christ, lying in the arms of a venerable old man ; a dove, encircled with 
celestial glories, hovers near; the whole is intended to symbolize the 
sacred Trinity. 

The Window at the extremity of the North Aile presents figures of a 
knight and his lady, between whom is St. Christopher, with the infant 
Jesus. In that of the Deans Consistory Court is seen Mary Magdalen, 
embracing the cross upon Mount Calvary. 

It is to be regretted that no historical information on the subject of these 
fine productions of the art of glass-staining, was ever obtained from the 
abbey of Herckenrode 5 . 

5 The foregoing account is abridged from a very useful and well written pamphlet, entitled 
'-' A short Account of Lichfield Cathedral, more particularly of the Painted Glass," &c. Lich- 
field, 2d edit. 1818. 






54 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

The great Window of the North Transept is decorated with stained glass, 
presented by the very Rev. Dr. Woodhouse, the present dean. The prin- 
cipal founders and patrons of this cathedral are here represented standing 
on pedestals, under lofty canopies of tabernacle-work ; viz. Oswy, King of 
Northumberland; St. Ceadda; Offa, King of Mercia; King Stephen; 
Roger de Clinton ; King Richard I. ; King John ; Walter de Langton ; and 
the worthy Bishop Hackett. The original designs for this window were 
made by John James Halls, Esq.; the architectural ornameuts by the Rev. 
W. G. Rowland, and the glass is painted by Sir John Betton. The same 
artists are now engaged on a corresponding decoration for the great window 
of the south transept, exhibiting eighteen figures of the most distinguished 
characters and inspired writers in the Old and New Testament. 

The great Western Window was restored by King James II. when Duke 
of York, whose arms are seeu in the centre. It was afterwards filled with 
painted glass, the work of Brookes, by the legacy of Dr. Addenbroke, 
who died dean of this Cathedral, in 1776. 



BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF THE BISHOPS OF LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY. 



The preceding chapters comprise notices of those bishops of Lichfield, 
who are more immediately connected with the structure of the cathedral. 
Several of the prelates who have thus been mentioned, were among the 
most conspicuous characters of their times ; while the names of others, 
to whose pastoral care this diocess has successively devolved, though little 
distinguished in its local and particular history, are associated with remi- 
niscences of historical, literary, and moral interest. To preserve and dis- 
seminate a few anecdotes of these is the object of the present chapter. 

The devotion and sanctity of Ceadda, and the superstition of his votaries 
have had their full share of notice, and leave nothing material to be related 
of the other Saxon bishops. With respect to their successors, under the 
Norman dynasty, having noticed the rapacity of De Lymesey arid the 
munificence of De Clinton, we proceed to a signal instance of the tyranny 
and avarice of Richard I. in his conduct to Bishop Hugh de Nonant. 
This prelate had the misfortune to be brother to Robert de Nonant, who 
was implicated in the measures of John, Earl of Morton (afterwards king) 
for prolonging the imprisonment of Richard. When the latter obtained 
his freedom, he immured Robert de Nonant for life, in the castle of Dover, 
and after depriving Hugh of his bishopric, banished him from England. 
The prelate was afterwards allowed to purchase restitution to his dignity, 
at the price of five thousand marks; but could never regain the royal 
favour 1 . It is obvious that blame must attach to the monarch in this 

1 Anglia Sacra, pars i. p. 436. 



56 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



transaction. If the bishop was a traitor, he was unfit for the ecclesiastical 
dignity; and the money obtained from him was an infamous extortion. If 
he was innocent, the king's conduct was wholly inexcusable. The death 
of the bishop, as related by Giraldus, affords a remarkable instance of the 
spurious piety of the age, which consisted almost entirely in watching, 
fasting, corporeal discipline, and other outward austerities. Some authors 
affirm that this bishop repented deeply of his former severity towards the 
monks; but Giraldus says nothing on the subject; and it is probably a 
fabrication. 

Alexander de Stavenby, or Savensby, was more fortunate under si- 
milar suspicions in the reign of Henry III. Being suspected as an accom- 
plice in the ambitious schemes of the Earl Marshall, he solemnly passed 
sentence of excommunication against all persons who entertained any trea- 
sonable designs ; and this proceeding served materially to ingratiate him 
with the king 2 . 

Walter de Langton has already been noticed as one of the chief be- 
nefactors to Lichfield Cathedral. In the reign of Edward I., he was High- 
Treasurer of England ; and enjoyed the esteem and confidence of that 
monarch. But the dissolute heir apparent (afterwards Edward II.) became 
his inveterate enemy. The worthy bishop had endeavoured to restrain the 
boundless prodigality of that prince, and had censured the profligacy of his 
manners: these were offences which the degenerate prince was incapable of 
forgetting, and he employed the basest means to obtain revenge. A false 
accusation was preferred against the bishop, through which he not only 
lost the king's favour, and the office of treasurer, but was put to immense 
expense in defending himself at the court of Rome, where charges against 
rich bishops were eagerly encouraged*. The cause was referred to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, by whom Langton was acquitted. He re- 
gained the king's favour, and was reinstated in his offices. In his conduct 



2 Godwin, de Praesulibus Angliae, p. 316. 

3 They knew him to be a particularly fat Ox : Noverant ipsum prae multis bovem valde pin- 
guem. Matt. Westm. 



BISHOPS LANGTON, STRETTON, AND SCROPE. 57 

towards the prince, he persevered fearlessly and inflexibly; and particu- 
larly reprehended his equivocal connexion with Piers Gaveston. On the 
death of Edward I., who evinced his esteem for Langton by appointing 
him his executor, the infamous Gaveston was recalled from exile, and he 
soon obtained from the new king an opportunity of indulging his resent- 
ment against the bishop. The latter was imprisoned, deprived of his 
offices and goods, and compelled to answer fabricated charges, impeaching 
both his ecclesiastical and civil administration, and supported by suborned 
witnesses. Although he was never convicted on any of these prosecutions, 
he did not obtain his freedom for several years. Yet. after his restoration 
to liberty and his bishopric, when the nobility and clergy of the realm 
combined against the favourite Gaveston, and demanded his punishment, 
the Bishop of Lichfield alone refused to join in their declarations. This 
instance of liberality and loyalty overcame the animosity of Edward. He 
restored the bishop to the office of treasurer, which he enjoyed in tran- 
quillity to the time of his death. 

Robert Stretton, chaplain to Edward the Black Prince, was, through 
the interest of his royal patron, consecrated bishop of this see in 1360. 
This man was so grossly illiterate, that another person was obliged to read 
his profession of obedience, because he himself could not read 4 . 

Bishop Scrope's name is distinguished in English history on account of 
the share he took in the unfortunate insurrection against Henry IV. This 
event happened after his translation to York. He was beheaded in 1405 ; 
and from the justice of the cause for which he suffered, his fortitude, and 
piety, he was long revered as a martyr. From his time to that of Bishop 
Rowland Lee, nothing particularly interesting appears relative to the 
Bishops of Lichfield. The latter prelate solemnized the marriage of King 
Henry VIII. with Ann Boleyn, in the nunnery of Sopewell, near St. 
Alban's. He was appointed to this see in 1534, and soon afterwards became 
President of Wales, which principality was, during his administration, in- 
corporated with England. The establishment of the see of Chester, and 

* Godwin, de Praesul. Angl. p. 320. 



58 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

consequent reduction of the limits of this diocess, which happened in this 
bishop's time, have already been noticed. During the establishment of 
the reformed religion, he had the mortification to see his noble Cathedral 
of Coventry entirely destroyed, notwithstanding his earnest remonstrances. 

Bishop Sampson, his successor, was compelled by King Henry VIII. to 
alienate many manors belonging to this see, in exchange for impropriations 
of inadequate value. He was confined for some time in the Tower of 
London, on a charge of affording pecuniary assistance to some persons 
who had been imprisoned for questioning the king's supremacy. 

The succeeding prelate, Ralph Bayne, was one of the furious partizans 
who excited and directed the sanguinary zeal of Queen Mary. Two 
women are named by Fuller as among the numerous victims of his cruelty. 
On the accession of Elizabeth, he refused to administer the sacrament to 
her, by which refusal, according to act of Parliament, he was ipso facto 
deprived of his episcopacy. He died soon afterwards of the stone, at 
Islington, and was succeeded by Thomas Bentham. On the accession 
of Mary this prelate was ejected from his fellowship at Magdalen Col- 
lege, on account of his adherence to the reformed church; and retiring 
to Zurich and afterwards to Basil, became an eminent preacher among the 
English exiles. He returned when the Protestant interest again triumphed, 
and was promoted by Queen Elizabeth to this see. 

George Abbot, elected in 1G09, continued but one year in this see, 
whence he was translated to London; and almost immediately afterwards 
to Canterbury. He was a man of mild temper and moderation, and has 
therefore been represented by the court writers as wholly unfit for support- 
ing the dignity and security of the established church in those turbulent 
times of sectarian faction 5 . 

Richard Neile, or Neyle, Bishop of Rochester, succeeded Bishop 
Abbot in this see. He was high in favour with James I. in whose Armi- 
nian principles he participated. He became particularly severe against 
the rigid Calvinists, and, while bishop of this see, condemned one of them 

5 Le Neve's Account of Protestant Bishops, vol. i. p. 89. 



BISHOPS MORTON, FREWEN, AND HACKET. 59 

to the flames. On the 13th of June, 1629, the Commons voted " that Dr. 
Neile (then) Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Laud, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, be named to be those near and about the king who are suspected 
to be Arminians ; and that they are justly suspected to be unsound in their 
opinions that way." Soon afterwards Bishop Neile was accused by Oliver 
Cromwell of countenancing some popish divines. But, notwithstanding 
these accusations, he was afterwards elevated to the dignity of Archbishop 
of York 6 . 

Thomas Morton, Bishop of Chester, was translated to this see in 1618. 
In the reign of Elizabeth, he was chaplain to Lord Huntingdon, Lord 
President of the North, and in that capacity became celebrated for his 
zeal and acuteness in disputation with the Popish recusants. He presided 
over this diocess till the year 1632, when he was translated to the bishopric 
of Durham. The famous impostor, commonly called " the boy of Bilson," 
was detected, in 1644, by the keen penetration of this prelate, after baffling 
the investigations of many eminent persons. 

Accepted Frewen was next consecrated to this see, but on account of 
the civil commotions and revolution which ensued, lived in retirement with 
Charles II. till the restoration of monarchy and episcopacy. 

The name of the succeeding bishop, John Hacket, is justly famous in 
the history of Lichfield, as the great restorer of the cathedral. He was 
born in 1592, and educated at Westminster school, whence he went to 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was patronized by the Lord Keeper, 
Williams, afterwards Archbishop of York, whose life he wrote at great 
length, from a grateful wish to vindicate the memory of that distinguished 
man from party aspersions. Hacket was, in 1640, appointed one of the sub- 
committee for settliug the peace of the church, and spoke eloquently on 
that occasion at the bar of the House of Commons. When the use of the 
liturgy was prohibited under severe penalties, Hacket continued to read it 
in his church of St. Andrew, Holborn. A Serjeant, with a file of men, 
was sent to arrest him during service, and ordered him to desist on pain 

6 Le Neve's Protestant Bishops, p. 136. See " History, &c. of Winchester Cathedral." 

H 



60 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

of instant death. " Soldier," said Hacket, " I am doing my duty, do you 
do yours :" and intrepidly continued the service, unmolested by the 
soldiers, who were overawed by his firmness. When a bishopric was first 
offered to him, he declined it, saying " he had rather future times should 
ask why Dr. Hacket had not a bishopric, than why he had one." Soon 
after his elevation to the see of Lichfield, he received a visit from Christo- 
pher Corayns, rector of Norbury, in Staffordshire. This gentleman was 
noted for a profane expression, which he frequently used before the Restora- 
tion, viz. that hell was paved with bishops' skulls; Dr. Hacket thus good 
humouredly addressed him, " I hear you have often said that hell is paved 
with bishops' skulls, I desire you to tread lightly upon mine when you 
come there'!" He is thus described by Lord Lyttleton, in his Persian 
Letters: " In the first place he resides constantly on his diocess, and has 
done so for many years; he asks nothing of the court for himself and 
family ; he hoards up no wealth for his relations, but lays out the revenues 
of his see in a decent hospitality, and a charity void of ostentation. At 
his first entrance into the world he distinguished himself by a zeal for the 
liberty of his country, and had a considerable share in bringing on the 
revolution that preserved it. His principles were never altered by his pre- 
ferment ; he never prostituted his pen, nor debased his character, by party 
disputes or blind compliance. Though he is warmly serious in the belief 
of his religion, he is moderate to all who differ from him ; he knows no 
distinction of party, but extends his good offices alike to Whig and Tory ; a 
friend to virtue under any denomination; an enemy to vice under any 
colours. His health and old age are the effects of a temperate life and 
quiet conscience : though he is now some years above fourscore, nobody 
ever thought he lived too long, unless it was out of impatience to succeed 
him 8 ." 

Thomas Wood and William Lloyd were, after the decease of Bishop 

' This anecdote, it is believed, has never before been printed. It is taken from Loxdale's 
Staffordshire Collections, in the possession of Wm, Hamper, Esq. of Birmingham ; to whom the 
author is indebted for this extract, and for many other literary favours. 

8 Vol. i. p. 309. 



BISHOPS FROM 1688 TO 1774. 61 

Hacket, successively appointed to this see; the latter was one of the seven 
bishops who opposed the reading of the paper called " the declaration 
for liberty of conscience," for which they were committed to the Tower by 
James II. but triumphantly delivered by the verdict of a jury. 

Bishop John Hough is memorable for his intrepid resistance to the 
tyranny and bigotry of James II. The presidentship of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, being vacant, the king issued an illegal mandate, requiring the 
fellows to elect Anthony Farmer. They determined to resist this arbitrary 
encroachment, and after proper remonstrances, proceeded legally and 
regularly to choose Mr. Hough. He was, however, forcibly ejected by 
the king's commissioners, and nearly all the fellows of the college were 
expelled in consequence of their refusal to submit to these despotic pro- 
ceedings. But in the following year, 1688, the abject tyrant, sensible of 
his impending fall, and meanly anxious to preserve his crown, restored Dr. 
Hough and the fellows who had been deprived. Soon after the Revolution 
he was nominated Bishop of Oxford, and in 1699 translated hither 9 . 

Edward Chandler was nominated to this see in 1717. He was a 
prelate of great erudition, and distinguished himself as a learned and able 
defender of Christianity in the controversy with Collins, the champion of 
the Freethinkers. His successor, Richard Smallbrore, was also distin- 
guished as a controversial writer. Besides his works against Dodwell and 
Whiston, he published a " Vindication of our Saviour's Miracles, in 
Answer to the Objections of Mr. Woolston," London, 1729, 8vo. He died 
in 1749, and was succeeded by Frederick Cornwallis, brother of the 
first Earl Cornwallis. In 1768, this prelate being advanced to the see of 
Canterbury, John Egerton, Bishop of Bangor, was translated to this see, 
whence he was appointed, in 1771, to the diocess of Durham. He was 
succeeded by the Honourable Brownlow North, brother of the late Lord 
North, afterwards Earl of Guildford. In 1774, this prelate was translated 
to Worcester, and afterwards advanced to Winchester. 



9 His life has been published, with many valuable letters and documents, by John Wilmot, 
Esq. F. R. S. and F. S. A. 4to. 1812. 



62 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

Richard Hurd, the late bishop of this diocess, was an eminent literary 
character. He received the rudiments of his education at Brewood 
grammar school, and completed it at Emanuel College, Cambridge. Soon 
after- his ordination he successively produced several learned critical 
works. His commentary on the " Ars Poetica" of Horace, in which he 
introduced some compliments to Mr. Warburton, procured him the friend- 
ship of that author, which continued during their lives, and materially 
affected Mr. Hurd's opinions, as well as his style of controversial writing, 
which became truly Warburtonian in its asperity. In 1756 he was entitled 
to the rectory of Thurcaston, as senior fellow of Emauuel College. At 
this living he long resided, and there continued his literary labours. In 1762, 
the Lord Chancellor Northington gave him the sinecure rectory of Folkton, 
near Bridlington, Yorkshire; an d a few years afterwards he became 
preacher of Lincolu's Inn and Archdeacon of Gloucester. In 1775, 
through the recommendation of Lord Mansfield, he was promoted to this 
bishopric. In the following year he was appointed preceptor to their 
Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York; and, in 1781, 
he was translated to the see of Worcester. On the death of Dr. Corn- 
wallis, in 1783, the Archbishopric of Canterbury was offered to Dr. Hurd, 
which he declined, on account of the political distractions of the times. 
He died on the 28th of May, 1808, in his 89th year. In 1810 his works 
were published in 8 volumes 8vo. They consist of criticism, moral and 
political dialogues, sermons, and controversial tracts 11 . 

The present Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, the Honourable James 
Cornwallis, LL.D. third son of Earl Cornwallis, was educated at Eton, 
and became fellow of Merton College, Oxford. He was chaplain to Marquis 
Townsend, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; Prebendary of Westmin- 
ster ; Rector of Wrotham, in Kent; and of Newington, in Oxfordshire. In 
1775 he was made Dean of Canterbury ; and succeeded to the deanery of 
Windsor in 1791, which, in 1794, he exchanged for that of Durham. 

" Life of Bishop Hurd, prefixed to his works. " Letters from an Eminent Prelate to one of 
his Friends," i. e. Bishop Warburton to Bishop Hurd. 8vo. 1809. 



THE DATES AND STYLES, 

Of the different parts of the cathedral, though not ascertained by records 
or historical evidence, may be inferred from what has been adduced in 
the course of the preceding pages, and by comparing their distinguishing 
features with corresponding styles in other buildings. Bishop de Clinton 
is generally represented to be the founder and even builder of the greater 
part of the present church, but we are not justified in attributing any 
of the architectural members to him, or to his prelacy. The oldest 
parts are the lower portions of the transepts, with three divisions in the 
ailes of the choir, the vestry (formerly the sacristy) on the south side, and 
the vestibule and chapter house on the north side. Though these were 
probably commenced by De Clinton, they certainly were not far advanced 
before the beginning of the thirteenth century ; as the arches, columns, 
and ornaments correspond in forms, &c. with many parts of churches 
built about that time. We shall not be likely to err in assigning them to 
the prelacies of Bishops Nonant and Stavenby, i. e. from 1188 to 1224. 
Soon afterwards the choir and nave were progressively raised, and most 
likely by Bishop Pateshulle, about 1235, as we have seen that a licence 
was granted by King Henry III. for the conveyance of stone. We have 
very satisfactory evidence that the Lady Chapel was raised by Bishop 
Langton, about 1300. The central and western towers and spires were 
erected very nearly at the same time. An alteration appears to have been 
next made by inserting a new and enlarged tier of clerestory windows into 
the choir, most probably in the early part of the reign of Edward III. 

Library. — Immediately over the chapter house is an apartment corres- 
ponding in form and style with the chapter house, and appropriated to the 
library. It contains ten bookcases, decorated with the arms of the munifi- 
cent donors of their valuable contents. Among the most antient and 
curious volumes in this collection are the MSS. called " Textus S. Ceddce," 
or St. Chad's Gospels, a large 4to. volume of vellum. This curious 
manuscript, which tradition attributes to the pen of St. Gildas, is supposed 
to have been written before 720. It appears to have once belonged to the 



64 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 

church of Llandaff, and to have been afterwards used by the Saxons for 
administering oaths and confirming donations. It is ornamented with 
several grotesque illuminations, and the initial letters of each gospel are 
decorated in a style particularly fanciful and curious. 

Here is also a fine folio copy, on vellum, of " Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales," in good preservation : the initial letters are coloured and gilt, and 
those at the beginning of each tale are highly ornamented. The Plough- 
man's Tale, which Mr. Tyrrwhit pronounced to be spurious, does not 
appear in this volume. 

A copy of the " Valor, or Taxatio, of Pope Nicholas IV." is here in 
a perfect state, with the exception of a few leaves at the end. This taxa- 
tion was made in 1291, for carrying into effect a grant to King Edward 1. 
of the tenth of all ecclesiastical revenues, towards defraying the charges of 
prosecuting the holy war. The present copy contains several entries 
which do not appear in that published by Parliament. 

A fine Koran, taken from the Turks at Buda, and presented to this 
cathedral by the Rev. Ben. Marshall. 

" Dives and Pauper," a treatise on the decalogue, in MS. It was 
printed in folio by Pynson in 1483, and again by Wynkyn de Worde in 
1496'. 

" Orders generally to be observed of the whole household of the prince 
his highness :" being a large folio volume, engrossed on vellum, and marked 
at every head with the sign manual of King Charles I. This was undoubt- 
edly the official book of the chamberlain of the prince's household. 

A MS. presentation copy, to the Earl of Hertford, of the comedy of 
" The English Moore, or the Mock Marriage," by Richard Brome. 

A volume of MSS. superscribed " Cantaria Sancti Blasii ; Ordinatio 
Majistri Thomse Hey wood, decani Eccles. Lich. de et super Cantaria Jesu 
et Saucta Anne in parte boreali eccles. Lich. et de pensione Capellani 
ibidem perpetuo celebraturi et aliis articulis," &c. The volume also con- 
tains copies of several deeds, &c. bearing the dates from 1471 to 1474. 

' Brit. Biblio. iv. 1*29, and Dibdin's Typog. Ant. ii. 67 and 401. There is also an imperfect 
copy in the Harleian Collection, No. 149. 



a «Df)ronoIostcaI 3Ltet of tf)e asters: of £tcf)ffeltr, &*♦ 



CONTEMPORARY KINGS OF ENGLAND, AND POPES. 



Do. 



31 
32 



OF THE MERCIANS. 

Diuma or Duima 

Cellach or Ceollach 

Truinhere. 

Jaiuniann 



OF LICHFIELD. 

Ceadda, Ceadd, or Chad . 

Winfrid 

Sexwlf or Sexulf. 

Hedda 

Aldwin, or Wor 

Wicta 

Hemele 

Cuthfrith, or Cuthred 

Bertbur 

Higebert 

Aldnlf (Archbishop) 

Herewin 



Athelwald 

Hunberht 

Kyneberth, or Cinebeit. 



Tunfrith 

Mile 

Elgar, or Alfgar 

Kyiisy 

Winsy 

jElfeah or JElfege .. 

Godwin ... 

Leofgar 

Brithmar 

Wlsius, or Wulsig . 

Leofwin 



Peter 

[*See removed to Chester.] 
Robert de Liniesey 



Consecrated or Installed. 



Died or- Translated 



^ttglo--Sbaxon UgnastB. 



From . 



C56 
658 
659 
662 



609 
672 
. 674 
691 
721 
737 
752 
765 
768 
785 
786 
812 



,. 818 
.. 857 

,. 867 

.. 890 
.. 920 
.. 944 
.. 960 
.. 974 
.. 992 
.1007 
.1020 
1027 
.1038 

.1054 



To . 



658 

Resigned 659 

662 

667 



672 

Deprived 674 

691 

721 

737 

752 

765 

768 

785 

786 

812 

817 



. 857 
. 867 

. 890 

. 920 
. 944 
. 900 
. 974 
. 992 
.1007 
.1020 
.1027 
.1038 
.1054 

.1066 



Lichfield . 



iSorman; Bgnastn. 



1067 

1088 



.1085 
.1107 



Chester .. 
Coventry , 



Kings. 



OF MERCIA. 

Oswy 

Oswy 

Wulfhere 

Wulfhere 



Wulfhere . 

Wulfhere 

Wulfhere , 

Ethelred... 

Ethelbald.. 

Ethelbald.. 

Ethelbald.. 

Offa 

Offa 

Offa 

Offa 

Kenulph ... 



OF ENGLAND. 

Egbert 

Ethelwulph 

( Ethelbald, Ethelbert, 

lEthelred 

Alfred ', 

Edward the Elder 

Edmund 

Edgar 

Edgar 

Ethelred 

Ethelred 

Canute 

Canute 

Harold 

5 Edward Confessor. 

jHarold 



William I. . 
William II. 



Popes. 



Eugenius I. 
Eugenius I. 
Vitalian. 
Vitalian. 



Vitalian. 
Adeodatus. 
Adeodatus. 
Sergius. 
Gregory II. 
Gregory III. 
Stephen III. 
Paul I. 
Stephen IV. 
Adrian. 
Adrian. 
Leo HI. 



Paschal. 
Benedict III. 

Adrian II. 

Stephen IV. 
JohnX. 
Stephen IX. 
John XII. 
Domnus II. 
Gregory V. 
John XVIII. 
Benedict VIII. 
John XIX. 
Bededict IX. 

Leo IX. 



Alexander II. 
Urban II. 



66 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BISHOPS, ETC. 



30 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 

41 
45 
46 
47 

48 

4 'J 
50 



57 
59 



60 

til 
62 
63 
61 
65 



66 
67 
68 
69 

70 



BISHOPS. 



Consecrated or Installed. 



OF COVENTRY AND 
LICHFIELD. 

Robert Peche 

Roger de Clinton 

Walter Dnrdent 



Richard Peche 

Gerard LaPucelle, orPuella 

Hngh de Nonant 

GeofTry de Muschamp 

William de Cornhull 

Alexander de Stavenby.... 
Hngh de Pateshnlle 

Roger de Wesehani 

Roger de Meyland 

Walter de Langton 

Roger de Norburg 

Robert Stretton 

Walter Skirlaw 1 



Richard Scrope 
John Brughill... 



John Catricke, or Ketericb 

William Heyworth 

William Bothe 

Nicolas Cloose 

Reginald Bolars 

John liaise 



William Smith 
John Arnndell .. 
GeofTry Blythe. 



Roland Lee 

Richard Sampson. 

Ralph Bane 

Thomas Bentbam. 
William Overton.. 
George Abbot 



Richard Neill 

John Overall 

Thomas Morton.... 
Robert Wright .... 
Accepted Frewen . 



From . 



March 13, 1121 
...Dec. 22, 1129 
... Oct. 22, 1149 



Died or Translated 



To 

Aug. 22, 1127 

16Cal. May, 1148 

Dec. 7, 1161 



Coventry 
Antioch . 
Coventry 



&axon line l&rstoretf. 



... Sept. 25, 
2 Cal. Feb. 

Jane 21, 

Jan 25, 

... April 14, 
July 1, 

Jan. 1, 

...March 10, 

Dec. 22, 

.... Jnne27, 
... Sept. 27, 



1162 
1183 
1188 
1198 
1215 
1224 
1240 

1245 

1258 
1296 
1322 
1360 



, Jan. II, 1386 



Aug. 19, 1386 

LandalT Sept. 1398 



Oct. 6, 1182 

Jan. 13, 1184 

April 27, 1198 

Oct. 6, 1208 

Sept. 14, 1223 

Dec. 26, 1238 

Dec. 8, 1241 

Resigned, Dec. 4,1256 ) 
Died. ..May 20, 1257 \ 

Dec. 16, 1295 

Nov. 16, 1321 

Dec. 1359 

March 28,1385 



Durham Aug. 18, 1386 



York July 6, 1398 York 

May, 1411 Liohfield . 



Stafford 

Coventry 

Caen in Normandy 

Licblield 

Lichlield , 

Lichfield 

Lichfield 

Lichfield 



Lichfield . 
Lichfield . 
Lichfield . 
Lichfield . 

Durham .. 



lantastrian linr. 



St. David's Mav, 1115 

Nov. 28, 1120 

July 10, 1447 

Aug. 30, 1152 

Hereford Feb. 7, 1453 

Nov. 25, 1459 



Exeter Nov. 20, 1419 

April 10, 1446 

York June 21, 1452 

Oct. 1452 

1459 

Sept. 30, 1490 



Southwell 
Lichfield. 
Lichfield . 
Lichfield. 



Stnion of 3?orK ani Unntastrian Jfnmilies. 



April, 1492 

... Nov. 6,1196 
. Sept. 20, 1503 



Lincoln 1495 

Exeter June 29, 1502 

1533 



Lincoln .. 
London ... 
Lichfield. 



April 19, 1534 

Chichester, March 12,1542 

Nov. 18, 1554 

March 24, 1559 

Sept. 18, 1580 

Dec. 3, 1609 



Information. 

Jan. 24, 1544 

Sept. 25, 1554 

Deprived 1559 

Feb. 21, 1578 

April, 1609 

London 1609 



Shrewsbury 

London .... 
Eccleshall . 
Eccleshall . 
Guildford... 



Stnion of ffinglisf) nnfc gbtottfj ©rofons. 



Rochester Sept. 1610 

April 3, 1614 

Chester March 6, 1618 

Bristol Nov. 28, 1632 

April, 1644 



Lincoln Sept. 1613 

Norwich ... Sept. 30, 1618 

Durham July 2, 1632 

1642 

York Oct. 11,1660 



York 

Norwich 

Eastern Mauduit. 



York 



Kings. 



Henry I. 
Henry I. 

Stephen . 



Henry II. .. 
Henry II.... 
Henry II. .. 
Richard I. .. 

John 

Henry III. . 
Henry III.., 

Henry HI.. 

Henry III. . 
Edward I. .. 
Edward II. . 
Edward III. 

Richard II. 

Richard II. 
Richard II. 



Henry V. . 
Henry V. . 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 



Henry VII 
Henry VII. 
HeDry VII. 



Henry VIII 
Henry VIII 

Mary 

Elizabeth ... 
Elizabeth ... 
James I 



James I... 
James I. .. 
James I. .. 
Charles I. 
Charles I. 



Popes. 



Calixtus II. 
Honorius II. 
Eugenius III. 



Alexander III. 
Lucius III. 
Clement III. 
Innocent III. 
Innocent III. 
Honorius III. 
Gregory IX. 

Innocent IV. 

Alexander IV. 
Boniface VIII. 
John XXII. 
Innocent VI. 

5 Urban VI. 

I Clement VII. 

j Urban VI. 

( Clement VII. 
Benedict XIII. 



Benedict XIII. 
Martin V. 
Nicholas V. 
Nioholas V. 
Nicholas V. 
Pius II. 



Alexander VI. 
Alexander VI. 
Pius HI. 



Clement VII. 



1 A Memoir of this prelate, by J. Crosse, Esq. is given in the Architectural Antiquities, vol.iv. p. 128. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BISHOPS, ETC. 



67 



71 

72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
SI 



BISHOPS. 



OF LICHFIELD AND 
COVENTRY. 

John Hacket 

Thomas Wood 

William Lloyd 

John Hough 

Edward Chandler 

Richard Smallbroke 

Hon. F. Corn will lis 

John Egerton 

Hon. Brownlow North 

Richard Hard 

Hon. J. Cornwallis 



Consecrated or Installed. 



Died or Translated 



From , 



Dec. 22, '. 

July 2, 

St. Asaph Oct. 20, 

Oxford Ang. 5, '. 

Nov. 17, 

St. David's ... Feb. 20, : 



1661 
1671 
1692 
1699 
1717 
1730 
1749 

Bangor Nov. 22, 1768 

1771 

1774 

1781 



To 

Oct. 28, 1670 

...April 18, 1692 

Worcester 1699 

Worcester 1717 

Durham 1730 

Dec. 22, 1749 

Canterbury 1768 

Durham July 8, 1771 

Winchester 1774 

Worcester 1781 



Lichfield 

Ufford 

Hadbury 

Worcester 

Farnham Royal 

St. James's 

Hartlebury 



Kings. 



Charles II. 
Charles II. 
William and Mary. 
William and Mary. 
George I. 
George II. 
George II. 
George III. 
George III. 
George III. 
George III. 



tftnonoloQiral atet of tbt ntan& of Uttfjfieau 



William 

Richard de Dalam . 

William II 

Richard 

Bertram 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



DEANS. 



Ralph Nevill 

William de Mancestre... 
Ralph de Sempringham 

John de Derby 

Stephen Segrave 

Roger de Covenis 

John Casey 



Richard Fitz-Ralph 

Simon de Borisley 

John de Bokingham 

Anthony Rous 

Laurence de Ibbestoke.. 

Francis St. Sabine 

William de Fackington . 

Thomas de Stretton 

Robert Wolvedon 

John de Verney 

Thomas Hey wood 

John Yotton 



Installed. 



1140 
1165 
1173 
1190 
1193 

1214 



1222 

1254 

1260 

.Dec. 1320 
1325 

1328 



April 20, 1337 
6 Id. Jan. 1347 

1361 

1363 

Feb. 23, 1368 

1369 

1381 

May 15, 1390 
Sept. 23, 1426 
..Dec. 2, 1432 

Aug. 1457 

Feb. 23, 1493 



Died, or removed. 



(Bishop of Chi- 

( Chester, Nov. 1222 

Feb. 7, 1253 

March 23, 1260 

Oct. 12, 1319 

Archbp. of Armagh, 1324 

1328 

( Called Episcopus 

I Marciliensis 1334 

Archbp. of Armagh, 1347 



Bishop of Lincoln, 1363 



April 30, 1390 

1425 

Nov. 1432 

1457 

. Oct. 25, 1492 
. Ang. 2, 1512 



DEANS. 



Ralph Collingwood . 

James Denton 

Richard Sampson 1 . 
Richard Williams .. 
John Rambridge .... 
Lawrence Nowell 2 .. 

George Boleyn 

James Montagu 

William Tooker 

Walter Curie 

Augustine Lindsell . 
John Warner 

Samuel Fell 



Griffith Higgs 3 

William Paul 

Thomas Wood 

Matthew Smalhvood 

Lancelot Addison 4 

William Binckes r... 

Jonathan Rimberley 

William Walmesley 

Nicholas Penny 

John Addenbrook 

Baptist Proby 

J. C. Woodhonse 



Sept. 26, 
.. Jan. 7, 
June 20, 
Nov. 23, 
April 2, 
April 29, 
Nov. 22, 
July 16, 
Feb. 21, 
Mar. 24, 
Oct. 15, 



April 8, 
Feb. 



.. July 3, 
June 19, 
..July 7, 
..May 7, 
..Dec. 1, 
Feb. 15, 
Mar. 25, 
Feb. 13, 



1512 
1522 
1533 
1536 
1554 
1559 
1576 
1603 
1604 
1620 
1628 
1633 

1637 

1638 
1660 
1663 
1671 
1683 
1703 
1713 
1720 
1730 
1745 
1776 
1807 



Died, or removed. 



Nov. 22, 1521 

Feb. 23, 1532 

Bp. of Chichester, 1536 

Deprived 1553 

Deprived 1558 

Oct. 1576 

Jan. 1602 

Bp. of Winchester, 1616 

March, 1620 

Bp. of Rochester.. 1627 

Bp. of Peterboro', 1632 

Bp. of Rochester .. 1637 

5 Dean of Cbrist- 

i chnrch, Oxford 1638 

Dec. 16, 1659 

Bishop of Oxford, 1663 
Bp.ofLichfield,&cl671 

April 26, 1683 

April 20, 1703 

June 19,1712 

March 7, 1719 

Jan. 15,1745 

Feb. 25, 1776 

Jan. 16,1807 



' Afterwards Bishop of Lichfield, Sec. 

3 " A liberal contributor to Hie ornaments of the Cathedral."— Wood. 



• Dean Nowell's MSS. greatly assisted Somner in compiling his Saxon Dictionary. 

* Antbor of several theological works, and father of tbe great essayist. 



fUjs* of 33oofe$, 350$w$> an* %$vint0, 

THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED RELATING TO 

LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL; 

ALSO 

A LIST OF ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF ITS BISHOPS AND DEANS. 

THIS LIST IS SUBJOINED TO GRATIFY THE BIBLIOGRAPHER, THE CRITICAL ANTIQUARY, AND THE ILLUSTRATOR; AS 
WELL AS TO SHOW, AT ONE VIEW, THE SOURCES WHENCE THE CONTENTS OF THE PRECEDING PAGES HAVE 
BEEN DERIVED, AND THE FULL TITLES OF THE WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE NOTES. 



SEE AND CHURCH. 

The Ecclesiastical History, by * the venerable Bede," contains the earliest authentic information 
relative to the establishment of the Mercian diocess, and the see of Lichfield. From that work 
the author of the " Chronicon Lichfeldcnsis Ecclesia" copied, almost verbatim, his account of 
those subjects. This chrouicle is published in " Anglia Sacra," vol. i. p. 423. We are informed 
by Warton, in the preface to this work, that he collated five different copies of the Chronicon, 
which vary considerably, and are all replete with errors. Of these, one is in the Cottonian library; 
(Vespasian, E. xvi. 2.) another in the Harleian library ; (MS. 3839) and a third in the Bodleian 
library, at Oxford ; (MS. n. 770, 8G5.) a fourth was formerly in the possession of Dean Addison of 
Lichfield. The following curious memoranda appear in the Cottonian MS. (Vespas. E. xvi. 2.) 

" Anno Xi, 1684. Quidam Sprag habuit librum fol. bene crassni et ccc annoru cui titulus 
Chronicon Leichfeldense ; in eo multa de epis Mercioru." — T. Gale. 

" This booke was found in the thatch of an house at Clitun Campuch, in the demolishinge 
thereof. And was brought to mee by Mr. Darwin. The Cronicon agrees perfectly wth that 
« thin y e church in the wall, by the south gate, in foldinge leaves of timber, wch was torn in pieces 
by my Lord Brookes his soldiers. 

" But there is another antiquity called Liber Lichfieldensis, wch was in y e custody of y e Deane 
and Chapter, and suffered an harde fate, for there having bin not many yearcs since a sute betwixt 
Mr. Sprat and certain prebendaries touching y c repairs of y° church of Stowe's chaucel, whereof 
they were Parsons convicted. And y" cause was appealed after judgment given below, to London, 
and so y e whole cause transmitted wth that record, wch was y e most pregnant evidence, but could 
never bee obteiued back agen. But I was shewed another copy under y' title in Graye's Ine 
library, wch they tould mee Mr. Seidell bad mutilated. This I saw some 20 yeares agoe, aut 
circiter." 

This original Chronicle was compiled by Thomas de Chesterfeld, about the year 1350: and was 
continued down to the year 1559 by William Whitlock, partly from the works of other authors, 
and partly from his personal knowledge. 

"A Survey of Staffordshire; containing the Antiquities' of that County," &c. By Sampson 
Erdeswicke, Esq.: — with Observations upon the Possessors of Monastery Lands in Staffordshire, 
By Sir Simon Degge, Knt. London; 8vo. 1717. A new title page was afterwards printed for 
W. Mears, 1723. — This edition was reprinted on thicker and lighter coloured paper. A new and 
enlarged edition of this work has been published in 1820, by the Rev. T. Harwood, B. D. F. S. A. 
8vo. price £1. Is. : and " a few copies on large paper, price £1. lis. Gd." 

Some particulars of the history and description of this cathedral are given in " Leland's Itine- 
rary," Vol. iv. part ii. fol. 187. b. 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL: — LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, ETC. 69 

" The Natural History of Staffordshire. By Robert Plott, LL. D. Keeper of the Ashmolean 
Museum, and Professor of Chemistry in the University of Oxford." Oxf. 1686, folio. This work 
evinces some learning and acuteness in the author, but also displays his credulity and superstition. 

Elias Ashmole intended to write " The History and Antiquities of Lichfield," his native city. 
His collections are in his museum, 7470-84, 8093, and " Historia Ecclesia? de Lichfeld," Bib. 
Bodl. 3553. 

The " Monasticon Anglicanum," contains an account of the foundation of the see and church, 
taken from the Chronicle of Lichfield, vol. iii. p. 216 ; — some other particulars from Leland's Col- 
lectanea — description of the close and two monasteries, p. 220, &c. — depositions of the prior of 
Coventry and others relating to the election of bishops — several statutes and ordinances of the 
bishops ; charters, and deeds relating to the church lands, &c. 

" Wilkins's Concilia" contain the Statutes of Bishops Nonant, vol. i. p. 496 ; Stavenby, ib. p. 
640 ; Langton, ib. p. 256 ; and the submissions of the bishops of Coventry to the Church of Can- 
terbury, vol. iii. p. 504. 

" Some short Account of the Cathedral Church of Lichfeld," 8vo. pp. 62. London, 1723. This 
little work was first published separately in 1717, but afterwards in 1723, in a volume intituled 
" The Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Worcester. By that learned Antiquary, Thomas 
Abingdon, Esq. To which are added, The Antiquities of the Cathedral Churches of Chichester 
and Lichfeld." It contains but little original information, and is evidently compiled from the 
Monasticon, and Plot's Survey of Staffordshire. 

In Willis's " History of the Mitred Abbies," vol. ii. p. 359, are the dimensions of this church 
from the preceding volume, and an account of its monuments. 

In the same author's " Survey of Cathedrals," vol. i. p. 371, is an account of this church, and 
the persons buried therein ; — the endowment of the bishopric, and alienations from it ; endowment 
of the dean and chapter; an account of the bishops, deaus, &c. Also a view of the church, from 
the south, engraved by J. Harris. 

An Account of the Cathedral and City of Lichfield constitutes part of an unfinished History 
of Staffordshire, by the Rev. Stebbing Shaw, under the following title: " The History and Anti- 
quities of Staffordshire ; compiled from the Manuscripts of Huntbach, Loxdale, Bishop Lyttleton, 
and other Collections, of Dr. Wilkes, the Rev. T. Feilde, &c. &c. Including Erdeswick's Survey of 
the County, and the approved parts of Dr. Plot's Natural History. The whole brought down to the 
present Time; interspersed with Pedigrees and Anecdotes of Families; Observations on Agricul- 
ture, Commerce, Mines, and Manufactories ; and illustrated with a very full and correct new Map 
of the County, Agri Staffordiensis Icon, and numerous other Plates. By the Rev. Stebbing Shaw, 
B. D. F. A. S. and Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge." 2 vols, folio. London, 1798. 

The account of the cathedral occupies one hundred and nineteen pages, which are accompanied 
by the following Prints : — 1. West Front of the Cathedral, with Plan of North Side, said to be 
drawn by Mr. Shaw, and engraved by R. W. Basire, but was drawn by J. Carter, and merely re- 
duced by Mr. Shaw: — 2. South-west View of the Cathedral, engraved by Kidd, and originally 
published by J. Jackson ; May, 1796, with letter press : — 3. View near Lichfield, with large Willow 
Tree, at the top of p. 114. E. Stringer, del. 1785 : — 4 and 5. On one sheet, being the South 
Prospect and Ground Plan of the Cathedral. I. Harris, sc. : — 6. Effigies and Arms formerly in the 
Cathedral, from Dugdale's Visitation in the Herald's College: — 7- Altar Tomb, with Canopy; 
Effigy of a Bishop, &c. formerly in the cathedral: — 8. Monumental Effigy of a Bishop, in a niche, 
with Canopy ; an Inscription, and three other Subjects, etched, in a rough and bad style : — 9. Mo- 
nument of Dean Heywood, two Effigies, and Canopy : — 10. Monument of Bishop Langton, from 
Dugdale's Visitation ; Effigy on Altar Tomb with Canopies, &c. :— 11. A large folding-sheet show- 
ing Eight Monuments, etched by the Rev. J. Homfray, in a very rough, slight, careless manner : 
— 12. Monument, with Effigy of Bishop Hacket, engraved by Hollar for the Bishops " Century 
of Sermons :"— 13. Eight Seals: — 14. Gate-house belonging to the Choristers House; Portrait of 
Richard Greene ; East End of Cathedral from Stow Pool. R. Greene, del. I. Wood, sc. for the 
Gentleman's Magazine. , 

The work is a strange jumble of undigested, unarranged, and indiscriminating matter. The lan- 
guage is often puerile, and in some places illiterate; the plates very badly engraved, and ap- 
parently from equally bad drawings. 

" The Gentleman's Magazine" vol. lxxix. contains some remarks on a publication, intituled, 
" An Historical Survey of the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of France : with a view to illustrate the 
Rise and Progress of Gothic Architecture in Europe." By the late Rev. G. D. Whittington. In 



70 LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL: LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, ETC. 

these remarks, Mr. Carter maintains, contrary to the opinion advanced by Mr. Whittington, that 
the pointed style of architecture originated in England. In the course of these observations 
Mr. Carter introduces a short description of the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral, and a com- 
parison between that and the West Front of the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Paris; vol. lxxix. 
part ii. p. 697. But he met with an able opponent, under the signature of " Amateur," who defends 
the Survey, in several letters, one of which in vol. lxxx. part i. p. 525, is a complete refutation of 
the " Architect's" Remarks on Lichfield Cathedral. A View of the West Front, drawn by J. Carter, 
and engraved by Basire, is in vol. lxxx. part ii. p. 403. 

" History of the City and Cathedral of Lichfield, chiefly compiled from ancient Authors, &c." 
By John Jackson, Jun. London ; 8vo. 1805, pp. 276. Embellished (among other prints) with a 
South-west View of the Cathedral, engraved by Kidd. This was the third edition, materially 
altered and enlarged, of a work originally published by the same author, at the age of eighteen, 
under the title of " History of the City and County of Lichfield," &c. 

" The History and Antiquities of the Church and City of Lichfield : containing its ancient and 
present State, Civil and Ecclesiastical ; collected from various public Records, and other authentic 
Evidences." By the Rev. Thomas Harwood, F. S. A. late of University College, Oxford. Glou- 
cester: printed for Cadell and Davies, London, 1806, pp. 574, 4to. Embellished (among other 
views) with a South-west View of the Cathedral, engraved by B. Howlett, from a drawing by T. G. 
Worthington, Esq. This work contains a history of the see and church, with a description of 
the latter, its monuments, and epitaphs, biography of the bishops, lists of the deans, chancellors, 
precentors, archdeacons, and prebendaries. 

" An Illustration of the Architecture of the Cathedral Church of Lichfield." By Charles 
Wild. London, 1813, folio. This volume contains a short history and description of the Cathe- 
dral, illustrated by ten aquatinta prints by Dubourg, from drawings by Mr. Wild. Plate 1. 
Ground Plan of the Cathedral: — 2. West and North Entrances, and Arcade of Nave '. — 3. South- 
east View of Cathedral:— 4, Part of South Side:— 5. The East End:— 6. The West Front:— 
7. Part of the Nave: — 8. Nave, and part of Transept : — 9. The Choir: — 10. Interior of the 
East End. 

The third volume of Storer's " Graphic and Historical Description of the Cathedrals of Great 
Britain" contains the " History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Churches, and See. of Lichfield 
and Coventry." 8vo. Sherwood and Co. 1816. This work is illustrated by ten plates, eight of 
which are engraved by J. Storer, from his own drawings ; and the other two from those of J. Hard- 
wick and Capt. Johu Westmacott — viz. I. The West Door: — 2. Ground Plan: — 3. South Tran- 
sept, exterior: — 4. Chapter-house, interior: — 5. Interior of Cathedral, looking North-west: — 
6. North-east View: — 7. North-west View: — 8. View of Cathedral from North: — 9. View of 
the Bishop's Palace: — 10. West Front. With a concise history and description, in twelve pages 
of letter press. 

ACCOUNTS OF BISHOPS. 

The Chronicle of Lichfield Cathedral, already referred to, as printed in " Anglia Sacra," con- 
tains some account of the bishops of this see, from Diuma to Bentham. 

A fragment of the life of Hugo de Nonant, written by Giraldus Cambrensis, is also printed in 
Warton's Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 351. 

" The Lives and Characters, Deaths, Burials and Epitaphs, Works of Piety, Charity, and other 
munificent Benefactions, of all the Protestant Bishops of the Church of England, since the Re- 
formation, as settled by Queen Elizabeth, A. D. 1559; collected from their several Registers, 
Wills in the Prerogative Ofliccs, authentic Records, and other valuable MSS. collections; and 
compared with the best Accounts hitherto published of this kind." By John Le Neve, Gent, 
vol. i. 8vo. London, 1720, pp. 288. This volume (the only one ever published) contains the lives 
of George Abbot and Richard Neill, Bishops of this See, who afterwards became Archbishops. 

" Memoirs of the Life of Roger de Wesehnm." By Dr. Pegge, 4to. 1761. 

"The Life of Bishop Morton," by Baddiley and Naylor, 12mo. 1660, and byr. Barwick, 4to. 
1669 — with portrait by Faithorne. 

The Life of Bishop Hacket, prefixed to his Century of Sermons, fol. 1675. By Dr. Plume. 
This volume is embellished with a fine portrait by Faithorne, and a plate of the monument by 
Hollar. 

" The Life of the Rev. John Hough, D.D. successively Bishop of Oxford, Lichfield and Co- 
ventry, and Worcester; formerly President of St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, in the Reign of 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL: — LIST OF PRINTS, ETC. 71 

King James II. Containing many of his Letters, and Biographical Notices of several Persons with 
whom he was connected." By John Wilmot, Esq. F. R. S. and S. A. 4to. pp. 387. London, 1812. 
This work contains the substance of a scarce memoir which was printed a few weeks after the 
bishop's decease, as " Some Account" of his life : and is embellished with two portraits of the 
bishop, and fac similes of his writing. 

Memoirs of Bishop Hurd, with a portrait, are prefixed to an edition of his works, 8 vols. 8vo. 
1811. 

VIEWS AND PRINTS OF THE CHURCH AND OF ITS MONUMENTS. 

In Fuller's " Church History of Britain," fol. 1655, are two views of the cathedral, supposed 
to be the oldest prints extant : — viz. View of the West Front, having all its niches filled with 
statues, and the West Window, with its original mullions and tracery. S. Kyrk, pinx. W. Hollar, 
sc. — Elias Ashmole presented this plate. A similar view was engraved for the Monasticon, most 
likely by Hollar, though without his name, and with some variation. 

A South View of the Cathedral. S. Kyrk, del. R. Vaughan, sc. 

View of the West Front ; engraved by King. 

View of the North Side ; engraved by Harris. 

A large View of the West Front, and a smaller one of the South Side, were executed by the late 
Francis Perry, who afterwards destroyed the plates. These are poorly and inaccurately drawn, 
and etched in a scratchy style. 

East View of the Cathedral and Close, from Stow-pool, near St. Chad's Church, 1745. Drawn 
by R. Greene; engraved by J. Wood. 

In Carter's " Ancient Sculpture and Painting" is a View of the West Porch, or principal 
entrance; drawn and etched by J. Carter, 1782. 

In Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. i. part ii. p. 84, are engraved effigies of Bishops 
Langtou and Pateshulle, from their monuments in this cathedral. 

View of the West Front ; engraved by J. Basire, from a drawing by J. Carter, 8vo. for the 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxxx. part ii. 

A View of the West Front of the Cathedral ; engraved by J. Roffe, from a drawing by T. Nash, 
appears in the Beauties of England and Wales. 

In No. VI. of " Etchings of the Cathedral, Collegiate, and Abbey Churches of England and 
Wales," 4to. 1820, is a View of the Cathedral from North-west; drawn and etched by J. C. 
Buckler ; also two leaves of letter-press. 

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF THE BISHOPS OF LICHFIELD AND 

COVENTRY. 

1. George Abbot: in Clarendon's " History," 8vo. M. V. Gucht, sc. — in Birch's "Lives," 

large fol. J. Houbraken, sc. — in the title page to his " Brief Description of the World," 1635 ; 
r2mo. W. Marshall, sc. — 4to. 1616, S. Pass, sc. — a copy of the last in " Boissard," 
Grainger and Bromley. 

2. John Overall : a small oval in Sparrow's " Rationale of the Common Prayer," 1657, 12mo. 

Hollar, sc. — prefixed to his " Convocation Book," by Sancroft, 1690. R. While, sc. 
Grainger and Bromley. 

3. Thomas Morton, prefixed to his "Life," by Barwick, 1660, 4to. Faithorne, sc. — a Wooden 

Cut, 4to. Grainger and Bromley. 

4. John Hacket, prefixed to his " Sermons," fol. Faithorne, sc. — prefixed to his "Christian 

Consolations," 8vo. Grainger and Bromley. 

5. William Lloyd: fol. D. Loggan, sc. — another, fol. J. Sturt, sc. — aetat. 86, large fol. 7*. 

Forster, pinx. Vertue, sc. — aetat 87. F. Weidman, pinx. Verlue, sc. — Bishop of St. Asaph, 
oval. — In the prints of the seven bishops. Bromley. 

6. John Hough: retat. 91, mez. Dyer, pinx. Faber, sc. — in Wilmot's " Life" of him, from the 

same picture. James Heath, sc. — mez. Riley, pinx. Williams, sc. — mez. Dyer, pinx. — mez. 
prefixed to his " Life," by Wilmot. Kneller, pinx. Caroline Watson, sc. Bromley and Wil- 
mot's " Life of Bishop Hough." 

7. Edward Chandler :. large fol. J. V. Bank, pinx. Vertue, sc. Bromley. 

8. Richard Smallbroke : large fol. T. Murray, pinx. Vertue, sc. Bromley. 



72 



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL: LIST OF PRINTS. 



9. Frederick Cornwallis: mez. N. Dance, pinx. E. Fisher, sc. Bromley. 

10. John Egerton: oval profile, in Hutchinson's " Antiquities of Durham." Anon. Bromley. 

11. Richard Hurd: 4to. Gainsborough, pinx. Hall, sc. A small profile, from a model by 

Isaac Gosset ; engraved by J. Neagle, 1809, prefixed to a volume of letters, from Bishop 
Warburton to Bishop Hurd. 

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF DEANS OF LICHFIELD. 

1. James Mountagu, or Montagu, (as Bishop of Winchester) : in the Heroologia, 8vo — A 
copy in Boissard. — Another, 4to. — See " History, &c. of Winchester Cathedral." 

•2. Walter Curle, (as Bishop of Winchester): t. Cecil, sc. h. sh. See " History, &c. of 
Winchester Cathedral." 



Si5t of mints 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL. 



Plates. 


Subjects. 


Drawn by 


Engraved by 


Dedicated to 


Described. 


I. 




Mackenzie 






35 




EXTERIORS. 










II. 






H. Le Keuv... 


5 Marquis of An- ) 
I glesey. \ 

W. R. Boulton, Esq. 


36 


III. 




Mackenzie 


J. Le Keux ... 


37 


IV. 


Ditto, Section and Elevation 


Potter 


H. Le Keux... 


Rev. Dr. Buckeridge 


38 


V. 




Mackenzie 


J. Le Keux.... 


Sir Osw. Mosley, Bt. 


39 


VI. 


View of the Cathedral from S. E. 

INTERIORS. 


Mackenzie 


J. Le Keux.... 


Rev. H. Bailye , 


39 


VII. 




Mackenzie 


J. Le Keux.... 


Rev. J. Madan, M. A. 


40 


VIII. 


f Half Elevation, Half Section, ) 
( of Transept, Arc S 


Johnson.... 


J. Le Keux.... 


Rev. H. White...... 


41 


IX. 


Compartments of Nave and Choir 




Turrell 




41 


X. 






Cleghorn 

Radclyfie, 
Woolnoth 


SirEdw.Paget.K.B. 

C G. W. Taylor, ) 
\ Esq. M.P. J 

J. W. Russell, Esq. 


42 


XI. 






ia 


XII. 




Mackenzie 


43 


XIII. 


Arches, &c. in Chapter House 

$ Capital in Chapter House, and ) 


Mackenzie 
Mackenzie 




Rev. Archd. Nares .. 


43 


XIV. 


J. Le Keux ... 


44 


XV. 




Mackenzie 


J. LeKeux.... 


R. J. Harper, Esq. 


44 


XVI. 




Mackenzie 


tH.LeKiuxi 


Dean of Lichfield... 


44, 49 









• The general Measurements of the church are marked on Plates I. IV. and VII. 



INDEX. 



Abbot, bp. 58, 66 ; portraits of, 71. 
Anglo-Saxons, remarks on, 9. 

B. 
Bayne, bp. 58. 

Bishops of Lichfield, &c. 55 ; list of, 65. 
Books, list of, 69. 
Brackets, views of six, PI. XIV. 

C. 

Carter, John, a visionary antiquary, 26. 

Ceadda, or Chad, saint and bishop, 13; mi- 
racle attributed to, 14, 15; shrine of, 28. 

Cathedral Church, despoiled of orna- 
ments, 22; first founded, 15, 24; rebuilt 
by Bp. Clinton, 26 ; licence to dig stone for, 
27 ; lady chapel built, 28 ; in its " vertical 
height," 28; much injured in the civil wars, 
29, 30; repaired under Mr. Wyatt, 32; 
situation and description of, 33 ; approaches 
to, 34 ; exterior and interior, 35 ; ground 
plan of, 35; west front, 36, 37, 38, 39; 
north transept, door-way, 39 ; south-east view 
described, 39, PI. VI. ; nave, PI. VII. de- 
scribed, 40 ; choir, PI. IX. and PI. X. de- 
scribed, 42. 

Chandler, bp. 61, 67; portrait, 71. 

Chantrey, account of his style of sculpture 
and monument by, 49, 50, 51. 

Chapter house, vestibule to, PI. XII. described, 
43; arches in, PI. XIII. described, 43; ca- 
pital of centre column, PI. XIV. described, 
44; date of, 63. 

Clinton de, bp. 19, 65; his architecture, 26. 



Choir, view of, PI. X. described, 42 ; eleva- 
tion of part, PI. IX. ; date of, 63. 

Christianity, introduction of, into Mercia and 
to Lichfield, 12, 24. 

Cornwallis, bp. 61, 62, 67; portrait, 72. 

Coventry, see of, 19; and Lichfield, united 
title of, 19 ; bishops of, 20 ; and Lichfield, 
disputes between, 20, 21, 22; monastic 
church demolished, 22. 

Curie, dean, 67, 72. 

D. 

Dates of building, 63. 
Diuma, first bp. of Mercia, 13. 
Deans, list of, 67. 

E. 

Egerton, bp. 67 ; portrait, 72. 



Frewen, bp. 59, 66. 



F. 



G. 



Garrick, Dr. Johnson's remark on, 8; bust 

of, 48. 
Glass, stained, 32, 51. 

H. 

Hacket, bp. state of church at his time, 30 ; 
monument of, 47 ; anecdotes of, 59, 67 ; 
memoir, 70; portrait, 71, 72. 

Hurd, bp. 62, 66, 71. 

Heyworth, bp. 28, 66. 

Hough, bp. life of, 61, 66; memoir and por- 
trait, 71. 



74 



INDEX. 



J. 

Johnson, character of, 7 ; bust of, &c. 47. 



Lady chapel built, 28 ; view of, PI. XI. de- 
scribed, 42. 

Langton, bp. benefactor to the church, 27, 56 ; 
builder of lady chapel, 28. 

Library described, 63. 

Lichfield, eminent natives and inhabitants of, 
and associations arising therefrom, 7, 8 ; 
name and etymology of, 10; 6rst foundation 
of a church at, 5; see of, J 3, 15; cathedral 
erected, A. D. 700, 17; made an arch- 
bishopric, 18; and Coventry, extent of dio- 
cess, 23 ; two monasteries in, and antient 
state of, 25. 

Lloyd, bp. 61, 67; portrait, 71. 

M. 

Miracle attributed to St. Chad, 14. 

Mercia, introduction of Christianity into, 11 ; 
church founded in, 13; extent of, 15 ; divi- 
sion of sees in, 16. 

Montague, Lady M. W. monument for 47 ; 
character of her Letters, 47. 

Montagu, dean, 67 ; portrait, 72. 

Monuments, remarks on, 45 ; fine one, by 
Chantrey, 44; view of, PI. XVI. 

Morton, bp. 59, 66; portrait, 71. 

N. 

Nave, PI. VII. described, 40 ; elevation, PI. 

IX. 41 ; date of, 65. 
Neile, bp. 38, 66. 
Newton, Andrew, charity of, and monument, 

48. 



Nonant, bp. enemy to monks, 20, 56. 
North transept, door-way, PI. V. described, 
39,41. 

O. 
Overall, bp. 66; portrait, 71. 

P. 

Peda and Panda, government and wars of, 12. 
Peterborough, foundation of monastery, 14. 



R. 



Ross, or Rous, MS. of, 11. 



S. 



Sampson, bp. 56, 66. 

Seward, Rev. Tho. character of, 48. 

Seward, Miss, character of, 48. 

Scrope, bp. 57, 66. 

Smallbroke, bp. 61, 67 ; portrait, 71. 

Spires described, 37. 

Stavenby, bp. 56, 67. 

Stretton, bp. 57. 

Synod at Heorutford, or Retford, 15 ; at Hat- 
field, 16; at Cloveshoe, 18; at Calchyth, 
18. 

T. 

Theodore, abp. character of, 16 note. 

W. 

Walmsley, Dr. Gilbert, Johnson's character 
of, 8. 

Windows, painted, 32, 51, 52, 53. 

West front described, 35, 36, 37; view of, 
PI. II. ; centre door-way, PI. III. described, 
38 ; section of, PI. IV. described, 38 ; Car- 
ter's priut of, noticed, 38. 



FINIS. 



C. WtmungliaiQ, GoBcgs liuuae, Ctj^uick. 



f A TWEVITOHI A TT. A ig TIIlQIM fl'll'll IF. S! 




Engraved. ~br J.Le Keux. 



MOHUMEHT &N THE OTETM fftll. OF THE 3LA3DY" CHAPETL . 

Tu the REV? HEHH.Y LEE "WA&NEH- , of TTJmEK.TcW < ".OVIUDi this Plate is inscribed, as a. tuki.111 of friundahip ~by 

THE ATTTHOrt. 



Zffn&w , FuMi.rhivl N.'v'J ,i;:,it> . In/ Jlon.wm X- t' " rirt.rno.s'tcr How. 



THE 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 



THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH 



ftereforti: 

ILLUSTRATED EY 

A SERIES OF ENGRAVINGS 



VIEWS, ELEVATIONS, AND PLANS OF THAT EDIFICE. 



iSiograpjjical gltucootcg of Imminent persons connected foil!) tljt CFsstafilisjjment. 



BY JOHN BRITTON, F. S. A. 

AND MEMBER OF SEVERAL OTHER ENGLISH AND FOREIGN LITERARY SOCIETIES. 



' t*"*^ EftJ 







IK. 11. Bartlitt, del. 



ONHMENTAL NICHES IN S. AILK OF CHOIR. 



S. Willium*, sc. 



Kontion : 

PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN, PATERNOSTER ROW ; THE AUTHOR, 
BURTON STREET ; AND JOSEPH TAYLOR, 59, HIGH HOLBORN. 

1831. 



c. wHirrHOHAa. CHBvncK. 



TO 

THE HONOURABLE AND VERY REVEREND 

EDWARD GREY, D. D. Dean of Hereford, 

AND TO 

THE REV. HUGH HANMER MORGAN, B. D. Chancellor and Canon Residentiary, 

THE REV. THOMAS HUNTINGFORD, M. A. Precentor and Canon Residentiary, 

THE REV. RICHARD WALOND, M. A., Treasurer, 

THE VENERABLE J. J. CORBETT, M. A., Archdeacon of Salop, 

THE VENERABLE HENRY WETHERELL, B. D., Archdeacon of Hereford, 

and 
THE REV. THOMAS RUSSELL, M. A., THE REV. THOMAS UNDERWOOD, M. A., 

THE REV. JOHN CLUTTON, D. D., AND THE REV. HENRY C. HOBART, M.A., 

Canons Residentiary, 

©fits Volume 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE CATHEDRAL OVER WHICH THEY PRESIDE, 

IS, WITH PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED BY 

Feb. 1831. THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 

If literature, like the commerce, trade, and manufactures of the 
country, has suffered in the general depression of the times, it cannot 
excite the surprise of the sound politician; for he is aware that 
every thing dependent on national wealth must ebb and flow with 
the corresponding fluctuations of the country. It is, however, an 
admitted fact, that the higher classes of literary works were more 
encouraged, and better appreciated, when the nation was involved 
in a merciless conflict with France than they have been since. It 
cannot be denied, also, that during the last twenty years literature, 
with public taste, and public opinion, have undergone a palpable 
change. The reading time, and reading thoughts of men, are now 
almost wholly occupied in diurnal politics, cheap and attractive 
publications, and popular novels and pamphlets. These emerge 
almost daily and hourly from the rapidly multiplying steam presses 
of the time, and combined with engravings on steel, which produce 
almost an indefinite number of impressions of prints, and with the 
improved execution of lithography, have cooperated to produce 
not merely a reform, but a real revolution in literature. Although 
in this great change the " Cathedral Antiquities" has not 
been surpassed by any cheaper rival work, nor by any thing com- 
peting with it in all the different departments of its execution, yet, 
as its sale does not repay the expenses appropriated to its execution, 
it is not reasonable to expect that either author or publishers will 
prosecute such a publication at a loss : nor can they reconcile 
themselves to the mortifying situation of continuing the work at 
inferior prices and reduced quality. 

In prosecuting the " Cathedral Antiquities," the Author 
has devoted nearly twenty years of an active, anxious life, zealously 

b 



vi PREFACE. 

devoted to the subject ; and had public encouragement kept up 
rather than damped his energies, he would ere now have completed 
the illustration and historical display of all the English Cathedrals. 

On commencing the History of Hereford Cathedral, the Author 
applied to the late Dean for permission to make drawings, and 
personally to examine the Church under his care and custody ; 
soliciting at the same time liberty to inspect any archives that would 
be likely to elucidate the history, and thus gratify public curiosity. 
He further intimated, that he hoped to be indulged with some encou- 
ragement from the members of the Cathedral, as he had hitherto 
struggled with inconveniences and losses in prosecuting his arduous 
and expensive publication. Alarmed at this intimation, and probably 
never having heard of the " Cathedral Antiquities," or its 
author, the timid Dean advised the antiquary not to trouble himself 
about Hereford Cathedral, as a publication on it might be likely to 
involve him in further losses. Thus repressed, and certainly not a 
little mortified, the Author determined to leave that city, and seek a 
more courteous and kindly reception from the temporary guardians 
of another Cathedral. Some gentlemen of the city and county, 
attached to antiquarian pursuits, and proud of their provincial 
Minster, not only urged the Author to prosecute his proposed work, 
but persuaded their respective friends to patronize it. He has 
complied with their wishes ; and he also hopes that he has been 
fortunate enough to gratify their expectations, and justify their 
favourable opinions. For the local patronage he has received he 
feels obliged and is grateful ; and cheerfully acknowledges that the 
History of Hereford Cathedral has experienced more support from 
that district than any previous volume from local patronage. A 
record of the names of persons who have thus encouraged the 
Author, and been the means of bringing forward the present volume, 
will be preserved in its pages. 

That the Author has taken some pains to investigate and 



PREFACE. Vll 

elucidate the history of the Cathedral, will appear to those who 
will examine the references in the following; sheets ; and that he has 
endeavoured to illustrate and exemplify the architectural styles and 
peculiarities of the Church, will be evident to all persons who can 
appreciate the engravings of the volume. Having been engaged 
in topographical and antiquarian literature for more than thirty 
years, and read and analysed the published works of every English 
writer on the Cathedrals, and, indeed, on all other antiquities, the 
Author now ventures to express his opinions on some occasions 
perhaps rather more decidedly and plainly than is customary with 
churchmen who seek preferment, or with many other persons 
who are more inclined to adopt the prejudices and dogmas of 
sects and parties than think for themselves, and dare express their 
thoughts in unreserved phraseology. These are not equivocating, 
temporizing times : and an author is not deserving that honourable 
appellation who will truckle to vice, folly, and imbecility, although 
it may be decorated with a crown, mitre, or a coronet. 

In taking leave of the present volume, and of the city of Hereford 
and its connexions, the author most cheerfully tenders his best 
acknowledgments and thanks to the following gentlemen, for literary 
communications and personal civilities: — The Rev. Henry Lee 
Warner :— The Rev. H. H. Morgan :— The Rev. T. Garbett :— 
The Rev. A. J. Walker :— Thos. Bird, Esq. F. S. A. :— Richard 
Jones Powell, Esq.: — Dr. Meyrick :— Robert Anderson, 
Esq. — The Rev. W. J. Rees : — William Hooper, Esq. ;— and 
Messrs. Buckman, R. B. Watkins, and Vale. 



SUBSCRIBERS 
TO THE HISTORY OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL, 

RESIDENT IN THE VICINITY, OR CONNECTED WITH THE COUNTY. 



The Rev. J. Jones, Hereford. 



FOLIO PROOFS AND ETCHINGS. 

The Rev. Henry Lee "Warner. 
FOLIO PROOFS. 



The Very Reverend the Dean and Chapter. 

The Rev. John Clutton, D.D. Canon Residentiary. 



The Rev. Thomas Underwood, M. A. Canon Resi- 
dentiary. 



QUARTO PROOFS AND ETCHINGS. 



The Venerable Archdeacon Prosser. 

The Rev. H. H. Morgan, B. D. Canon Residentiary. 

B. Biddulph, Esq. 



Messrs. Underwood and Evans. 
Mrs. Davies, Croft Castle. 



LARGE PAPER. 



The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Hereford. 

Lord Viscount East nor. 

Sir John Geers Cotterell, Bart. 

Lady Coflin Greenley. 

George We a re Braikenridge, Esq. F. G. S. and F. S. A. 

Thomas Bird, Esq. Clerk of the Peace for the County. 

Joseph Blissett, Esq. Letton. 

The Rev. Morgan Cove, D.C.L. Chancellor of the Church. 

The Rev. W. Cooke, M. A. Precentor. 

Thomas Davies, Esq. Hereford. 

Edward Evans, Esq. 

Wi C. Has ton, Esq. Moreton. 

The Rev. Henry C. Hohart, 31. A. Canon Residentiary. 

The Rev. John Hopton. 

The Rev. — Jones. 

Theophilus Lane, Esq. Chapter Clerk. 

J. Bleek Lye, Esq. M. D. 



Captain Manbv. 

John Martin; Esq. M.P. 

Miss H. 3Ioore, Bridgenorth. 

Richard Jones Powell, Esq. 

Edward Poole, Esq. 

The Rev. G. Pyrke. 

Sir Uvcdale Price, Bart. 

The Rev. Thomas Russell, M. A. Canon Residentiary. 

Sir Edwin Francis Scudamore Stanhope, Bart. 

J. L. Scudamnrc, Esq. 

Mrs. S\kes. 

The Worshipful Charles Taylor, D.D. Chancellor. 

The Re v. CharlesTaylor.Head Master of the Col lege School. 

Charles Hanbury Tracy, Esq. 

J. Clarke Whitfield, Mus. Doc. Cambridge. 

The Rev. John "Webb, A. M. 

The Rev. II. Williams. 



SMALL PAPER. 



Robert Anderson, Esq. 
Mr. R. Urn km. in. 
H. A. Beavan, Esq. 
W. H. Bellamy, Esq. 
William Bennett, Esq. 
John Biddulph, Esq. 
Mr. Bennettj Bookseller. 
The Rev. Edw. Buhner, M.A. 
Charles T. Bridges, Esq. 
The Rev. F. H. Brickenden. 
The Rev. Archer Clive. 
Samuel Cam, Esq. 

D. Cox, Esq. 

The Rev. Joseph Cross, 

E. L. Charltun, Esq. 
John Cleeve, Esq. 
Colouel Crawford. 

Mr. Child, Bookseller, 2 Copies, 

Thomas Dax, Esq. 

Thomas Da\ies, Esq. Leominster- 

Messrs. T. Davies and Son, Bookseller*. 

The Rev. J. Duncuinb. 

John Edward Dowdeswell, Esq. 31. P. 

John Brans, Esq. 

The Rev. James George. 

Thomas Abbot Greene, Esq. 

B. Granger, Esq. 

The Rev. T. Gretton, 31. A. 

J. S. Gowland, Esq. 

William Gordon, Esq. 

J. E. Gough, Esq. 

The Rev. John Garbett, M. A. 

The Rev. Thomas Garbett, M.A. 

The Rev. R. C. Hath way. 

The Rev. R. Halifax. 

William Hooper, Esq. 

The Rev. 3V. Hopton. 



William Humfrvs, Esq. 

The Rev. J. Hanhury. 

The Rev. J. Johnson, 31. A. 

The Rev. C. Jones. 

The Re* . — Jones. 

John Jennings, Esq. 

Mr. J. Lee. 

31 r. Lane, Ry lands. 

The Rev. Ralph Lockey. 

The Right Hon. Franktand Lewis, M. P. 

The Rev. — Lewis, Avmstrey. 

J. R. Merrick, LL. D. Goodrich Court. 

L. Meyrick, Esq. 

The Rev. Arthur Mathews, B. D. Canon Residentiary. 

The Rev. N. D. H. Newton. 

R. B. Phillipps, Esq. 

William Preeoe, Esq. 

The Rev. W. F. Powell. 

3Ir. J. Parker, Bookseller. 

The Rev. W. J. Rees. 

Edward Rogers, Esq. M.P. 

The Rev. II. A. Stillingfleet. 

The Rev. II. J. Symons, LL. D. 

T. H. Symons, Esq. 

John Sherburn, Esq. 

The Rev. W. Tonikius. 

W. Thomas, Esq. 

William Vale, Esq. 

3Ir. W. H. Vale, Bookseller, Copies. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Wetherell, B. D. 

E.G. Wright, Esq. 

Mr. T. B. Watkins, Bookseller, 6 Copies. 

The Rev. A. J. Walker. 

Miss Whallev. 

The Rev. B.J. Ward. 

John Whittaker, Esq. 



THE 

^tetorp an& antiquities 



OF 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



LISHMENT OF 

CATHEDRAL OF HEREFORD J WITH NOTICES OF PUBLIC EVENTS CONNECTED WITH 
THE ESTABLISHMENT, AND BRIEF ACCOUNTS OF THE MOST EMINENT PRELATES 
WHO HAVE SUCCESSIVELY PRESIDED OVER THE DIOCESS. 

In all antiquarian and historical narratives it is very desirable to trace every 
fact, or presumed fact, to its source — to ascertain the true origin and 
commencement of a see, a state, or an invention which by time and 
progressive improvement has grown to importance and greatness ; but, 
unfortunately, our curiosity is seldom satisfied on these points. Antiquaries, 
perhaps, more than any other class of writers, are destined to explore the 
dark and obscure labyrinths of legendary story, — the credulous relations of 
one annalist, and the misstatements of another till they mistrust the accuracy 
and fidelity of every one. An endeavour to verify the date of the first 
establishment of Christianity in this part of Britain, and to fix the foundation 
of the See and enthronement of the first prelate, shew how extremely difficult 
it is to arrive at facts, and to obtain satisfactory evidence. It is not sufficient 
that a cloistered chronicler of the tenth century states on his parchment roll, 
or in an abbey register, that a certain event occurred at a given time in a 

B 



2 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

previous century; for he may have been misinformed, or he may have 
credulously and unhesitatingly have repeated what had been related by a 
former scribe. The monkish annalists of the olden times rarely, if ever, 
exercised a fastidious spirit of inquiry, or manifested much discrimination in 
their writings. William of Malmesbury may be regarded as the best of the 
class. From such sources, however, it is almost impracticable to obtain a firm 
unequivocal foundation for the history of any antient religious establishment. 
Wanting this, we must supply its place with the best materials which can be 
gleaned from old writers, or from the learned inferences of modern authors. 
All these will be carefully and scrupulously employed on the present occasion ; 
and whilst it will be both a duty and pleasure to me to exercise the most 
diligent exertion to obtain, and the best judgment to display authorities, 
the reader will doubtlessly admit only such evidence as satisfies his own 
mind. 

As the city of Hereford has nothing indicative of Roman occupancy, 
either in name or remains, we must refer its origin, or at least its historical 
distinction, to an Anglo-Saxon era. Seated in that part of England which 
constituted the Mercian kingdom, we find the annals of the town and See 
intimately blended with those of the government, the wars, and the institu- 
tions of the state. In the " History of Lichfield Cathedral" I have already 
had occasion to notice the establishment of Christianity in the Mercian 
province early in the seventh century : Archbishop Usher, however, states 
that there was a See at Hereford as early as 544, when an archbishop resided 
at St. David's. In 601 a Bishop of Hereford is said to have been one of 
seven English prelates who attended an ecclesiastical synod at Canterbury 
under Augustin, when Pope Gregory's answers to that archbishop's questions 
were discussed. According to some authors the Mercian bishopric was 
divided into five, in the year 673, by Archbishop Theodore's canons. 
Johnson, in his " Collection of Ecclesiastical Laws," admits that the history 
of the church, at that period, " is very dark." King Ethelred having 
devastated part of Kent, drove Bishop Putta from his seat at Rochester, 
who, after wandering about for some time instructing the clergy in music, 
was appointed by Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, to a new See at 



BISHOP CUTHBERT, AND KING ETHELBERT. 3 

Hereford. Ralph Higden intimates that he paid more attention to music 
than to his new office : and we seek in vain to find any memorable act or event 
connected with his life or prelacy. We find the names of Tirktell, Tortere, 
and Walstod in sequence to that of Putta, and learn that the last commenced 
a magnificent " cross of gold and silver," which Ctjthbert, the next prelate, 
finished, and caused to have inscribed upon it some verses commemorative of 
his predecessors. " The character of Cuthbert," observes Mr. Buncombe, 
u as far as can now be collected, appears to have been that of a man of 
probity and worth. He reformed many errors in the conduct of the clergy, 
as well as in that of the laity ; and, by his injunctions, the Lord's prayer and 
the Apostles' creed were read to the people in the English language. He 
also obtained from the Pope a dispensation for allowing burials within towns 
and cities, a practice not allowed before his time, which was much abused 
afterwards, and which might well have been omitted always 1 ." In 741, he 
was translated to the See of Canterbury, which he held until his death 2 . 

Podda, his successor, was present at an ecclesiastical council held at 
Clovesho, in 747 ; K Wulwardtjs Herefordensis Ep. orientaliu Anglorum " 
is enumerated as one of those bishops who became suffragan to the Arch- 
bishop of Litchfield, when that See had been made metropolitan in the place 
of Canterbury 3 . Hereford, as well as the whole Mercian kingdom, was 
destined to experience considerable changes about this time. In 793, 
Ethelbert, King of the East Angles, visited the court of Offa, the Mercian 
King, to claim the hand of his daughter ^Elfrida in marriage. The Queen of 
Offa, however, opposed the match, and insinuated that the marriage was 
only sought as a pretext to occupy the Mercian throne. Indignant at this, 
Offa employed an assassin to murder his guest, by cutting off his head, 
which being effected, the body was privately buried on the bank of the river 
" Lugg," near Hereford. According to the Monkish Annalist, " on the night 

1 History, &c. of the County of Hereford, vol, i. p. 449. 

2 See History, &c. of Canterbury Cathedral, pp. 13 and 27. 

3 Matthew of Westminster, edit. 1601, p. 143. This measure was effected by the influence 
of Offa, King of Mercia, in resentment for some injury, real or pretended, which he had sustained 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury. 



4 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

of his burial a column of light, brighter than the sun, arose towards heaven j* 
and three nights afterwards the figure (or ghost) of King Ethelbert appeared 
to Brithfrid, a nobleman, and commanded him to convey the body to a place 
called ' Stratus Waye,' and to inter it near the monastery there. Guided by 
another column of light Brithfrid, having placed the body and the head on a 
carriage, proceeded on his journey. The head fell from the vehicle, but 
having been discovered by a " blind man," to whom it miraculously commu- 
nicated sight, was restored by him to the careless driver. Arrived at his 
place of destination, which, according to the Chronicler, was then called in 
English u Femlega," in Latin " Saltus Silicis," and which has siuce been 
termed Hereford, he there interred the body. 

Asser, the biographer of King Alfred, relates that the miracles worked 
at the tomb of the martyred monarch were so numerous and incredible that 
Ofia was induced to send two bishops to Hereford to ascertain the truth of 
them. These messengers having had an opportunity of witnessing the 
saiut's interposition in favour of a Welsh nobleman who had been afflicted 
with the palsy, reported the same to their royal master, who, as an expiation 
for his crime of incredulity, conferred on the Saint a tenth of all his posses- 
sions, " many of which," adds the Chronicler, " the church of Hereford now 
holds 4 ." This frivolous, but sinister romance, is related here merely as 
illustrative of the superstition of the times. 

After the death of Ofl'a, and of his son Egfrid, Milfred, who was viceroy, 
according to the same authority, expended a large sum of money in building 
" an admirable stone church" (ecclesiam egregiam, lapidea structura) at 
Hereford, which he consecrated and dedicated to the murdered monarch, 
and endowed with lands and enriched with ornaments. 

When Milfred re-founded the Church of Hereford, he is reported to have 
appointed a Bishop, but the name of that person is not given. Acea was 
present at the council of Beaconsfield in 800 5 ; Cedda, by the words " ego 
Cedda Herefordensis aspiravi," subscribed as witness to a charter granted 



* Chronicon Johannis Brorupton, in Decern script, ap Twisden, ed. lGo'2, col. 750, 
5 Wilkin's Concilia Magnae Britannia:, vol. i. p. 1G2. 



BUILDING AND DESTRUCTION OF THE CATHEDRAL. 5 

by Whitlaf, King of Mercia, to the abbey of Croyland in 833 6 ; lie died in 
857, and was succeeded by Albert. Of the intervening bishops until the 
commencement of the eleventh century nothing is known but their names, 
and even those are disputed. William of Malmesbury, who with trifling 
variations has been followed by Leland and all subsequent writers, thus 
enumerates them: — " Esna, Celmund, Utel, Wlfeard, Benna, Edulf, 
Cutulf, Mucel, Deorlaf, Cunemund, Edgar, Tidhelm, Wlfhelm, Alfricus, 
Athulfus, and 

Ethelstan 7 . During the long and obstinate contests which preceded the 
establishment of the Danish dominion in England, the Church of St. Ethel- 
bert, in common with the other religious establishments of the country, 
doubtless suffered from the ravages of war : the episcopal lands were 
desolated, the ecclesiastics dispersed, and the conventual buildings, with 
the Church, became ruinous. Ethelstan, immediately after his appointment 
to the bishopric, is reported to have repaired, or, according to some 
authorities, re-built the Cathedral of Hereford. His exertions were, however, 
of no avail, for during the continuance of hostilities between King Edward 
the Confessor, and Algar, the son of Leofric, Duke of Mercia, who had been 
unjustly deprived of his estates and banished the realm — the canons were 
slain or taken prisoners, the sanctified relics of the martyred Ethelbert were 
destroyed, and the Church was materially injured by fire. 

The writer of the Saxon Chronicle, under the year 1055, speaking of 
the ravages and enormities perpetrated by Earl Algar, and his ally, Griffin, 
King of Wales, says : — " They went to the town (of Hereford) and burnt it 
utterly, and the large minster also, which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had 
caused to be built, that they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and 
of all things whatever, and the people they slew and led some away 8 ." The 
Chronicle of Mailros, under the same year, more explicitly states, that the 
Danes " burnt the city of Hereford, and the Monastery of St. Albert, the 

6 Hist. Ingulphi, in Gale's Quindecim Scriptores, ed. 1691, vol. i. p. 2. 

7 William of Malmesbury, De Gestis Pontificium Anglorum in Script, post Bedam, ed. 1601, 
p. 285. 

8 Saxon Chronicle, Ingram's ed. p. 245. 



6 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

King and Martyr, and slew the canons and about four hundred others 9 ." 
Simon of Durham and Roger Hovedon both concur in stating that " Earl 
Algar and his partisans entered Hereford, and having slain seven canons 
who were defending the entrance of the principal basilica (principalis 
basilicas), and burnt the monastery which the good Bishop Athelstan had 
built, with all the ornaments and the relics of St. Ethelbert and other 
saints, they killed and took captive the townsmen, and reduced the city to 
ashes 10 ." 

Athelstan did not long survive the calamities which had befallen the 
establishment over which he presided, but died February 10, 1055, and 
was interred at Hereford " in the Church which he had built from the 
foundations (in ecclesia quam ipse construxerat a fu?idamentis n ") He had 
for thirteen years previously been afflicted with blindness, and the duties of 
his office had been fulfilled by the Bishop of St. David's. To Athelstan 
succeeded 

Leofgar, " Earl Harold's mass-priest," who had held the See only three 
months, when, to check an hostile incursion of the Welsh, he exchanged the 
mitre and the crozier for the helmet and the sword, and led his retainers to 
the battle-field. The carual weapons appear, indeed, to have been more 
familiar to him than the spiritual ones, for, accordiug to the Saxon Chronicler, 
" he wore his knapsack in his priesthood, and when he was made a bishop, 
relinquished his chrism and his rood, and took to his sword and spear 12 ." 
The expedition was, however, unsuccessful, and Leofgar, with many of his 
followers, were slain. He has been characterised by Matthew of West- 
minster, as " a servant of God, a man perfect in religion, a lover of churches, 
a reliever of the poor, a defender of widows and orphans, and the possessor 
of chastity." 

Quindecim Scriptores, ap. Gale, ed. 1691, vol. i. p. 158. 

10 Simon Dunelm in Decern Script, ed. 1652, col. 188, and Roger Hoveden in Script, post 
Bedam, ed. 1601, p. 443. 

" Roger Hoveden, in Script, post Bed. p. 444. From this passage it may be inferred that 
the Church of St. Ethelbert had not been wholly destroyed by Earl Algar: but that the wood 
work and combustible parts only were supposed to have been burnt. 

12 Saxon Chronicle, Ingram's ed. p. 246. 



BISHOPS WALTER AND LOZING, A. D. 1069—1094. 7 

After Leofgar's death, the vacant See was granted in trust to Aldred, 
Bishop of Worcester, on whose promotion to the archbishopric of York, in 
1060, it was conferred by King Edward the Confessor on 

Walter, a native of Lorraine, and chaplain to Queen Egitha 13 . Being a 
foreigner, he was favoured by the new Norman monarch, who allowed him to 
retain his ecclesiastical honours and emoluments, when many other prelates 
and abbots who had opposed the Normans were dispossessed of their 
respective appointments, and their places supplied by either dependants or 
countrymen of the Conqueror. One of his enemies invented a ridiculous 
and humiliating story against the bishop, which was readily believed and 
circulated by those clergy who had been superseded by foreigners. This 
tale having reached the court, excited the severe reprehension of the monarch, 
who issued an injunction of punishment against any person who should be 
convicted of slandering the calumniated bishop 14 . 

Robert Lozing, Robertus Lotharingus, or Robert op Lorraine, next 
succeeded, and was consecrated in 1079. As a poet, a mathematician, and 
an architect he was superior to most of the churchmen of the age in which he 
lived : but was so superstitious, that when requested by Remigius, Bishop 
of Lincoln, to attend at the dedication of the church in that city, he consulted 
the stars, and fancying them unpropitious, declined the journey. Intimate 
with Wulstan, Bishop of Worcester, it is related in the silly Monkish 
Annals, that during the last illness of that prelate, Lozing being at court, a 
vision of his friend appeared to him in a dream, and said, " If you wish to 
see me before I die, hasten to Worcester." Obtaining leave from the king, 
he travelled night and day till he reached Cricklade, where, overcome by 
fatigue, he retired to rest. The vision again appeared, and said, " Thou 
hast done what fervent love could dictate, but art too late. I am now dead, 
and thou wilt not long survive me : but lest thou should'st consider this as a 
fantastic dream, know, that after my body has been committed to the earth, 
a gift shall be given thee, which thou shalt recognise as having belonged to 



13 Hist. Ingulphi in Quindecim Script, ap. Gale, ed. 1691, vol. i. p. 67. 

14 William of Malmesbury, in Script, post Bedam, ed. 1601, p. 286. 



8 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

nie." On the following morning Bishop Lozing proceeded to Worcester, 
and having performed the obsequies of his deceased friend, was preparing to 
return home, when the prior said to him, " Receive as a testimony of our 
departed lord's love this lamb skin cap which he long wore." These words 
caused " his blood to run cold," for he remembered the prediction that he 
had not long to live : and the same annalist relates that Wulstan died in 
January, 1094, and Robert did not survive the following June. Bishop 
Lozing is celebrated as having commenced the re-building of the Church of 
Hereford, which had remained in ruins since the time of Earl Algar. He is 
said to have adopted as a model the church of Aken, now called Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in Germany ,5 , which is supposed to have been erected by Charle- 
magne. 

Gerard, the nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester, and chancellor 
both to William the Conqueror and William Rufus, succeeded to the 
Bishopric of Hereford ; but being promoted in the following year to the 
archiepiscopal see of York ,6 , King Henry I. appointed Roger Lardarius, 
who, as his name implies, was a servant of the royal household. This 
person died at London, before he had received the rites of consecration, 
which, according to William of Malmesbury, he was so anxious to enjoy, 
that on his death-bed he sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury to attend him 
tor that purpose ". After Roger's decease, the King, in defiance of the 
ecclesiastical canons, which forbade churchmen to receive investiture from 
lay hands, preferred to the bishopric, in 1102, 

Raynelm, or Raynald, the Queen's chancellor 18 . The Pope, however, 
refused to confirm the appointment, and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
having in the following year explained to the King, in a general council held 
in St. Paul's Church, London, the relative privileges of the clergy and the 
laity, Reynald, notwithstanding the opposition made by his royal master, 
surrendered his bishopric IQ . Henry, exasperated at his ready compliance 

15 William of Malmesbury in Scriptores post Bedam, ed. 1601, p. 286. 

16 Eadmeri Hist, sui Saeculi, ed. 1622, p. 35. 62. 

17 William of Malmesbury, ut supra. 

18 Matthew Paris, per Watts ed. 1640, p. 58. 19 Ibid, p. 59. 



BISHOPS CLIVE, CAPELLA, AND BETUN, A. D. 1115 — 1148. 9 

with the will of the archbishop, banished him from court, and it was not until 
1107, when it had been decided that those prelates who had been instituted 
by the King should retain their sees, that he was confirmed in his office. He 
performed the duties of his station with great credit, but it is related that he 
was addicted to intemperance, and dying of the gout in 1115 20 , he was 
interred in his Cathedral. In an obituary of the Canons of Hereford, 
Reynelm is commemorated in these words : u 5 Kal. Oct. obitus Renelmi 
episcopi, fundatoris ecclesioe Sancti Ethelberti 21 ." From this passage it has 
been inferred that Reynelm completed the new Church which had been 
commenced by his predecessor. 

Geoffry de Clive, or de Clyve, the succeeding Bishop, was distinguished 
for his temperance and the simplicity of his dress; he was partial to 
agricultural pursuits, by which he increased the episcopal revenues. He 
died in February, 1119, having presided over the See only four years. The 
short lives of the two last prelates gave rise to a proverb, " That no Bishop 
of Hereford lives long 22 ." 

Richard de Capella, the u clerk of the seal," succeeded to the vacant 
See, January 6, 1121 23 , but held it only six years, when he died at Ledbury, 
and was interred in his own Church. This prelate contributed much towards 
building the Wye-Bridge at Hereford. He had a dispute with the contem- 
porary Bishop of Landaff, respecting the boundaries of their respective 
diocesses, which was referred to Pope Honorius II., and by his holiness 
transferred to the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Robert de Betun, a native of Flanders, who had previously been Prior 
of Lanthony, was consecrated, according to Godwin, at Oxford, in 1131. 
From an account of his life, written by William de Wycumb, his successor 
in the priory, the following particulars are derived. His parents were of 
superior rank, and he received his early education from Gunfrid his brother, 

20 Will. Malmesb. in Script, post. Bedam, ed. 1601, p. 287, Matth. of Westminster, and Ralph 
de Diceot. 

21 Hist, and Antiq. of the Cathedral Church of Hereford, 8ro. Lond. 1713, App. p. 27. 

22 Will. Malmesb. in Script, post. Bed. p. 289. 

23 Annales Winton. in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol.i. p. 298. 

C 



10 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

a teacher of celebrity. When very young he was distinguished for great 
attention to his studies : and delighted so much in prayer, fasting, and other 
religious exercises that he obtained the appellation of " our father." Deter- 
mined to lead a monastic life, he became a canon in the Priory of Lanthony, 
and obtained celebrity for his theological acquirements, and for his strict 
adherence to the rules of his order. On the death of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of 
Hereford, he was appoiuted to superintend the building of a religious house 
at Weobley, where that nobleman was buried. According to his biographer, 
he exerted himself so much, by working as a common labourer, that his 
health was injured, and he was recalled to the Priory he had previously left, 
where he was soon afterwards made superior. In this new situation he soon 
became pre-eminent for all the cardinal virtues. By his endeavours, the 
number of canons was increased, religious duties were more strictly attended 
to, the good rewarded, the evil exhorted and reproved, insomuch that his 
fame spread over the whole kingdom. The See of Hereford being vacant, 
Betun was recommended to the King by the Earl of Gloucester, as a fit 
person to enjoy the episcopal dignity, and the bishopric was consequently 
offered to him, which, after much hesitation, he accepted 24 . 

Of his activity in the prompt discharge of the duties of office, his 
perhaps too partial biographer gives an animated and elaborate account, 
which he concludes with some general observations on his character and 
disposition ; whence it is inferred that he possessed almost every virtue 
belonging to man. As an instance of his humanity and disregard of per- 
sonal safety, it is said that when journeying with one of his canons, the 
latter, more intent upon psalm singing than the management of his horse, fell 
over a bridge into the river beneath. The bishop, perceiving the accident, 
unhesitatingly leaped into the water, and having rescued the canon from his 
perilous situation, received the applauses of all, whilst the unfortunate priest 
was derided as an effeminate knight, who could not make a day's journey 

24 Vita Roberti Betun Ep. Heref. in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 297, et seq. There 
is a manuscript Life of Betun in the library of the episcopal palace at Lambeth; another was in 
the library of Holm-Lacy; and Thomas Bird, Esq. of Hereford, has either a copy of it or another 
memoir. 



BISHOPS BETUN AND G. FOLIOT, A. D. 1148—1163. H 

without refreshing himself with a bath. Another instance of his humanity, 
no less creditable to him, is related. Travelling in an unfrequented part 
of the country, he heard a child crying, and soon found its mother, appa- 
rently sleeping, by the road side. On examination, however, the woman 
pi-oved to be dead, when the humane prelate not only conveyed the body on 
his own horse to a place of interment, but performed the funeral rites, and 
made ample provision for the support of the orphan. 

Notwithstanding the suavity of Bishop Betun's disposition, the inferior 
officers of his church rebelled against his authority, and he was necessitated 
to appeal to the court of Rome for protection. He had scarcely obtained the 
papal sentence in his favour when he was assailed by troubles from another 
quarter. During the contentions between Stephen and the Empress Maud for 
the throne, the country was almost devastated by the warlike adherents of 
the contending parties. The city and diocess of Hereford were involved in 
the general calamity attendant upon civil war. The episcopal lands were laid 
waste, and many of the buildings demolished, the clergy were dispersed, 
the Cathedral was deserted, and the Bishop himself compelled to seek safety 
in disguise and flight. Peace, however, was once more restored; Betun 
returned to his See, recalled his scattered flock, cleaned and repaired the 
Cathedral, and caused divine service to be again celebrated within its walls. 

From the following passage in Madox's History of the Exchequer, 
vol. i. p. 306, it may be inferred that in or shortly before the fifth of King 
Stephen (1139-40), the bishopric of Hereford was vested in the crown: — 
" Gaufridus Cancellarius r. c. de iiij'\ & xij s . & yj d . de veteri firma Episcopatus 
de Hereford." — Mag. Rot. in Scac. 5 Steph. r. 14. b. This strongly corrobo- 
rates the statement of Betun's biographer. 

Our prelate was soon afterwards summoned by Pope Eugenius to a 
general council held at Rheims, in which city he died on the tenth kalends 
of May, 1 148. His remains were brought to England, and interred in the 
Church of which he had been so distinguished a member. 

Of Gilbert Foliot, Abbot of Gloucester, who was preferred to the See 
of Hereford in 1149, and translated to that of London fourteen years after- 



12 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

wards, a memoir has been given in the author's " History of Gloucester 
Cathedral 25 ." 

Robert de Meltjn, called Robertas Dunelmensis, Prior of Lanthony, 
next succeeded, and was consecrated at Canterbury on the 22d of December, 
1163 26 . He died on the 4th kalends of March, 1167, and was interred in the 
south aile of the Cathedral, where an inscription records his name. He is 
designated by the author of the annals of St. David's, " Episcopus Anglorum 
sapientissimus 27 ." In consequence of the disputes between the King and the 
clergy, which preceded and followed the murder of Archbishop Becket, the 
See of Hereford remained vacant six years, during which time its possessions 
were let to farm, and the profits thence arising paid into the exchequer 28 . 
When, however, the King had submitted to the papal authority, in 1173, 

Robert Foliot, Archdeacon of Oxford, a personal friend and fellow 
student of Archbishop Becket, was appointed bishop, and was consecrated 
on the 6th of October, in the following year 29 . Foliot was one of the four 
English bishops who, in 1179, attended the Lateran council for the purpose 
of making oath that they would not do, or cause to be done, any thing to 



25 He was annually commemorated by the Canons of Hereford on the 13th kalend of 
February, as one " qui multa bona coutulit Herefordensi capitulo." Hist, and Antiq. of the 
Cath. of Hereford, App. p. G. 

26 Chron. Gervas. Dorobern, col. 1385. Gilbert Foliot wrote a Commentary on the Can- 
ticles, which was published by Junius, 4to. London, 1638. There are seven letters of his among 
those of Thomas a Becket, whose principal adversary he was. Bale has given a list of his 
writings. 

27 Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 049. Robert de Melun's System of Divinity, in 
manuscript, is preserved in the library of St. Victor, at Paris, and is often cited by Father 
Northood, in his notes upon Cardinal Pullus. Vide Dupin's Twelfth Century. 

28 Thus in Madox's History of the Exchequer, vol. i. p. 306, note. "Johannes Cumin f . c. de 
C. & xv". de veteri firma Episcopatus de Herefordia: Et idem de nova firma de ccc 1 . & xj". & 
iiij 1 '. f Mag. Rot. 16 Hen. II. Rol. 4. And again, p. 642. " Johannis Cumin debet xxx". de 
scutagio Militum Episcopatus in exercitum Hybernia de his quos Episcopus non recognoscit 
reddendos ; quia Episcopatus tunc erat in manu regis." Mag. Rot. 20 Hen. II. r. 9. b. 

29 Math. Paris, by Watts, ed. 1640, p. 1173. See also Roger Hovedon. 



BISHOPS R. FOLIOT, VERE, DE BRUSE, AND H. FOLIOT, A. D. 1173—1234. 13 

the injury of the King or the realm of England 30 . He dedicated the Abbey 
Church of Wigmore, which had been founded by Roger Mortimer, and in 
the words of Leland, " Diversa jocalia dedit eidem ecclesias die dedicationis 
ejusdem 31 ." He presided over the See with great credit for thirteen years, 
and dying in 1186 32 , was buried in the south aile of the presbytery of his 
Cathedral, where a monument to his memory still remains. He was annually 
commemorated on the 7th ides of May, and is stated in the obituary of 
Hereford Cathedral to have given to that church u multa bona in terris et 
libris, vasis et ornamentis 33 ." 

William de Vere, a member of the illustrious house of Clare, succeeded 
to the vacant See, October 6, 1186. He received, and magnificently enter- 
tained at his palace, Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Justice of 
England, and other distinguished persons. According to Godwin, this 
prelate was noted for the number of buildings he erected. Dying in 
December, 1199, he was succeeded by 

Egidius, or Giles de Bruse, or Braoes, a son of William, Lord Breck- 
nock, who was consecrated on the 24th of September, 1200. Living in the 
turbulent times of the baronial wars, he was compelled to leave his See, the 
temporalities of which were seized by the crown. This prelate is considered 
to have built the great central tower ; and an effigy in the south aile, with 
the model of a church in one hand, is said to commemorate him and the 
event. On returning to take possession of his See, he died at Gloucester, 
on the 17th of November, 1215, and was interred in his own Cathedral. 

Hugh de Mapenore, his successor, and who was then dean of the church, 
was consecrated at Gloucester, December 6, 1216, but did not preside in it 
much more than two years, when 

Hugh Foliot, Archdeacon of Salop, was advanced to the See, in Avhich 
he was consecrated November 1, 1219. Connected with the town of 
Ledbury, he founded and endowed an hospital there, and also founded two 

30 Holinshed's Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 178. 31 Itinerary, vol. viii. fo. 78. 

32 Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. i. p. 477. 33 Hist, and Antiq. of Heref. Cath. App. p. 12. 



14 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

chantries in the chapel of St. Catherine's on the south side of the Cathedral 34 . 
According to Hill's MSS., he granted forty days indulgence for seven years 
to all persons who contributed towards the building of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
in London. He died July 26, 1234, when 

Ralph de Maydenstan, or Maidstone, his birth-place, was named and 
consecrated bishop. Besides purchasing for himself and his successors in 
the See, a house in London, for one hundred and fifty pounds, he conferred 
on the canons of the Cathedral the church of Sellick, in Herefordshire, and 
on the See the advowson of the church of St. Mary Monthalt. Forsaking his 
prelacy in 1239, he became a Franciscan friar at Oxford, and thence moved 
to and joined the monks of St. Peter's at Gloucester, where he died, and 
was interred without any memorial. 

Peter de Aqlablanca, or Egel blaunche, was appointed to this See in 
opposition to a canon of Litchfield, a man of influence and high connexions, 
who was preferred by the clergy. The monarch, however, either from 
partiality to foreigners, or from other motives, gave the preference to Aqua- 
blanca, a native of Savoy, who is described as being of low origin. He proved 
himself a turbulent, ambitious, and mercenary man; and hence his acts and 
character are variously related by different monastic chroniclers. Having 
free access to the king, it is related that he advised the monarch to give all 
the church preferments to foreigners, and thus excited the hostility of the 
English clergy. According to Matthew Paris our prelate assumed the cross 
in 1250, and under the banner of the King of France went to the Holy 
Land. In 1258 he returned to England from the court of Rome, with letters 
from the Pope, which are described as having been forged by the bishop, 
commanding all religious houses to grant a tenth of their possessions towards 
carrying on the crusade 35 . The Chronicle of Dunstaple states that he 
" maliciously forged letters, as from the Pope, to demand money from the 
clergy 36 ." The character of Aquablanca is brought out in consequence of the 

M Leland's Itinerary, vol. viii. p. 37. " Gale's Scriptores, vol. i. p. 348. 

36 See Heame's edition, vol. i. p. 359. 



BISHOP AQTJABLANCHA, A. D. 1239—1208. 15 

King's wishes to promote him to the See of Lichfield, in opposition to the 
canons of that church. He is then described " as manifestly an improper 
person, being a foreigner, ignorant of the English language, of bad character, 
and considered an enemy to the realm 37 ." In 1263 he, with other foreign 
monks and prelates, was expelled from England ; but in the following year 
he must have returned, as King Henry III. then reprimanded him in a 
letter, stating " that coming to Hereford to take order for the disposing of 
the garrisons in the marches of Wales, he found in the church of Hereford 
neither bishop, dean, vicar, or other officer to discharge the spiritual 
functions ; and that the church and ecclesiastical establishment was in a state 
of ruin and decay. Wherefore, he commanded the Bishop, all excuses set 
aside, forthwith to repair to his church; and that if he did not do so, he 
willed him to know for a certainty, that he would take into his hands all the 
temporal goods belonging to the barony of the same, which his progenitors 
gave and bestowed for spiritual exercise therein, with a godly devotion 38 ." 
It appears that this remonstrance, or royal command, made the Bishop return 
to his See ; for Simon de Montford, Earl of Leicester, with his followers, 
afterwards seized the prelate in his church, and took from him all his wealth, 
imprisoned him in the castle of " Ordelay," and divided the treasure amongst 
themselves. Though branded with general reproach, and apparently in 
hostility with his flock and the clergy, it appears that he bequeathed one 
hundred and ninety-two bushels of corn to be distributed yearly amongst the 
members of the church, and two hundred bushels of wheat, to the poor of the 
diocess. He purchased the manor of " Homme Lacy," or Holme Lacy, and 
added it to the revenues of the Church ; and was also much engaged in 
defending the liberties and privileges of the Bishop, and those of the Dean 
and Chapter against certain encroachments attempted to be made by the 
citizens. He founded a monastery at Aquabella, or Aqua-Blancha, in Savoy, 
the place of his birth ; and to that monastery his heart was conveyed and 
enshrined. There is not, however, any mention of this event in the inscrip- 

' 7 Math. Paris, per Watts, p. 881. 3S Wilkins's Concil. Mag. Brit. vol. i. p. 701. 



16 - HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

tion on his tomb at that town 39 . He died on the 27th of November, 1268, 
but his obit was annually celebrated on the 5th kalend of that month. He 
was succeeded by 

John Breton, or de Breton, LL. D., who was a lawyer as well as a 
priest, and who has been generally noted in the legal annals, as author of 
"that excellent French manual of our laws, which bears the name of Briton 40 ." 
It is entitled " De Juribus Anglicanis," and was written by command of the 
King. According to Fuller, in his " Worthies of England," the " tenor 
runneth in the King's name, as if it had been penned by himself." Sir 
Edward Coke describes him as a " man of great and profound judgment in 
the common laws, an excellent ornament to his profession, and a satisfaction 
and solace to himself." Bishop Nicholson suggests doubts respecting the 
authorship of the book, and, after examining different testimonies and autho- 
rities, says, " If I may be allowed to differ from all, I should think that the 
true writer of this abstract was that same John Breton whom we find one of 
the King's justices (together with Ralph and Roger de Hengham) in the first 
year of Edward the Second 41 ." It appears that our Bishop died in the third 
year of the reign of Edward the First, and that the treatise in question 
contains reference to a statute passed in the thirteenth year of that reign 42 . 
Although the time of his death is stated by Godwin and others, May 12, 
1275, no one has specified the place of his interment. His successor was 
a man of high repute during life, and obtained distinguished canonical 
honours after death. 

Thomas Cantilupe, or de Cantilupe, was archdeacon of Stafford, 
and successively occupied the distinguished offices of Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford, and of the kingdom. He was son of William, Lord 
Cantelupe, and Millicent, Countess of Evreux. According to some writers 
he was a uative of Lancashire; but Fuller states that Lord Cantelupe's 

33 See Archaeologia, vol. xviii. p. 189, in which there is an account of the tomb by the 
Rev. T. Kerrich. 

40 Nicholson's Historical Library, fol. ed. 1736, p. 230. 41 Ibid. 

" See Kelham's edition of " Britton," with Notes, References, and Records, 8vo. 1762. 



BISHOP CANTELUPE. — A. D. 1275—1282. 17 

K habitations were Abergavenny Castle, in Monmouth, and Harringworth, 
in Northamptonshire." 

To write an account of the life of a saint, in the present day, with any 
thing like discrimination, or with a hope of furnishing an impartial and 
rational narrative, would be as vain as the attempt to fix the longitude, or 
assert the discovery of the philosopher's stone. Suffice it to remark, that a 
good sized volume has been published under the title of " The Life and 
Gests (or Virtues) of Sir Thomas Cantelupe 43 ," but it is so truly hyperbolical, 
credulous, and full of romance, that scarcely any part of it can be credited, 
and hardly two pages, out of about three hundred, have the character of 
real biography. From childhood to death Cantelupe is represented as all 
saintedness and perfection, wholly devoted to God, or rather to Catholic 
ceremonies ; and yet the silly, purblind author pretends that he fulfilled all 
his worldly and professional duties in the varied offices of Chancellor of 
the University of Oxford, Chancellor of England, and Bishop of Hereford. 
He also describes the court, in which Lord Cantelupe and his family were 
domesticated, as replete with folly, immorality, and vice. " Infamy," he 
says, " is no where more in credit, nor vice so canonized : it is a school 
of ^Egyptian hieroglyphics, where beasts and monsters are supposed to 
signify heroique vertues," (p. 38). Of a man who " suck'd in sanctity with 
his milk," and whose " childhood was a meer prologue, or dum show, before 
a trajedy of miseries," (p. 33), although his whole life was exempt from 
every misery, according to the same author, there are few events to record, 
and few traits of character to comment on. The book referred to, said to 
be made up from evidences in the Pope's library, collected at the time and 
for the purpose of his canonization, is very meagre in biographical materials. 
It states that he was educated at home, sent to Oxford to study Latin and 
canon law, — to Paris for philosophy — returned to Oxford, where he was 
made Chancellor ; and, " always advancing from good to better," was 
created High Chancellor of England under Henry the Third, and was 

43 In the old authors Gest is used to denote action, or event. Warton, in " History of 
English Poetry,"' derives it from the popular books entitled " Gesta Romanorum," containing 
narratives of adventures. See Nares's '* Glossary." 



18 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

entrusted with the government of the kingdom during the absence of that 
monarch. Though nothing is inferred from those civil and honorary 
promotions by the credulous author, it must be clear that Cantelupe had 
some knowledge of business, of politics, of the intrigues of a vicious court, 
to deserve and obtain those honours and their consequent profits. He also 
contrived to secure a few clerical appointments, which must have enhanced 
his income and labours : he was Canon and Chantor of York, Archdeacon 
and Canon of Lichfield and Coventry, Canon of London and Hereford, also 
Archdeacon of Stafford. His last advancement and honour was to the See 
of Hereford, " where all voyced him their Bishop;" and where, says the 
same romancer,, at the age of fifty-six, he was " set up as a light in 
the candlestick of the See," on the 8th of September, 1275. Here he 
appears to have ruled only about seven years, and not always in peace 
with the laity and clergy. Travelling to or from Rome, to obtain the 
co-operation of the Pope against Gilbert Clare, Earl of Gloucester, or 
John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, or both, for with both he was 
embroiled in disputes, he was seized with illness at Civita Vecchia, in 
Italy, and died there on the 25th of August, 1282. His body, separated 
into three parts, as customary at that time with saints, was destined to 
honour and profit three separate places : the flesh was deposited in a 
church near the city of Florence, the heart inurned at Ashridge, in Buck- 
inghamshire, England, and the bones conveyed to and deposited in the 
Lady Chapel belonging to Hereford Cathedral. Over these a tomb was 
erected : but his successor, who had been his secretary, finding the people 
prone to believe in miracles, and that such craft would tend to promote the 
fame of his Cathedral, had a great many performed at the tomb of the saint. 
According to Camden, Cantelupe's fame soon eclipsed that of St. Ethelbert, 
himself; for, as Fuller quaintly but truly remarks, " Superstition is always 
fondest of the youngest saint." To keep up, or rather enhance this fame, 
the clergy of the Cathedral, most likely at the jnstigation of their Bishop, 
had the relics of the saint removed from the Lady Chapel, and enshrined in 
a new and splendid tomb, in the north transept, on the Gth of April, 1287. 
To give eclat to this translation, and consequently attract more devotees, it 



BISHOP CANTELUPE. A. D. 1275—1282. 19 

is related that Edward II. came from Calais on purpose to attend the 
ceremony. According to the unqualified assertions of the Catholic writers, 
not only visiters from all parts paid their devotions and oblations at the 
sainted shrine, but miracles without number were there performed. Healing 
the sick, restoring sight to the blind, and reanimating the dead were among 
these. Matthew of Westminster roundly asserts that these miracles amounted 
to the number of one hundred and sixty-three ; and the English Martyrology 
augments the number to four hundred and twenty-five. In the " Life and 
Gests," the number is said to be " in a manner infinite," and that forty 
persons, one of whom was a public incendiary, and hanged as a just 
punishment for his infamy, were restored to life, through the instrumentality 
of the Hereford dead saint. It cannot but excite the pity and contempt of 
every rational person to peruse such impudent fabrications and falsehoods. 
These, however, are not merely repeated by old monastic chroniclers, but 
Alban Butler, and other modern authors who have written on such subjects, 
reiterate the same impious nonsense. Butler says that " Cantelupe subdued 
his flesh with severe fasting, watching, and a rough hair shirt, which he 
wore till his death, notwithstanding the colics and other violent pains and 
sicknesses with which he was afflicted many years, for the exercise of his 
patience 44 ." The rodomontade of these writers not only excites our mistrust, 
but their contradictory statements respecting the time and place of his death, 
shew that none of them are to be credited. On the 3d of July, 1307, about 
twenty-five years after his decease, a commission was appointed, to continue 
for four months, to make inquiries respecting his life and character, for the 
purpose of canonization, and in which Richard Swinford, his successor, 
acted as solicitor. It is said that Cantelupe was the last Englishman who 
was canonized. From his time the Bishops of Hereford adopted his arms 
for their See, viz. Gu. three leopards' heads jessant with a fleur-de-lis 
issuing from the mouth, or. His monument, or shrine, will be described in 
a subsequent page. 

Richard Swinford, the successor of Cantelupe, was noted for his pulpit 

44 Lives of the Fathers, &c. vol. x. p. 47, edit. 1815. 



20 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

eloquence, and resided long enough in the See to wituess the effects of his 
master's miracles and canonization. By a document which Dr. Prattinton 
discovered among the evidences of Sir Thomas Winnington, Bart, of 
Stanford Court, in Worcestershire, it appears that Swiuford's chaplain, 
John de Kemes, kept a journal, or register, of all the domestic affairs of the 
Bishop, from 1289 to 1290, and probably for other years. This document 
is a roll of several skins of parchment, one side of each contains the daily 
expenses attending the Bishop's table, specifying the remnants left, the 
costs of the stable, and an itinerary. The other side notices the summer 
and winter clothes, furs, spices, sugar, &c. ; also expenses at the court 
of Rome, education of boys at Oxford, money laid out in Kent, where 
the Bishop built a chapel. He was at Sugwas, one of his seats, from the 
30th of September, 1289, to the 21st of October, when he removed to 
Rosebury, another seat. In December he proceeded to Ledbury, thence 
to Newent, Hyneham, Prestbury, another seat, where he kept his Christmas, 
aud where it appears that a sumptuous entertainment was provided, for one 
day. The following articles are specified; viz. a boar, ten oxen, eight 
porkers, sixty fowl, thirteen fat deer, and nine hundred eggs. He after- 
wards proceeded to Loudon, where clothes, furs, &c. were purchased. 
The Bishop's travelling suite consisted of a company with from thirty to 
fifty horses He appears to have remained in London only six days, 
and slept the first night, on returning, at Kensington. Swinford presided 
thirty-four years over his diocess, and died the 15th of March, 1316. 
He was buried in the Cathedral, but his tomb, or effigy, has been 
destroyed. 

Adam de Orlton was consecrated at Avignon, in France, September 12, 
1316, and whilst on an embassy to Rome, hearing of the death of the Bishop 
of Worcester, obtained the Pope's bull of advancement to that See in 
September, 1327. The chapter and the English king had previously elected 
and confirmed Wulstan de Braunsford in the See, but the Pope's influence 
preponderated, and Orlton was firmly seated at Worcester in 1329, where 
he presided six years, when he was advanced by the pontiff to the richer 
See of Winchester. This favouritism provoked the jealousy of the English 



BISHOPS ORLTON, CARLTON, AND TRELLICK. A. D. 1316— 1361. 21 

monarch (Edward III.), who indicted Orlton in the ecclesiastical court : — 
First, for imprisoning the King's chancellor, in 1326; secondly, for a 
treasonable sermon preached at Oxford, accusing the king of tyranny, and 
inciting his subjects to depose and imprison him; and thirdly, for his 
endeavours to induce the Queen to desert her royal spouse. The parliament 
also accused him of lending the Mortimers' money to oppose the King. For 
these offences he was placed at the bar for trial, when the Archbishops 
of Canterbury, York, and Dublin took him away, and insisted that, as 
a prelate, he was not amenable to a civil tribunal. Milner, in his 
" History of Winchester," vol. ii. p. 233, &c. calls him " an artful and 
unprincipled churchman, who had been one of the most active agents of 
the barons in their first war against the King, and for which he was tried 
and found guilty." He was deprived of all his property and banished. 
Returning, he obtained the patronage of the higher ruling powers, and 
was favoured by Edward III. He died during his prelacy in Winchester, 
in which Cathedral he was buried, in 1345. See History, &c. of Win- 
chester Cathedral. 

Thomas Carlton, LL. D. the successor of Orlton, was progressively 
appointed Treasurer of England, and Chancellor and Chief Justice of 
Ireland, also custos, or guardian of that kingdom. He appears to have 
resided in Ireland from 1337 to 1340, and consequently left his See during 
that time. Dying in 1340, he was interred in his Cathedral, where a statue, 
&c. was raised to his memory. The next prelate, 

John Trellick, D. D. was an enemy to the plays or pageants which 
were frequently performed in churches, and also to matrimony. To 
prevent the first taking place within his diocess, he denounced all offenders 
with the "pain of cursing and excommunication;" and excommunicated one 
William Anthony, of Birmingham, for marrying a woman of Herefordshire. 
In advanced age he became too infirm to perform his official duties, and 
employed Thomas Trellick, Dean of Exeter, to officiate for him. He 
died in 1361, and was interred on the north side of the altar of his 
Cathedral, where a grave stone marks the spot. An engraved brass 
effigy with an inscription were removed, and the grave was opened in 



22 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

1813, when part of a crozier, and a seal of a pope's bull were found, and 
are preserved in a glass case in the Cathedral 45 . 

Lewis Charlton, or Caer-leon, as called by Bale, was chancellor of 
Oxford in 1357, and was distinguished as a theologian, mathematician, and 
also for possessing some knowledge of medicine. Advanced to this See in 
1361, he presided here till 1369, when he bequeathed several articles, 
and forty pounds in money, to his Cathedral, in which his remains were 
interred : he also left some books and vestments to other churches. Accord- 
ing to Bale he wrote several works. 

William Courteney, one of the rich and influential family of that name 
of Devonshire, after receiving several appointments of honour and profit in 
the Cathedrals of Exeter, Wells, and York, was advanced to the See of 
Hereford in 1369, and soon afterwards promoted to the archiepiscopal 
chair of Canterbury. (See History, &c. of Canterbury Cathedral). 

John Gilbert was translated from Bangor in 1375, and sent on an 
embassy to France in 1385. He was made treasurer of England, and in 
July, 1389, removed to the See of St. David's, in Wales. 

John Trevenant, or Trefuant, who ruled the diocess from 1389 to 
1404, was deputed by King Henry IV. on an embassy to Rome, and was 
joined with John, Earl of Arundel, in a commission to investigate and 
govern the affairs of Scotland. 

Robert Mascall, a confessor to King Henry IV. was employed by that 
monarch in embassies to various foreign courts, and published an account of 
those embassies. Being one of the Carmelite, or White Friars, he contributed 
towards rebuilding the church belonging to that order in London, and in 
which his remains were interred in December, 1415. 

Edmund Lucy, D.D. was advanced from the deanery to the See in 1417, 
but three years afterwards was translated to Exeter 46 , when 

Thomas Polton, then Dean of York, was appointed to, and presided 

" See " Gough's Sepulchral Monuments," vol. i. pi. 40 and p. Ill, for a view of the tomb 
stone ; also " Ancient Reliques," vol. i. by Storer, for an engraving and a short account of 
these reliques. 

46 See History, &c. of Exeter Cathedral for an account of him. 



BISHOPS POLTON, SPOFFORD, BEAUCHAMP, ETC. — A. D. 1420—1474. 23 

over this diocess only fifteen months, when he was advanced to Chichester, 
and thence translated to Worcester. 

Thomas Spofford was promoted from the abbacy of St. Mary, York, to 
this See, November, 1421, and governed it twenty-six years. He appears 
to have made great alterations in the palace at Sugwas. In 1448 he with- 
drew from his charge, and returned to St. Mary's, at York, where he died. 
The record of his abdication is printed in Rymer's Fcedera, vol. x. p. 215 : 
in Wilkins's " Concilia," vol. iii. p. 538, is a writ of pardon for abdicating 
in favour of his successor, who was to allow him one hundred pounds 
yearly out of the revenues. The Pope testified by his bull that Spofford 
had expended on the buildings of his Cathedral upwards of two thousand 
eight hundred marks. 

Richard Beauchamp was consecrated in February, 1448, and after 
presiding here two years and three months, was translated to Salisbury. 
Having noticed this prelate in my History of Salisbury Cathedral (p. 36), 
it need only be observed here that he was employed by King Edward III. 
in superintending the building of St. George's Chapel at Windsor, where, 
and at Salisbury, he left specimens of his architectural works. 

Richard or Reynald Butler, or Bolers, an Abbot of St. Peter's at 
Gloucester, succeeded Beauchamp, but his presidency was also very short, 
being appointed in 1450, and translated to Litchfield and Coventry, April, 
1453. Godwin says, "Howbeit it seemeth that he lyeth buried in the Church 
of Hereford before the high altar, under a marble inlaid with brass 47 . 

John Stanbury, who succeeded Butler, was a most distinguished 
Carmelite Friar at Oxford, and was appointed by Henry VI. to be the 
first provost of the New College at Eton. The same monarch promoted 
him to the See of Norwich, in which he was superseded by a favourite of 
the Duke of Suffolk, but was by the same royal favour fixed in the chair 
of Bangor, where he remained five years. He was then translated to 
Hereford, where he presided twenty-one years, servilely devoted to the 
Pope and all the papal decrees; he was also equally attached to the 

. 47 Catalogue of Bishops, edit. 1615. p. 450. 



24 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

monarch who had so greatly befriended him. In the service and retinue of 
the king he was taken prisoner with his patron at the noted battle of 
Northampton in 1460, and confined in the prison of Warwick Castle 48 , for 
some time. According to Godwin 49 , and Prince 50 , he left behind him 
u several works of merit," a list of which is given in Leland's Itinerary. 
After release from prison he retired to the Carmelite Friary of Ludlow, 
where he died May 31, 1474. It is presumed that during his life and 
residence at Hereford he built a handsome Chantry Chapel, against the 
north side of the Cathedral, in which his remains were interred. Godwin 
gives a copy of some u barbarous verses," — which were inscribed on his 
tomb, — and Gough, in " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. ii. part iii. p. 240, 
has copied, and also given some account of the chapel, with a view of its 
interior and details. In the Bishop's will, proved Oct. 20, 1474, is a 
bequest of " one cross of silver gilt to my baptismal Church of More-Stowe," 
in Devonshire. 

Thomas Millyng, or Myling, D. D. of Oxford, and Abbot of West- 
minster, was promoted to this See through the personal favour of King 
Edward IV. one of whose privy counsellors he was. Dying at Westminster 
in 1492, he was interred in the Chapel of St. John Baptist, in the Abbey 
Church, where a stone coffin remains, which is supposed to have contained 
his body 51 . 

Edmund Aldley, the next prelate, was advanced from Rochester to this 
See in December, 1492, and after presiding here about ten years, was 
promoted to Salisbury in 1502. In most of the accounts of Hereford 
Cathedral it is stated that this bishop " was a great benefactor to the Lady's 
Chapel ;" but it is not likely that he expended any money upon that edifice, 
excepting, indeed, taking away part of the wall on the south side, and 
building a chantry chapel for his own remains. Being, however, removed 



48 Gough says, ,; Windsor Castle." 49 Catalogue of Bishops, p. 460. 

50 Worthies of Devon, edit. 1810, p. 719, in which are several particulars respecting the 
Bishop. 

51 See Brayley's Account of the Monument and of the Bishop in Neale's Illustrations of 
Westminster Abbey, vol. ii. p. 185. 



BISHOPS AUDLEY, CASTELLO, MAYO, AND BOOTH. A. D. 1492—1535. 25 

to Salisbury, he raised a new and very elegant chantry chapel for himself 
in the choir of that Cathedral, and therein it is presumed that his mortal 
remains were interred after death, 1525 52 . 

Adrian, or Hadrian de Castello, a native of Cornetto in Italy,' is 
described by Godwin as a person of u very base parentage," but he was 
made a cardinal by the Pope, and by King Henry VII. was advanced to the 
See of Hereford in 1502, as a reward for his fidelity and good conduct. 
Amassing considerable riches he excited the envy and avaricious cupidity of 
Caesar Borgio, that monster of iniquity, who endeavoured to poison him, but 
who, with his own father, Pope Alexander VI., partook of the fatal draught 
which they had prepared for Castello, and became victims of their own wily 
scheme. In my History, &c. of Wells Cathedral, p. 51, are many particulars 
of Castello, and the reader also is referred to Godwin's " Catalogue of 
Bishops," p. 380, and to " Biographia Britannica." This prelate and cardinal 
continued at Hereford only two years, when he was succeeded by 

Richard Mayo, or Mayew, who was almoner to Henry VII., president 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, and chancellor of that university. He 
presided here eleven years, and previous to his death, April 18, 1516, 
bequeathed his mitre and pastoral staff to his successors, five hundred marks 
for the use of the church, and ordered a handsome monument to be raised 
over his grave, on the south side of the high altar. His will, dated 
March 24, 1515, is in the prerogative office of Canterbury. 

Charles Booth, the next prelate, who was chancellor of the Welsh 
Marshes, has secured to his name and government of the diocess much 
honour, by " bestowing great cost in repairing his house at London," and by 
erecting the fine supplemental porch on the north side of the Cathedral. 
He had many ecclesiastical appointments, as specified in the Bishops' 
Register. By his will he directed that his body should be buried in the 
episcopal habit, and that six pounds six shillings and eight pence should be 
distributed at his funeral. His books were left to the Cathedral library, 
and a large piece of arras tapestry. Dying in 1535, his corpse was interred 

52 For Accounts of Bishop Audley and his exquisite Chapel, see my History, &c. of Salisbury 
Cathedral; also Dodsworth's Account of the same Cathedral. 

E 



26 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

within the north aile of the nave, where a monument was raised to his 
memory. 

Edward Foxe, an eminent statesman, provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, almoner to King Henry VIII., and an active partisan with the 
vicar-general, Cromwell, against the Catholics, was advanced to this See by 
the king in 1535. He was author of " Annotations on the Mantuan Poet ;" 
an Oratiou, in the story of Thomas Lord Cromwell, published in Fox's 
Acts and Monuments ; also " Be vera Differentia Regia? Potestatis et 
Ecclesiasticae," See. 1534 and 1538, which was translated into English by 
Henry, Lord Stafford. Dying in London, May 8, 1538, his remains were 
interred in the Church of St. Mary Monthalt, Fish Street Hill, in that city. 

Edmund Bonner was bishop of this See only seven months, as Godwin 
states, when he was translated to London, where he became notorious for 
his " butcheries," as the same author properly designates his cruelties, and 
died in the Marshalsea Prison, a proper home for such a Nero. 

John Skipp, D. D. sat here twelve years, and witnessed a reform in the 
Church, of the mummeries or interludes which had occasionally been acted 
within the walls of these sacred buildings, in ridicule of the old catholic 
superstitions. Attending the parliament in London in 1553, he died, and 
was buried in the Church of St. Mary Monthalt. 

John Harley was one of the victims of that cruel, heartless woman, 
Queen Mary, who compelled him to abdicate his See for marrying, and 
avoiding mass. Whatever stigma may attach to such acts, in the estimation 
of bigotry, the man devoted to literature and moral worth will think highly 
of this bishop from the testimony of Leland, who knew him, and praises him 
for " his great virtue and learning, especially in the classical authors and 
poets, for his fine vein in poetry," &c." He was consecrated May 26, 1553, 
but deprived in the following year, and wandered about u from place to 
place in an obscure condition "." 

Robert Purfey, or Warton, S. T. P. was advanced from the bishopric 
of St. Asaph in April, 1554, to which he had been promoted from the abbacy 

" Wood's Athens Oson. vol. ii. col. 769, edit. 1815. H Ibid. 



BISHOPS PURFEY AND SCORY. — A. D. 1554—1584. 27 

of Bermondsey in. Southwark. His memory has been traduced by Godwin, 
for having alienated the revenues of the See, but Browne Willis vindicates 
him against the charge, asserting, " it is clear that he did not impair that 
bishopric in the least penny ; but lived there in his diocess in great hospi- 
tality and credit, and contributed liberally to the building of the fine Church 
of Mould, in Flintshire, and, as I presume, finished Gresford and Wrexham 
Churches 55 ." By will he gave to the Cathedral his mitre of silver, set with 
stones, a crozier of silver, and a parcel of plate, with other ecclesiastical 
riches. He died September 22, 1557, and was buried in the south transept 
of his Cathedral, in which there is a monumental effigy to his memory. 

John Scory was translated from Rochester to Chichester, and thence to 
Hereford, and was one of those prelates who suffered from the intolerant 
and cruel persecutions of the " bloody Mary." Both at Chichester and this 
See he appears to have incurred the displeasure of his brethren, and the 
reproach of the church. By "pulling down houses, selling lead, and by other 
loose endes, &c. he heaped together great mass of wealth." Anthony Wood 
tells us that the money thus accumulated was foolishly squandered away by 
his favoured son, Sylvanus Scory, K a very handsome and witty man, and of 
the best education both at home and beyond the seas that that age could 
afford. His father loved him so dearly that he fleeced the Church of Here- 
ford, to leave him an estate ; but Sylvanus, allowing himself the liberty of 
enjoying all the pleasures of this world, reduced it to nothing, so that his 
son Edm. lived by hanging on gentlemen and by his shifts 50 ." Bishop 
Scory wrote and published some works adapted to the times, but such as 
could not be read now. Sir Robert Naunton, in "Fragmenta Regalia," 
reprobates his practice of swearing and using obscene language ; and 
Sir John Harington, in " Nugse Antiquse," describes him as having amassed 
* some legions, or rather chiliads (thousands) of angels." " Whilst Bishop 
Scory presided over this See the Diocese suffered an almost total revolution 
under the specious pretext of an exchange with the Queen, to which, in 
reality, he was obliged to accede. He alienated the Manors of Ledbury, 
Bishops-Upton, Ross, Bishops-Castle, Venhampton, and Prestbury, and 

55 Survey of Cathedrals, vol. i. p. 521. 56 Athenae Oxon. vol. ii. col. 770, edit. 1815. 



28 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

almost all the ancient demesnes belonging to the Cathedral r ' 7 ." Though thus 
accused, and proved guilty of many crimes., Scory, like too many other 
rogues and tyrants, had his panegyrists and poetical encomiasts. In the 
possession of the present venerable and learned Bishop of this See is a 
copy of verses, by a contemporary of Scory, relating in doggerel rhyme his 
advancement in the church, up to Hereford, 

" Wheare he hathe by enemyes often and by false slanderous tongues 
Had troubles greate without desert to his continental wronges.'' 

He died at the Palace of Whitbourn in 1584, and was interred in the church 
of that place. As a sort of posthumous atonement for living extortions, he 
bequeathed two hundred bushels of corn to the poor of Hereford, and two 
hundred pounds as a stock to be lent to young tradesmen of Hereford, and 
a like sum to those of Leominster. 

Herbert Westfaling, D. D., of German parentage, was educated at 
Christ Church, Oxford. As a proof of his fortitude and christian faith, 
it is related by Sir John Harington, that whilst preaching in the Cathedral, 
a mass of frozen snow falling from the tower upon the roof of the church, 
so frightened the congregation that they hastily endeavoured to escape; but 
the preacher remained serene and fearless in his pulpit, and calmly exhorted 
them to sit still and fear no harm. Queen Elizabeth named him a com- 
missioner, with three other Oxonians, to destroy or deface all the " copes, 
vestments, albs, missals, books, crosses, and other such idolatrous monu- 
ments of superstition in Christ Church." Such silly and contemptible 
orders, almost as absurd and disgusting as the ceremony of worshiping 
relics, at once excite our pity and indignation. Westfaling is described by 
Willis, as humane, charitable, and of very singular gravity. The revenues 
of the church he devoted to works of piety and hospitality, and left his 
paternal property to his family. He was buried in the north-east transept 
of the Cathedral in March, 1601. 

Robert Bennett, D. D. of Trinity College, Cambridge, was made Dean 
of Windsor, and Bishop of this See by Queen Elizabeth. He presided here 
from 1603 to 1617, and appears to have been involved in contention if 

57 Dugdale's " Monasticon Anglic," edit. 1831, vol. vi. pt. iii. p. 1211. 



BISHOP BENNETT. A. D. 1603—1617. 29 

not litigation, with the Mayor and Aldermen of Hereford, respecting certain 
rights and privileges of the See. In a letter, dated May 23, 1607, he 
accuses them of having "committed many prejudices to my liberties, and 
many violences to my tenants ; you enter into my liberties, make attachments, 
do executions, summon my tenants to your court, implead there at your 
pleasure, cast them into prison, and lay irons upon them, and that for petty 
and small matters. You have also imprisoned my bailiff, wherein I must tell 
you that you have forgotten the lawes of the realm, trangressed your charter, 
and violated my privileges, which are more ancient than your city? He 
proceeds to accuse them of refusing to pay their fees, — of denying his bailiff 
the custody and keys of the bishop's gates, — of putting a watch to oppose his 
watch, — of denying the "bells to be rung as customary time out of mind," — 
of forcing every poor man to become a " sword-man." — "I know your charter 
and every branch of it ; and you have given me occasion to look into my 
own records. And be assured that if there be strength in law, I will bring 
you back again within the compass of your own rights." He then demands 
full control and authority for his bailiff at the fair, with the keys of the 
gates, &c. These are strong charges, and imperious demands; and not 
much calculated to sooth the ruffled passions of man. Accordingly the 
mayor and aldermen reply, but with some equivocation, flattery, and denial 
of the charges, intimating that some artful and false person must have 
misrepresented facts, and expressing an earnest desire to preserve peace and 
good-will, instead of having K the fire of dissension cast among us by your 
Lordship. We know nothing done not justifiable by our charter, — for the 
delivery of the keys of our city or bearing the watch; we humbly pray a 
favourable construction of an absolute refusal." Disputes respecting rights, 
tolls, &c. had subsisted before, between the citizens and former bishops. 
In the eighth year of Henry VIII. the mayor, Mr. Phillips, " demanded " 
the customs during St. Ethelbert's fair of nine days, i. e. five shillings to 
the king's customer, one shilling for every porter, and sixpence for every 
sergeant, which demand the bishop refused. The mayor and citizens 
remonstrated, — attended the bishop's audit, and claimed their legal duties, 
but desired to guard against any " grudge and anger that might grow 
between them." These disputes led to an investigation of the respective 



30 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

rights and powers of the bishop, and of the mayor, &c. ■ and it was proved, 
that at the Norman Conquest, the bishop was not lord of the city, but that 
it belonged to the king till the 6th of July, 1189, when Richard I. sold the 
lordship for forty pounds to the citizens, or rather forty pounds a year, as 
that sum was to be gathered by three of the bailiffs, one of which was the 
mayor, one the King's bailiff, and one called the customer. The last was to 
collect the tolls and profits at the gates, fairs, markets, &c. King John 
granted the citizens the privilege of Guild Merchants. Bishop Aquablanca 
summoned them to answer for selling merchandise, i. e. wool, hides, &c. 
within their houses, during the fair of the said Bishop. The citizens 
admitted that the fair and all its profits belonged to the prelate, and that his 
bailiff ought to come on the eve of the fair to the city bailiff, and take custody 
of the city. The citizens afterwards granted the King's pillory and tumbrell, 
both in fair time and out, to do their executions, and ordered the Bishop's 
pillory to be taken down. The tenants, servants, &c. of the Bishop, Dean, &c. 
to be free from city toll and all exactions. Other agreements and stipulations 
were entered into between the clergy and laity of the city, but not sufficiently 
binding to prevent disputes : for in a letter from the mayor to the Bishop's 
bailiff he states that the plea of the latter " is untrue, and slanderously 
devised and contrived by a busy man, to put the former to slander, unjust 
vexation, and expense; and particularly to stir discord and strife between 
the Bishop and the citizens." Sir John Harington describes Bennett, 
when at college, as an active man, who played well at tennis, and could toss 
an argument in the schools even better than a ball in the tennis court. This 
prelate bequeathed twenty pounds to the Cathedral; twenty pounds to 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; twenty pounds towards finishing the schools 
at Oxford ; twenty pounds to the poor of Baldock, in Hertfordshire, his 
birth-place, &c. He died the 26th of October, 1617, and was buried on the 
north side of the high altar, where a handsome marble monument is standing 
to his memory. 

Francis Godwin, D. D. was promoted from the See of Landaff to that of 
Hereford in 1617. He is distinguished by his valuable " Catalogue of the 
Bishops of England," which was first printed in Latin in 1601. In his 
own account of himself under Landaff he says he was " Subdean of Exeter, 



BISHOP GODWIN. A.D. 1617—1633. 31 

son of Thomas Godwin, sometimes Bishop of Bath and Wells, born 
at Hansington, Northamptonshire ; collected and writ the Catalogue of 
Bishops in 1600, which now this year, 1614, he hath augmented." An 
edition in English was printed in 1605, forming a small quarto, but thick 
volume of seven hundred pages. Another edition, in Latin, was published 
in 1616 ; and an enlarged edition, with many additions, was published in a 
large folio volume by William Richardson, 1743. This was printed under 
the title of u De Prsesulibus Angliae Commentarius," &c. Bishop Nicholson, 
in his valuable " Historical Library," fol. 1736, says that two English 
editions " were equally full of the author's and printer's mistakes. The 
faults of the latter edition were so very gross that they put him upon the 
speedy dispatch of another in Latin, the style of which is neat and clear." 
Both Nicholson, and Wharton in u Anglia Sacra," accuses Godwin of quoting 
from authors without acknowledgment — of being guilty of chronological 
mistakes — of reliance on counterfeit charters — an uncertain calculation of 
years — and giving " false and imperfect catalogues in almost every diocess." 
Warton indeed assures us that he made better progress in eighteen months 
than Godwin had done in twenty years. Peter Le Neve, Thomas Baker, 
Fleetwood, Gough, &c. made many additions and corrections to Godwin's work, 
copies of most of whose notes are inserted in the Catalogue in my possession. 
Godwin was also author of some other works ; among which may be named 
The Life and Reign of Mary, Queen of England, published in Kennet's 
Collection, vol. ii. ; The Man in the Moon, or a Discourse of a Voyage 
thither, by Domingo Gonzales, 8vo. 1638, several times reprinted; Annales 
Rerum Anglicarum Henrico VIII. Edwardo VI. et Maria Regnantibus, 
fol. 1616, and 4to. 1628. This was translated by his son, Morgan Godwin, 
and published in fol. 1630 and 1676, under the title of Annals of England. 
Browne Willis does not give a very favourable account of our Bishop, 
saying " he was a great symonist, nothing is reported to have fell in his 
gift but what he sold or disposed of in regard to some son or daughter • 
but this practice, I presume, had been so notorious in Queen Elizabeth's 
time that it occasioned her aversion to Bishops' marriages," &c. Besides 
the revenues of the See he secured several church perferments. Willis states 
that he died April, 1633, and was buried in the north transept of this 



32 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

Cathedral, where an effigy of a Bishop is shewn and ascribed to him; but 
Duncumb says that he was interred at Whitbourn, " without any other 
memorial than his arms, with this enigmatical inscription underneath, Win 
Godwin all." In the register at Whitbourn is an entry of his interment, 
" Sepultus fuit vicessimo nono Aprilis, 1633." 

William Juxon, Dean of Worcester, was elected to Hereford, but 
removed to London before consecration. 

Augustine Lindsell, S. T. P. was advanced from Peterborough to this 
See io 1633, but resided here not more than eleven months, when he died 
suddenly in his library, and was buried in his Cathedral. (See History, 
&c. of Peterborough Cathedral.) 

Matthew Wren, D. D. presided here about one year only, when he was 
translated to Norwich in 1635, and afterwards to Ely, where he died in 
1667. (See Bentham's History of Ely Cathedral). 

Theophilus Field, D. D. succeeded Wren, being advanced from the 
See of Saint David's, iu December, 1635. He did not live to enjoy this 
promotion more than six months, when he paid the debt of nature, and was 
interred against the east wall of the north transept, where a bust, and an 
inscription commemorate his features and name. 

George Coke, S. T. P. was translated from Bristol to this See on the 
death of Field. He presided about ten years, and dying in 1646, was 
interred in the south aile, near the vicar's cloisters, where his effigy, with" a 
long inscription, remains. After fourteen years vacancy, in consequence of 
the civil wars, the See was occupied by 

Nicholas Monk, S. T. P. then Provost of Eton College, who was 
consecrated January 14, 1660. He never visited his diocess, but dying in 
December, 1661, was buried in St. Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. 
(See Brayley and Neale's Westminster Abbey, vol. ii.) 

Herbert Croft, S. T. P. was advanced from the Deanery to the 
Bishopric in January, 1661-2. Willis, and Wood in " Athenae Oxoniensis," 
give a most pleasing account of the conduct and character of this prelate ; 
and praise him particularly for the scrupulous care and zeal he manifested in 
selecting prebendaries from the clergy who resided within the diocess. 
This proved highly beneficial, and preserved a sympathy and local interest 






BISHOPS IRONSIDE, HUMPHREYS, BISSE, AND HOADLEY. — A. D. 1691—1723. 33 

between the members of the church and the laity. He presided till May 18, 
1691, when dying, he was interred within the communion rails, where a plain 
slab covers his grave. 

Gilbert Ironside, D. D. was translated from Bristol to this See on the 
death of Bishop Croft, and died in London in 1701, where he was buried 
in the Church of St. Mary le Strand. (See History, &c. of Bristol 
Cathedral.) 

Humphry Humphreys, D. D. a Welshman, was translated from Bangor 
to Hereford in 1701, where he presided till November 20, 1712. In the 
year 1704 he appears to have been engaged in controversy with the mayor 
and corporation respecting the jurisdiction of the city over u the Cathedral 
Church, the church yard, palace, and college of vicars ;" when the deputy 
steward wrote a long letter to the Bishop, endeavouring to shew that this 
jurisdiction was vested in the city from the time of the foundation of the 
Bishopric. He died in 1712, and was buried near the altar of the Cathedral. 
A short memoir is given of this prelate in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
December, 1826, by Dr. Meyrick ; and a notice of him appears in Wood's 
Athen. Oxon. edit. 1820, col. 895, where he is described " as excellently 
versed in antiquities." 

Philip Bisse, D. D. was a liberal but not a very tasteful benefactor to the 
Cathedral, having erected the present ponderous, gloomy, and inappropriate 
altar screen. It is related that he expended nearly three thousand pounds 
in repairs and improvements of the palace. Dying at Hereford, September 6, 
1721, he was buried near the altar of the Cathedral, where a massive and 
ostentatious monument is raised to his memory. 

Benjamin Hoadley, D. D. who succeeded Bishop Bisse, and presided 
here from 1721 to 1723, is distinguished in the literary, polemical, and 
political annals of his time as a man of great abilities and sound principles. 
He was soon promoted to Salisbury, and thence advanced to Winchester, 
in the accounts of both of which Cathedrals I have had occasion to record 
some particulars of this eminent prelate. In consequence of espousing 
opinions too liberal and benevolent for the age, he was violently and 
vindictively opposed by those who could not bear the sunshine of true 



34 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

philosophy and good sense. According to his own language, " fury seemed 
to be let loose upon hiin." An account of his life, with a list of his literary 
works, is inserted in the supplement to the " Biographia Britannica." 

Henry Egerton, D. D. fifth son of the third Earl of Bridgewater, was 
promoted to this See in 1724, and presided over it twenty-two years. The 
only memorable event connected with his character and prelacy was the 
demolition of a very curious antient chapel connected with the palace, which 
the Bishop and some of the chapter pronounced to be ruinous and useless. 
After expending above fifty pounds in taking down the venerable and 
interesting building, they relinquished for a time their silly and useless task : 
whereas the sum of about twenty pounds, properly employed, would have 
been sufficient to uphold and preserve it. By direction of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London, a plan, and an elevation of the front of it were drawn 
and engraved, but not sufficiently well executed to furnish an accurate repre- 
sentation of its architectural peculiarities. In Gough's edition of Camden's 
Britannia, vol. ii. the same prints are badly copied. In an account from 
Hereford, dated September, 1737, it is stated that " they are pulling down 
the venerable Gothic chapel belonging to the Bishop's palace, in order to 
erect a more polite and neat pile in the present taste." It is related that the 
entrance door-way was semicircular, with at least ten receding mouldings, 
springing from as many columns, on each side ; and if so, it must have sur- 
passed the noble south porch of Malmesbury Abbey Church. The building 
was nearly square, with an arched roof, sustained on two pillars, and covered 
with stone, similar to some early buildings in Normandy. 

The Hon. and Rev. Lord James Beauclerk, eighth son of the Duke of 
St. Alban's, who was a natural son of Charles II. by Eleanor Gwynn, was 
advanced to this See June 26, 1746, and presided here for the unusual 
space of forty-one years. He is described as resembling his grandfather in 
person, and as being very affable in manners ; but though he reigned over 
his provincial diocess so long, we do not hear of any great or good works 
that he performed, excepting the publication of a letter to his clergy. Dying 
in October, 1787, iu the seventy-seventh year of his age, he was interred in 
the Cathedral, near the altar, where a marble slab covers his grave. 



BISHOPS HARLEY, BUTLER, CORNEWALL, ETC. — A. D. 1787—1831. 35 

The Hon. and Rev. John Harley, D. D. third son of Edward Harley, 
third Earl of Oxford, was next advanced from the deanery of Windsor to 
this See, and died in six weeks after his consecration. 

John Butler, D. D. a native of Hamburgh, was a popular preacher 
in London, an able political writer, and an effective assistant to Lord 
North and his administration, in vindicating the unwise and impolitic 
American war. He was consequently soon and handsomely rewarded by 
church preferments. In 1777 he was promoted to the See of Oxford, 
although he had never taken a degree in either of the English Universities. 
Hence he was not very cordially received in that city ; but in 1788 he was 
translated to Hereford, where he presided till his death, in 1802. During 
his prelacy he built the present Chapel of the palace, and liberally contributed 
towards the rebuilding the west end of the Cathedral Church. 

Folliott Herbert Walker Cornewall, D. D. a fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and Dean of Canterbury, was advanced to the See 
of Bristol in 1797, and thence translated to Hereford in 1803, where he 
remained only five years, when he was advanced to Worcester, over which 
diocess his lordship continues to preside. 

John Luxmore, D. D. was made Dean of Gloucester in 1800, Bishop of 
Bristol in 1807, and thence translated to Hereford in 1808. Here his 
lordship presided till 1815, when he was removed to St. Asaph. During 
his stay here, his lordship was actively and honourably employed in promoting 

the establishment of national schools in the Diocess. 

ft 

George Isaac Huntingford, D. D. the present much respected and 
venerable Bishop of Hereford was translated from Gloucester to this See in 
1815. He was made warden of Winchester College in 1789, and by the 
statutes of that College is obliged to reside there the greater part of the 
year, whereby Hereford is deprived of the advantage of the good prelate's 
long continued presence. Bishop Huntingford is author of several classical 
and religious works, of a learned and useful character ; a list of which is 
printed in Watts's K Bibliotheca Britannica." 



36 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH, WITH 
REFERENCES TO THE ACCOMPANYING ENGRAVINGS. 

The Cathedral Church of Hereford is one of those truly interesting edifices 
of the olden times, which exhibits in its present features, and involves in its 
associations, many facts and considerations of deep import in the history of 
Christian Architecture, and in the annals of the country. If, by comparison, 
it be not equal to the metropolitan churches of York and Canterbury, or the 
grand minsters of Lincoln, Durham, or Wells, we shall find that it presents 
some architectural parts and designs very different to any thing in either of 
those justly famed buildings. It furnishes some links in the history of 
architecture ; aud contains singularities which cannot fail to arrest the 
attention and excite the curiosity of the antiquary. In the fall and rebuilding 
of the western end, in recent times, it affords subject for speculation and 
comment to the architectural critic. Browne Willis notices it as containing 
more monuments to Bishops, Deans, &c. than any other English cathedral, 
some of which are certainly peculiar in situation, forms, and adornment. 

Whatever may have been the primary style, design, and character of the 
building, or whether it was ever completed in one style, and according to 
one design, it is now impossible to ascertain and exemplify. At present it 
presents a variety of heterogeneous and discordant parts ; some of which 
are old, and of uncontaminated Anglo-Norman design and workmanship; but 
it will not be easy to prove any part to be truly Saxonic. It contains some 
specimens of the lancet, or first pointed style, another part of almost unique 
character with triangular arches, &c. ; and we also trace the second and 
third grades, or eras, of the pointed class of architecture. In the monu- 
mental chapels of Bishops Stanbury and Audley, we see a florid character 
of decoration, as also in another specimen of elaborate execution in the 



CATE^IIJHAI. A^TItJ— ITIES . 




MemutmI In ln*yai bv TiLClwk* I* CHacker. 1629. 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE CHURCH. 37 

north porch, raised by Bishop Booth. The organ and altar screens, with 
the new western end, and other additions and repairs made by the late 
Mr. James Wyatt, are so many sad defects, and tasteless members of 
the edifice, which cannot fail to give painful sensations to the critical 
architectural antiquary. Whilst the genuine works of the Catholic builders 
manifest consummate science, and untrammeled fancy, most of the modern 
works, by provincial carpenters and masons, or professional architects, are 
inappropriate and discordant, insipid and offensive. Some writers, however, 
have vindicated and praised them ; but the late Mr. John Carter, and 
Mr. Gough, in the Gentleman's Magazine, and one or two other real lovers 
of art, have properly and severely reprobated them. 

Aided by the series of engraved plans, elevations, sections, and views of 
the building which accompany these pages, I hope to furnish the reader 
with such representations of its better parts as will enable him to understand 
and appreciate the whole, as well as the details. The modern works are not 
otherwise shewn in these engravings than in the Ground Plan, Plate i. 
which marks that of the west end at b, and the organ screen, separating 
the nave from the choir. By this plan, the arrangement, extent, and 
subdivisions of the whole edifice are indicated, as they appear on the 
ground. Walls, pillars, buttresses, door-ways, and windows, as well as the 
open or covered areas between the walls, are thus shewn. The darkest 
colour is intended to represent the oldest part of the edifice, whilst later and 
subordinate portions are marked by lighter tints. As intimated by this plan, 
the whole Church consists of a north double porch, a and b; a nave, e, with 
its two ailes, c and d; a south transept, f, and north, g, with an aile to the 
east, j ; a space beneath the central tower, forming part of the choir, h ; a 
north aile, k, a south one, m ; a chancel, or altar end, at l ; a north east 
transept at n, consisting of two ailes of equal height and character, and 
another to the south, at p; a space behind the altar, forming a sort of 
vestibule to the Lady Chapel, at o ; whilst q and r. shew the extent and 
form of the Lady Chapel ; at s is a chantry, or monumental chapel for 
Bishop Audley ; t is an entrance porch, covering an exterior flight of steps 
to the crypt beneath the Lady Chapel, a plan of which is represented at u; at 



38 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

v and w are very old parts of the building appropriated to the modern vestry, 
&c. ; x is the cloister, commonly called the Bishop's cloister, to distinguish 
it from another, at i and j, connected with the vicar's college, k and 1. At z 
is the site of the western walk of the cloister, which was taken down about 
1760, and a large pile of brick building, of most unsightly and unmeaning 
character, raised in its stead, and appropriated to the Grammar School, and 
to the triennial meeting of the three choirs \ The small letters in the Plan 
refer to subordinate parts of the Cathedral, whilst the figures point out the 
most material monuments, and which will be noticed in subsequent pages 
of this volume. — a, original western entrance, which consisted of an Anglo- 
Norman semicircular arched door-way, with several mouldings, and at least 
four columns on each side. There were two small lateral door-ways to 
the ailes. b, modern central western entrance, with two small door-ways to 
the ailes ; c, font ; d, vestibule from the cloister to the Chapter House, 
which has been taken down, excepting the lower part of the wall at e, 
marked dark. The form of this Chapter House is indicated by dotted lines, 
as also the groining of its roof, which was supported by a clustered column in 
the centre; f, stair-case in a circular tower at the eastern angle of the north 
transept ; g, entrance to Bishop Stanbury's chapel ; h, open area ; i, j, k, 
and 1, have been already noticed ; m, stairs to a room over the inner north 
porch} u, stairs to the roof of the north transept, tower, &c. ; o, a buttress, 
having a door-way in it, the lintel of which has an inscription and shields of 
arms belonging to Bishop Booth ; p, stairs in the angular turretted buttress to 
a room over Bishop Booth's porch ; q q, plan of one of the mullions, or piers, 
with several shafts attached, between two windows on the north side of the 
Lady Chapel, an elevation of which is given in Plate viii. ; rrr, plan of a 
clustered column in the north transept, also profile of the base mouldings ; 
s s, plan of pier, or mull ion, between the windows at the east end of the 
Lady Chapel, with the detached clustered column. See the elevation, 
section, &.c. of the same in Plate viii. d. — Such are the divisions and parts 

1 In the " History, &c. of Worcester Cathedral," will be found a short account of the origin 
and intention of the " three choirs," as constituting a part of the history of the Cathedrals of 
Gloucester, Hereford, and Worcester. 



HISTORY, DATES, AND STYLES OF THE CHURCH. 39 

intimated by the Plan, excepting the small figures, which are placed near 
the monuments of persons of some note : these will be separately referred to 
after a few remarks are made respecting the ages, &c. of different portions 
of the building. 

The history of an antient edifice, consisting, as that of Hereford does, of 
several parts, and those of distinct and distant eras of execution, and more 
especially where contemporary records are wanting, can never be clearly 
and satisfactorily elucidated. Hence persons of different sentiments, and of 
varied degrees of information, will be likely to form different opinions, and 
hence also theories will be substituted for facts. Many minds, indeed, 
delight more in theory than in genuine history, because the one is self- 
created, and the other springs from ratiocination and deep investigation. 
When we reflect on the very imperfect and slight information that has 
been transmitted to us respecting the extent and characteristic features of 
the churches that have successively been built, or altered, at Hereford, it is 
not surprising that contradictory inferences have been drawn by those who 
have directed their attention to the subject, or that we should still be left in 
doubt and darkness. The previous pages contain some notices respecting 
the first planting of a See at Hereford, and of its successive Prelates, with 
allusions to the churches that were built as the head of the diocess. 

The dates and styles of the different parts of the present edifice are 
proper subjects of inquiry for the architectural antiquary, as they constitute 
material points in its history; but deprived of documental evidence, he 
proceeds without proof, and can never arrive at demonstration. Whilst 
one writer contends that a large part of it is of the Anglo-Saxon age, others 
will not allow any portion to be anterior to the Norman conquest. If we 
cannot settle this difference of opinion, we may briefly notice the eras when 
new works are said to have been commenced, or were in progress, and then 
endeavour to ascertain whether such dates are likely to exemplify the parts 
of the building to which they respectively refer. Although Bishop Putta is 
said to have been seated here as early as a. d. 676, there is not any account 
of a Cathedral having been raised before 825, when, it is generally agreed, 
that Milfred, a Viceroy to Egbert, King of Mercia, constructed a "new 



40 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

building for that express purpose. The extent, materials, and architectural 
character of that Church are not known ; though one of the old chroniclers 
calls it " lapidea structural (See ante, p. 4.) It appears, however, that in 
less than two centuries afterwards it was so much decayed, or dilapidated, 
that Bishop Athelstan, who was promoted to the See in 1012, commenced 
au entirely new edifice : but the style and nature of that are not more 
defined by the chroniclers than those of the former Church. Very shortly 
afterwards the Welsh, under Algar, Earl of Chester, and Griffin, King or 
Prince of Wales, besieged the city of Hereford, " burnt it utterly, and the 
large Minster also, which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be 
built." This is the account of the Saxon Chronicle (see ante, p. 5) ; and 
the Chronicles of Mailros, of Simon of Durham, and of Roger Hovedon 
concur, with trifling variations, in the same statement. As the corpse of 
Athelstan was interred, in February, 1055, in the Church which he had 
" built from the foundations," it may be inferred that the edifice was 
not wholly destroyed by the Welsh : but how much, and what remained, 
when Loziug was promoted to the See by the new Norman king, is not 
defined by any historian. It is said to have remained in ruins from 1055 till 
the year 1079. Following the fashion of the times, and in the spirit of other 
Norman Bishops, Losing soon commenced rebuilding the Cathedral 2 ; and 
it is related that he directed it to be raised in imitation of a famed church 
which had been built by Charlemagne, at Aix-la-Chapelle, between 774 and 
795 3 . This, however, is one of the traditions which can neither be confirmed 
nor confuted ; though when we know that the church referred to was partly 
made up of genuine Roman columns and other materials conveyed from 
Rome and Ravenna, we are not disposed to place much credit in the story. 
Besides, the architecture of Lozing's Choir, &.c. is quite in unison with the 
prevalent works of his own age, and has little similarity to those of the 

2 Bishops Walkelyn, at Winchester, Gundulph, at Rochester, Lozing, at Norwich, Carilepho, 
at Durham, all Normans, built large and fine churches at their respective Sees. 

3 See Gunn's " Inquiry," p. 00; Whittington's " Historical Survey," p. 32; and Paulus 
iEmylius's " Lite of Charlemagne." In Hearne and Byrne's " Antiquities," Lozing is said to 
have copied from a work of the Emperor Charles V. who lived some centuries after the Bishop ! ! 



DATES OF THE CHURCH. 41 

Romans, or the Italians of the eighth century. How far he proceeded with 
his building we are not informed j but Bishop Raynelm, who presided here 
from 1107 to 1115, is reported to have completed the new Church. If, 
however, that prelate did finish it, many additions and alterations have been 
subsequently made by other Bishops. The part behind the altar was most 
likely by De Vere, between 1186 and 1199; the Lady Chapel and its crypt, 
about 1200; the central tower, by De Breuse, between 1200 and 1215; the 
north transept by Cantelupe, or soon after his decease ; about which time 
the chapter house, and part of the cloisters were erected ; the ailes of the 
nave and choir, and the eastern transept, the chantry chapels of Stanbury 
and Audley, and lastly, the exterior portion of the north porch, by Bishop 
Booth : all these constitute so many distinct features and classes of archi- 
tecture in the Church, and it would be gratifying to ascertain the times 
when, and persons by whom, they were respectively erected. 

The Rev. Thomas Garbett published a small volume, in 1827, entitled 
u A brief Inquiry into the ancient and present State of Hereford Cathedral," 
in which he says, " there is the best reason for believing that the arches of 
the choir, the east wall of the south transept, ivith its side aisle*, also the 
arches which communicate between the side aisles of the choir and nave, and 
the great transept, are the remains of Athelstan's Church; whilst the arcade 
of the choir, the arches beneath the central tower (but not the piers), with 
the whole of the Saxon ivork westward, are the additions of Lozing and 
Raynelm; these prelates having repaired rather than rebuilt the Church." 
In another page the learned antiquary says, " I must persist in regarding 
Athelstan as the founder of the present Church." It is rather a curious 
circumstance that Mr. Wm. Garbett, the well informed and skilful architect 

4 Surely Mr. Garbett must err in calling the passage, or corridor, on the east side of the 
south transept, an aile. According to my plan and examination there were no open arches 
between the two ; and I consider that to be essential to constitute an aile. With all deference 
to my learned friend, I also think the word side unnecessary in conjunction with aile. Again, 
how does Mr. G. reconcile himself to the term " Saxon work" applied to the architecture 
of Lozing's time 1 If this gentleman's writings and opinions were not regarded by me as superior 
in accuracy and technicality to the generality of our architectural critics, I should not make 
these remarks, and with all deference, now submit them for his candid reconsideration. 

G 



42 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

of Winchester, published a similar opinion respecting certain parts of the 
venerable Cathedral of that city 5 ; and I could not coincide with him then, 
nor with the Rev. Mr. Garbett now, in their opinions. Still I am aware that 
both these gentlemen have diligently studied the subject, and have most care- 
fully examined their respective churches ; I also admit that the architectural 
parts alluded to by each as being Saxon are of inferior masonry, and plainer 
and less adorned than the other divisions of the churches which are admitted 
to be truly Norman. With such persons, and with such arguments as they 
adduce, I most reluctantly, and even with some degree of self suspicion, 
differ. Still I own that I cannot adduce proofs ; and therefore have merely 
to urge my own opinion against theirs. It is, however, founded on a very 
extensive, and I may say a fastidious examination of numerous churches in 
this country, with the histories of each, and also a diligent study of the 
history and characteristics of antient churches at Caen, and other parts of 
Normandy °. It would occupy too much of the present work to enter fully 
into the argument, in order to substantiate or justify my opinion, and must 
therefore refer the reader, who may be curious on the subject, to the volume 
on Winchester Cathedral already noticed. 

By an examination of the accompanying engravings, and a more particular 
description of some of the parts referred to, we shall become more familiar 
with their characteristic details, and be thus enabled, perhaps, to develope 
something of their history. 

The principal exterior architectural forms and features of the building 
are represented in Plates ii. hi. vi. and vii. in all of which the central tower 
is shewn. In Plate x. one compartment of the choir and aile, with Bishop 
Stanbury's chapel, is delineated, in elevation. 

Plate ii. view of the Church from the north-west, displays four windows 
and four buttresses, with the parapet of the north aile of the nave, also the 

5 A long letter of Mr. Garbett's is published in my " History, Sfc. of Winchester Cathedral," 
and I refer to it with great satisfaction as containing much valuable information respecting the 
ages and styles of different parts of that most interesting church. 

6 For accounts and illustrations of the architecture of these churches, the reader is referred to 
the " Architectural Antiquities of Normandy," by A. Pugin and J. Britton, 2 vols. 4to. 1828. 







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EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 43 

clerestory of the latter, which, with its parapet, roof, and buttresses, were 
nearly all rebuilt after the fall of the west end : the north porch consisting of 
two parts of different styles and dates. The exterior porch is represented 
to a larger scale in Plate in., which displays its front entrance archway with 
highly enriched spandrils, and two lateral octagonal stair-case turrets, at the 
angles. These have glazed windows in the upper portions, forming a sort 
of lanthorn to each. This exterior porch, built by Bishop Booth, and 
bearing his name, consists of two stories, the lower of which exhibits four 
wide arches, springing from four piers at the extreme angles, two of which 
are united with the stair-case turrets, the others with the ends of the old 
porch. Its upper story, containing an apartment, is sustained on a vaulted 
and groined roof, and has three large windows, with elaborate tracery. The 
north transept is externally shewn in Plates ii. hi. and vi. in which the large 
buttresses, with bevelled angles, tall windows without transoms, and rising 
nearly the whole height of the building, are conspicuous and characteristic 
features. In Plate vi. the eastern side of this transept is represented, to 
which there is an aile, and there is a remarkable architectural circumstance 
on this side, viz. the windows of the triforium have semicircular arched 
mouldings, enclosing a window of three lights of lancet shaped arches. 
Beneath the aile window is a pointed arched cloor-way, which was probably 
an original approach to the shrine of Cantelupe. In the angle is a stair-case 
turret, which is circular at the bottom and polygonal above : and this 
probably was an access to a private apartment for a monk over the aile of 
the transept, containing the sainted shrine. The central tower, from this 
point, is displayed in all its massive proportions, and with its profusion of 
bead or bulb ornaments. In the present view the angular pinnacles of the 
parapet are not shewn, but in Plate xi. the lower parts of two of them are 
delineated, and again in Plate vn. their general design and forms are 
represented. When the great repairs and rebuilding of the west end were 
made, there was a timber and leaded spire placed on the tower, but this was 
taken down, and a stunted, squat appearance was thus given to the building. 
In the year 1830 Canon Russell presented a sum of money to the Dean and 
Chapter to build four appropriate pinnacles at the angles, which if well 



44 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

executed will improve the appearance of the tower. The interior character of 
this tower, the thickness and openings in its walls, the aixhed flooring of the 
belfry, &c. are delineated in Plate xi. The original pitch of the roofs of 
the choir and north aile is indicated in Plate vi. ; that of the nave was 
formerly of the same height. On that Plate the dressed or panelled parapet 
of the eastern side of the transept, as originally executed, is also shewn, and 
makes the modern one to the choir look very poor and insipid. 

In Plate x. is an elevation of one compartment of the exterior of the 
choir on the north side, shewing two buttresses of the north east transept, 
part of the Stanbury chapel, a window, parapet and roof of the aile, a 
clerestory window, with arcade dressings to the wall, and the modern 
parapet above the whole. The style of architecture in the arcade and 
window, and also the blank window, or double arch, with two smaller 
arches within the wall of the clerestory, with the ribbed roof rising above 
the Norman triforium, claim the particular notice of the antiquary. 

Plate vii. shews the exterior style and architectural features of the east 
end of the Lady Chapel, with its bold angular buttresses, rising from 
immense bases, like the frustra of pyramids. The numerous and large base 
mouldings running round the wall of this building, its tall lancet shaped 
windows, arcades, and ovolar and lozenge shaped pannels, are so many 
peculiarities of design in this chapel, which cannot fail of attracting the 
attention and admiration of the architectural antiquary- On the south side 
projects the Audley chapel, which has been already referred to. The 
angular, embattled parapet, at the end, is a clumsy piece of modern 
masonry. 

The south side of the Church is almost excluded from the examination of 
the public, being enclosed within the walls of a garden between the Bishop's 
and the Vicar's cloisters, and the enclosed area of the former. 

The Interior architectural features and arrangement of the Church are 
delineated in the accompanying prints, I. — iv. — v. — vm. — ix. — xi. — xn. — 
xni. and xvi. The plan, Plate i. has been already noticed. Plate iv. is 
an interesting and faithful display of the nave and its ailes, as seen from the 
south-west angle, after the greater part of the fallen materials had been 



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INTERIOR OP THE CHURCH : WEST END. 45 

taken away in the year 1786. My once much esteemed friend and country- 
man, Mr. Hearne, was at Hereford in that year, and with his usual taste 
and accuracy made the drawing from which the annexed engraving has 
been copied. It becomes peculiarly valuable in the estimation of the 
architectural antiquary, from shewing the style and character of the triforium, 
the clerestory, with its thick wall pierced with a corridor, or passage, its 
vaulted and ribbed roof, and its ailes, all of which were rebuilt, in a very 
different, and I must add a very indifferent, style from the designs of the late 
Mr. James Wyatt, who has unfortunately left other specimens of ill applied 
and ill designed works in the Cathedrals of Salisbury, Lichfield, and 
Durham. Without noticing any of the other places, or even referring to 
the designs of Fonthill Abbey, and the castellated palace at Kew, one in 
ruins and the other fortunately since taken down, the designs at Hereford 
are sufficient to impeach the taste or judgment of an architect who could 
make and recommend them to join to, or combine with, the bold, broad, 
substantial Norman work of the original nave. That front, however, is not 
the only or the worst part of the design, but the triforium and clerestory of 
the nave have pointed arches, with their flimsy columns, poor, mean 
mouldings, and all the dressings equally insipid, and wholly discordant to 
the original work. I could no more reconcile myself to have a drawing 
and engraving made of any part of such building (I will not miscall it 
architecture) than I could reengrave any of Batty Langley's " Gothic," or 
the " Bricklayer's Gothic " of the present day, which Church Commissioners 
unfortunately and heedlessly encourage. If a very great saving had been made 
by adopting the light, pointed style, which Mr. Wyatt designed, both the 
architect and the Chapter might have partly justified themselves; but when it 
is notorious that the whole restoration, in conformity to the old work, might 
have been executed at a less sum than was expended on the present, we can 
neither palliate nor forgive the tasteless novelties which have been executed. 
If my respected friend Mr. Garbett reprobates this language as wanting in 
" discrimination, and as the effect of prejudice" (see p. 20 of his Inquiry), I 
must tell him that I have here, as upon most other occasions of a controverted 
nature, and where the subject of architectural design is referrable to any 



46 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

maxims of taste, science, or archaeology, endeavoured to analyse and criticise 
my own opinions before I have committed them to paper. That the clergy 
knew nothing respecting the dates, styles, and marked features of the 
circular and pointed architecture of the monastic ages, is readily admitted, 
aud unfortunately the architect was not much better informed ; for there were 
then no correct publications on the subject, and architects and antiquaries 
had not studied it. Fortunately we live in an age when more correct ideas 
are prevalent, and when the eyes of the public are opened to better principles. 
At York, at Winchester, at Peterborough, &c. repairs and alterations have 
been made in a style and manner, if not wholly unexceptionable, at least 
commendable. The fall of the western end of Hereford Cathedral is the 
most remarkable event of modern times in the history of English Cathedrals; 
whilst the rebuilding of it, we cannot say restoration, is as remarkable for 
its inconsistent and discordant character. Inigo Jones built a Roman 
screen, or portico, to the west front of old St. Paul's, and Sir Christopher 
Wren built two towers at the west end of the Abbey Church at Westminster, 
both of which have been justly reprobated by all discriminating critics of the 
present age. It is equally due to the canons of good taste and Christian 
architecture to protest against such designs and works as those executed at 
Hereford, between the years 178G and 1796, for the work was more than 
ten years in progress 7 . Mr. Gough, in a letter to the Gentleman's Magazine, 

7 It is not, perhaps, possible to specify the expenses attending these alterations; but it is 
stated, in a local publication, that they '* amounted to nearly £.13,000; and about £.2000 more 
at the same time were appropriated to the general repairs of the central tower and other parts of 
the fabric: of these sums about £.'2000 were subscribed by the Bishop, Dean and Chapter, and 
other members bf the Cathedral; £.5000 by the nobility, gentry, and clergy of the Diocess, and 
the Bishops and Chapters of other dioceses ; and the remaining £.8000 were charged upon the 
estates of the Church." — " Hereford Guide," edit. 1027, p. 140. The new works and alterations 
then made are thus specified in the same volume: — " The total rebuilding of the west front 
without a tower, the foundations of which were removed fifteen feet inward, and the nave 
consequently was as much shortened ; the arcades and clerestory windows in the upper part of 
the nave, altered from the circular to the pointed form ; the vaulting of the nave renewed ; the 
roofs of the nave, choir, and transepts flattened ; the spire taken down from the central tower ; 
the battlements raised somewhat higher, and pinnacles with crockets placed at the angles." At 
the same time the Cathedral yard was levelled. In the year 1793 the Dean and Chapter 



MR. WYATT'S NEW WORKS, ETC. 47 

1790, indignant at the proceedings at Hereford, says, " it is partly through 
the neglect of the Chapters, and partly by the ill management of the 
architects they employ, that they (the Cathedrals) are falling about our ears." 
The lives of sixteen men were placed in danger, and some were killed by 
the negligence of the influential persons in placing the scaffolding within the 
nave. Even Mr. Garbett, who is disposed not only to justify but applaud 
most of the new works in the nave, &c, admits that the " doors and niches 
of the west front are poor in themselves, and strikingly at variance with the 
rest, as to offend at first view ; and to excite, from their prominent situation, 
a prejudice against the whole fabric. Nor is this partial deviation in style 
the only thing to be lamented. The foundation (the church) itself has been 
so much abridged, that of the four arches which perished with the tower, two 
only have been rebuilt, and those without the least decorative feature. A 
change also took place in the interior, for which no reason has been assigned; 
and which merits unqualified condemnation, viz. raising the pavement so as 
to conceal the square basement of the pillars, and consequently to diminish 
the height both of the nave and side aisles. The choir was originally 
approached by a flight of steps ; but these are now done away." The 
accompanying engraving shews the original style and finishing of the arches 
and columns of the nave, the triforium, above, and the clerestory still higher, 
though it seems that the last may have had its windows inserted subsequent 
to the first building. The arched roof is also evidently of later architecture 
than the lower arches, as are the walls, windows, &c. of the ailes. 

The architecture of the original Choir is illustrated by Plate x. where 

appealed to the public, in the Hereford Journal, &c. for additional aid, stating that they had 
expended all the moneys raised, " the income of their fabric estates, and the further sum of 
£.4000 raised upon their other estates, to the restoration of the necessary parts of their ancient 
fabric, that there is still required to complete that object £.3000, which must remain a charge 
on the Dean and Chapter." They then call for another subscription, to enable them to make a 
finishing to the central tower, in place of the destroyed spire, and say that it is estimated at 
£.1000, towards which they had subscribed among themselves £.547. The remaining sum does 
not appear to have come in, for the works then executed did not appear to have satisfied many of 
the former subscribers. Mr. Duncumb states that " an expenditure of nearly £.20,000 has 
proved very inadequate to the restoration," Collections for Herefordshire, &c. vol. i. p. 529. 



48 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

we recognise the style of its strong semicircular arches, between immense 
piers ; also its triforiuin, of corresponding design, and its clerestory of the 
first pointed character. There were three of these compartments on each 
side of the choir, but they are all either partially or wholly filled up by 
screens, monuments, or walling, and heuce the true effect of this part of 
Lozing's work is scarcely to be distinguished. This division of the building, 
including the lofty semicircular arches under the tower, and the arch or 
arches which originally opened to the Lady Chapel, must have exhibited a 
fine and solemn example of true Norman architecture. It is also probable 
that the Lady Chapel, of Lozing's time, if finished, was terminated semi- 
circularly, in accordance with the fashion of the age. We may safely infer 
that the ailes of the choir were executed in a corresponding style, as the 
terminating arches of the ailes, both to the west and to the east, are precisely 
like those of the choir. In Plate xih. one of these arches is shewn, and 
also the soffit, mouldings, and capitals of the south eastern arch of the choir, 
as seen in the aile. These prints represent the mouldings round the arch on 
the choir and aile sides as different in their details, the latter having merely 
a sort of bead, or torus, whilst the former has several torus and zigzag 
mouldiugs. In the triforium, the mouldings, as well as the filling up of the 
arch and the capitals, are variously enriched with Norman decorations. 
u The clerestory range of the choir," says Mr. Garbett, p. 35, " consists of an 
inner and an outer wall, forming an avenue that, prior to the insertion of the 
great east window, was continued round the extremity. The inner wall is 
separated by piers into three compartments ; each compartment contains 
two low trefoil arches on the sides, and a high pointed arch in the centre, 
which is subdivided by a tall clustered column, branching off in the head, 
and forming two lesser arches. Each pier, which with the arches and 
arcades is Saxon*, is surmounted by two gothic pediments; and from 

8 The application of the term Saxon to architecture admitted to be executed by the Normans 
is calculated to mislead the young and uninitiated reader. It may as well be called Roman. A 
discriminating aud critical writer, as Mr. Garbett shews himself in most parts of his clever 
little volume to be, should be more precise in his language. This gentleman recommends, very 
urgently, that the choir be enlarged, by taking away the present clumsy altar screen, opening and 



CATHEDBAX AHTIQ01TTE 
1 




"VOLEartlett del* 



Engraved T-yW? Wiiulnotli - 



SOUTH AXLE , iMOTTUKLEHT OF BI3J3HJP MAYO, fee. 
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LviidoTvPtibLCshed Jul,/ 1.1830 '.buJ-uruniui/i & (XJBaXerrwsterSow. 



/hiaaf,fa/I!.f 



TOWER AND TRANSEPT. 49 

between these pediments rises a small clustered column, sustaining the stone 
vaulting, the groins of which are the same in disposition and number with 
those of the Lady Chapel." 

As indicated in the Ground Plan, the arches under the north and south 
sides of the tower are propped up by square piers at the centre of each, 
and pieces of masonry, built up against the old piers. The architect, or 
builder, probably considered some support of this kind to be necessary to 
sustain the superincumbent weight of the tower; but nothing can be more 
unsightly and unarchitectural in its character and effect. It is clumsy, 
tasteless, and bad. If the arches were in danger, why not have constructed 
screens, similar to those at Salisbury (see View in my Cathedral Antiquities, 
Salisbury), or as at Canterbury ; or with inverted arches, as at Wells. 
" Of all plans," says Mr. Garbett, u which a country mason could have 
selected out of numerous blunders, this central pillar is, perhaps, the worst, 
whether we respect its utter destitution of character, its glaring obtrusiveness, 
its acknowledged inutility, nay, its tendency to impair the fabric, by exciting 
a reaction, and forcing out of the perpendicular the clerestory range of the 
choir. Nor is this all ; for of the four circular arches which communicate 
between the side ailes of the choir and nave and the transept, one only 
remains in its original state, the other three having been blocked up, leaving 
only a small passage way in each ; the adjoining arch on either side the choir 
has shared the same fate ; and as to the arches above, the present surface of 
the wall exhibits not a trace of the rich work which lies concealed behind 
it," (p. 61.) 

Of the Transept, we see by the dark colour of the Ground Plan that 
parts of the wall are old, and part of a lighter shade, intimating a later date. 
Mr. Garbett contends that the eastern wall of the south transept is a portion 
of Athelstan's Church. Its architectural style of arches, columns, triforium, 
&c, is shewn in Plate xi. and the plan in Plate i., but if this part of the 

including the Lady Chapel, and terminating it at the west under the eastern arch of the tower. 
This suggestion is certainly entitled to the consideration of the Chapter, and with some other 
improvements, much wanted, may easily, and upon moderate terms, be made, when architects 
and workmen are found to be skilful, honest, and industrious. 

H 



50 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

building be of that prelate's age, I must conclude that the lower part of 
the tower, with the smaller arches to the ailes, and the present chapter room, 
&c. are of the same time. These members of the Church certainly exhibit 
some dissimilitude of forms and details to the choir and nave, but it is 
difficult to account for their preservation by the first Norman prelate : for 
he, like the generality of the Normans, was too ambitious of originality and 
superiority, as well as too national, to engraft new works upon those of his 
Anglo-Saxon predecessors. All, however, is left to conjecture, — and my 
good friend, Mr. Garbett, may indulge freely and fully in his without any 
fear of having it overruled by incontrovertible evidence. The south end of 
this transept has a large window, of six lights, inserted, and also another of 
four lights in the western wall. In the north transept we perceive a style and 
character of architecture unlike any other part of the building, and, indeed, 
of very unusual character. It is well defined in Plates xi. and xn., in which 
the arch mouldings of the open arches of the triforium, and of the windows 
are represented as being almost triangular, or rather forming two sides of a 
triangle. They display several mouldings, and, as in the Lady Chapel, are 
enriched with a sculptured ornament called the dog-tooth. The capitals of 
the clustered columns are richly foliated. Of this transept Mr. Garbett 
says, " The sharp pointed arches opening into the side aisle ; their distri- 
bution into multiplied mouldings of the most delicate execution; the arcades 
immediately above, divided by mullions into lesser arches, and closed in by- 
perforated quatrefoils in circles ; the high pointed and expanded windows, 
differing only according to their situations, but especially that towards the 
north, which occupies nearly the whole of the extremity; the dog-tooth 
quatrefoil and patterns in mosaic, tastefully introduced within the arches, 
and on the surface of the walls, all preserve the same acute and determined 
character; with the lofty stone vaulting connecting together the different 
objects, render this apartment an exquisite specimen of the architectural 
genius of the twelfth century." This transept is adorned by a very interesting 
monument of antient architectural and sculptural design, raised to the 
memory of Saint Cantelupe, which will be hereafter noticed. It is, however, 
most lamentably disfigured by numerous pews and seats, appropriated to the 



EMBL&IL &BK EBqnDECPSB 




T.WCLu-ki; clel. 



EngrinisL by JLc liL-ux. 



VJDBW IK TIHMK U . TBAHSHPT . 



Tb the XEVV JOHN ' JOjSTE S . M. A. OF HEKEFOItl) ; a Jatron of Aril-i^iiariaii Literattrre , -tbifl .Hate is i3iscrjVcL"by- 

THE -AUTHOR . 

Zcndcn lUiUsltxd, ^iu^u^t 1JSJ1. hyXanariuai S-- CH&avwsterJfom 



EAST TRANSEPT. 51 

parishioners of St. John the Baptist's parish, who formerly occupied part of 
the nave, and who from prescriptive right claim accommodation within the 
walls of the Cathedral Church. 

Behind the altar, and extending north and south beyond the ailes, as 
shewn in the plan, is the Eastern Transept, a portion dissimilar in 
architectural character to any other part of the Church. It consists of two 
ailes, of the same height and same width, with three columns and two piers 
extending through the middle, north and south. One of the columns and 
the piers are now incorporated in a screen and walls enclosing the western 
end of the Lady Chapel. They are represented in Plate v., which also 
displays the character of the rib mouldings, the varied and enriched style 
of the capitals, the height of the vaulting, &c. In this view I have omitted 
the temporary screen, which is made to fill up the two arches at the west end 
of the Lady Chapel, and thus shut out the whole of that very fine and very 
interesting apartment. It is not easy to account for the original meaning 
and appropriation of this eastern transept, nor for its union with the Lady 
Chapel, and the peculiar separation of that from the choir. It was most 
likely intended to contain four or more chantries or altars under the eastern 
windows, and might also have been connected with the College, as a 
cloister or corridor, communicates between that edifice, and the south 
transept. u In noticing the architecture of these transepts," says Mr. Garbett, 
p. 40, " their construction must not be overlooked. Although they are in 
part open from north to south, by means of the avenue which separates the 
Lady Chapel from the choir, they are, in reality, nothing more than the side 
aisles of the latter extended into double aisles, having a pillar in the centre 
for the sustentation of the groined roof; and forming a square apartment 
at each extremity, lighted by four windows. The head work of the 
windows on the east side of the south extremity (see Plate xiii.) differs from 
that of those in the north (see Plate v.), the spandrils formed by the centre 
and side mullions in the crown of the arch containing each an oblong 
quatrefoil. The windows towards the south are still more varied." The 
same gentleman considers this transept to be of prior date to the ailes of the 
nave. Connected with, and branching from it, is the Lady Chapel, which 
may be regarded as the most beautiful specimen of architecture in the whole 



52 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

Church. The Plan is given in the Ground Plan, which also displays the 
situations, proportionate openings, and number of its windows; whilst 
Plates viii. ix. and xvi. will clearly illustrate the general design and style 
of the interior architecture of this unique apartment. Plate viii. represents 
one compartment, or severy, of the chapel on the north side, near the east 
end, with a section through one of the windows at that end. This sectional 
part shews the thickness of the wall beneath and above the window — the 
numerous columns and mouldings of the window — the several base mouldings 
on the outside, the geometrical forms, and mouldings, and clustered columns 
of the windows on the north side, with the rib mouldings of the arched 
ceiling, and a monumental niche with a statue, beneath. Above the windows 
is a quatrefoil panel, enriched with cusps and rosettes. A perspective view 
of the window's at the south east angle of this chapel is given in Plate xvi. 
which serves to exemplify more clearly and fully the elaborate enrichments 
of the architecture. The whole design of the east end, with its five lights, 
or windows, and circular and ovolar panels above, with section of the 
vaulted roof over, and floor supported on vaults below, are delineated in 
Plate ix. This plate also displays the crypt, with its exterior porch and 
stairs, on the north side, and Audley chapel to the south. The references 
are, a, stairs; b, crypt, or vault; c, lower part of the Audley chapel; 

d, upper part, approached by stairs, as indicated on the Ground Plan ; 

e, roof to the stairs ; f, an altar tomb, marked t in Plan, u ; c, floor of 
chapel ; h, vaulting of the roof; i, section of wall over the window ; 
k, windows, a plan of the pier and pillars of one of which is given in the 
Ground Plan, s. 

" The Lady Chapel, both within and without," remarks Mr. Garbett, 
" displays simplicity of outline and beauty of detail. The sides consist of 
three compartments, separated on the outside by prominent buttresses of an 
antique kind ; and within side by clustered shafts, with sculptured capitals 
of human heads and foliage, from whence springs the groined roof. Each 
compartment contains two long and narrow lights, the receding piers of 
which are enlivened by slender pillars, which sustain the detached mouldings 
of the arch above. The east end differs from the sides, as well in respect of 
design and ornament as of dimensions." 



CATHEDRAL A NTZQiJiTSjES - 



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Dra.-vra IryTho^H.Clai-ke. 



Engraved ny G. Gladwin. 



H.A\B'Y CHAIPE.'L . COMPAHLTI/iTElST, 2T. SiBE. AT BAST EI>T1D>,WITII SECTION OF THE L.ATTSBR. 

(vide Ground Flan.) 

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SECTX©!*" 2E^: B3C EHS", LADX CHAPEL & CJ2YPT HOOEEfG EAST ■ 

To E0WAHD HAycocK 1 ESQ?j4BCWT£CTi Shrewsbury;, this plate ia .inscribed as a mark of esteem "by the 

. . f AUTHOR. 

J,tmdiw Riblixhed- &'e>vJ.,'W3C ,by Longman* .£ Cflhtiwirtzrfioiv . 



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To SIR mmm SCtnJAMORE SraNHora , JBAE.? of Eohue XactyFarir,33ergFoi-dshii-e, thia jJale is magjbed Tjy 



the vxrxmnt. 



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JTayWard .I'nn; 



CLOISTERS, CHAPTER HOUSE. 53 

From this brief account of the interior of the Lady Chapel, and from the 
engravings, a stranger, and an admirer of Christian architecture, will lament 
to learn that this fine room is filled and lumbered with old bookcases, and 
that its walls, columns, windows, and mouldings are obscured and smeared 
over with repeated coats of whitewash. Whilst many thousands of pounds 
were so tastelessly expended in building a west front, and the upper part of 
the nave, every lover of architecture must deplore the present neglected and 
dilapidated state of this chapel. Five or six hundred pounds, judiciously 
expended, would protect it from further injury, and remove all its disfigure- 
ments ; but I can almost excuse the Chapter from commencing architectural 
repairs, after they have paid so dearly for experience, and suffered so 
severely from the consequent tax on its income. 

In addition to what has been said of the Church generally and particularly, 
it will be proper to notice some architectural objects belonging to, or 
materially connected with it. These are the cloisters, the chapter house, the 
vestry, and the font. The first, commonly called the Bishop's Cloisters, to 
distinguish them from another cloister belonging to the college, consists at 
present of only two walks, or covered corridors, that to the west having 
been taken down to make room for a warehouse-looking pile of brick 
building appropriated to the grammar school. It does not appear that it 
ever had a walk on the north side against the Church. Between a continued 
series of buttresses are windows of large dimensions, with mullions and 
tracery. The vaulting of the roof is adorned with numerous ribbed mouldings, 
as indicated in the Ground Plan at x, at the intersections of which are 
shields, charged with sculptured figures, foliage, arms, &c. These ribs 
spring from slender pillars between the windows, and corbels heads on the 
other side. The entrance door-way to the Chapter House, from the east 
walk, still remains, but is walled up. It consists of a pointed arch, under a 
lofty, richly ornamented pedimental moulding, having clustered shafts on the 
sides, with foliated capitals. In the centre is a slender pillar, dividing the 
arch-way into two smaller openings. The once elegant chapter room, to 
which this door-way communicated, has fallen beneath the fanatic frenzy 
of the Cromwellian soldiers, and the injudicious zeal of Bishop Bisse, who 
carried away many materials to assist in repairing the adjoining palace. 



54 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

* A structure so elegant, and withal so necessary an appendage to a 
Cathedral Church/' remarks Mr. Garbett, " was assuredly entitled to a 
better fate than it unhappily met with from opposite parties, who, as we see, 
anticipate by a rude despoliation the natural date of its decay and ruin." 
This Chapter House appears from its small remains to have been decagonal 
in plan; and though its lower division shews the architecture of the end of 
the thirteenth century, the upper part was as late as the reign of Henry VI. 
Part of the vestibule is built up in a modern house, and three sides of the 
lower division remain in ruins. 

Near the west end of the Cathedral Church, placed in its south aile, is 
an ancient Font, which consists of one piece of stone, cut into a sort of half 
globe, hollowed within, and adorned with sculpture on the exterior surface. 
Beneath so many semicircular arcades are figures of the twelve apostles. 
Round the rim is the Roman key ornament, the columns are twisted, and 
the whole rests on four lions. In this part of the design it resembles some 
of the architectural tombs of the Lombards. 

The present Chapter Room, or vestry, marked vv, in the Ground Plan, is 
au ancient part of the edifice. Within it is preserved an old Map of the 
world, which has long been regarded as a curiosity among antiquaries. The 
late Mr. Carter made a drawing of that portion called Great Britain, which 
was engraved for Gough's " British Topography," wherein that zealous 
antiquary has printed some remarks on its age and character. Strange to. 
say, the former members of the Chapter refused to allow any person to 
copy it for publication, and also neglected to furnish the public with any 
representation, or account of it. A better and more liberal feeling has 
operated on the present Chapter, who have allowed the map to be sent to 
London to be copied for the use of the " Royal Geographical Society." By 
a learned member of this very useful institution, I have reason to believe 
(being one of its council) that a memoir on, and engraving of this very 
curious specimen of early map drawing will be speedily published. Expecting 
this, I forbear to make further remarks here, as the subject is calculated to 
furnish an interesting topic for disquisition, and a few observations would 
neither be satisfactory nor do justice to the map. 



55 



SOME ACCOUNT OP THE MOST INTERESTING MONUMENTS, AND NOTICES OF DISTIN- 
GUISHED PERSONS INTERRED WITHIN THE CHURCH. 

It has been already remarked that the Church, which we are now reviewing, 
contains more monuments of Bishops, Deans, &c than perhaps any other 
Cathedral in England. The " Hereford Guide" tells us that it is the 
burial place of at least thirty-four prelates, the sites of whose interments 
have been ascertained, and of one other, John Le Briton, whose place of 
sepulture is unknown. John Tyler, Bishop of Landau", and Dean of this 
Cathedral, was interred here, and many other persons of eminence have 
been buried within the walls : but the sepulchral memorials of several have 
been destroyed, and others much mutilated. It is asserted in the " Guide," 
that when the Parliamentary soldiers occupied the city, in 1645, no less 
than one hundred and seventy brasses were taken away, and several of the 
monuments mutilated and defaced, but marks of some of them still remain \ 
Several brasses were likewise displaced when the Cathedral underwent its 
extensive repairs, subsequent to the fall of the west end in 1786, and no 
less than two tons weight was sold to a brazier. 



1 Though Hereford suffered materially in those barbarous, fanatical, psalm-singing wars, it 
is particularly noted for its loyalty. On the restoration of its privileges by Charles II, its motto 
was, " InvictcB fidelitatis prmmium." And Phillips, the encomiast of Herefordshire Cider, 
says, 

" Yet the cider land unstained with guilt ; 
The cider land, obsequious still to thrones, 
Abhorr'd such base disloyal deeds, and all 
Her pruning-hooks extended into swords, 
Undaunted to assist the trampled right 
Of monarchy." 



56 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

In the present volume I propose to take notice of the most material still 
remaining in the Church, and point out their respective situations by 
references to the Ground Plan. 

In the south aile of the nave, beneath one of the windows (No. 1), is a 
tomb to the memory of Sir Richard Pembridge, Knight of the Garter, who 
died in 1375. On an altar-shaped monument is an effigy of the deceased, 
and on the sides and end are seven shields, charged with his arms, &c. : it 
was removed to this place from the Grey Friars monastery. East of this, 
under a pointed arch in the wall (No. 2), is a stone effigy, erroneously said to 
represent Bishop Athelstan ; and near it, at No. 3, is another niche, with 
the remnant of a tomb, ascribed to Bishop Walter, and noted in the Guide 
as " the most ancient monument in the Cathedral." 

Inserted in the wall of the north aile of the nave (No. 4) is a handsome 
monument to Bishop Booth, whose effigy rests on an altar tomb, pontifically 
robed, which was painted and gilt ; there are two angels seated at the head 
of the statue. Attached to the sides of the tomb, and in the spandrils of 
the arch, are twelve shields of arms ; viz. those of Ethelbert, the See, the 
Deanery, Booth's. This monument was painted and gilt, and is adorned 
with an ogee arch, having bold and rich crockets, and an elaborate finial. 

Following the order of numbers on the Plan, we next examine the 
sepulchral memorials in the north transept, called St. Catherine's aile : 
No. 5 points out the situation of an old monument inserted in the wall, 
which is represented in Plate xii. It consists of an arched recess, and 
contains a coffin-shaped tomb, supporting the effigy of a Bishop in pontifical 
robes. This commemorates Thomas Charlton. A view of it is engraved in 
Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. i. p. 97. In the eastern aile of this 
transept is the most interesting antient tomb, or rather shrine, in the Church. 
It is said to enclose the bones, or certain relics of the sainted Cantelupe, of 
whom we have already recorded some particulars. The annexed engraving, 
Plate xiv., supersedes the necessity of description, excepting to remark that 
one side of the shrine, with its six niches and mail-clad knights, is enclosed 
by a pew, and thus shut out from sight. The execution of the sculpture, in 
the armour and the varied attitudes of the figures, and the animals under 






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MONUMENTS. 57 

their feet, the foliage in the spandrels of the arches, and the capitals of the 
columns are all beautiful and admirable. In the diversified expression and 
character of the figures, and the fancy displayed in the whole design, we 
recognise the hand of a skilful and experienced artist : and had this relic of 
monastic superstition been met with among the ruins of some classical 
building of Italy, its beauties would have been proclaimed by all the 
connoisseurs and cognoscenti of that fanned country. It has been already 
remarked that the shrine was made, and the bones transferred to this spot, 
about five years after the saint's decease, and it is probable that the transept 
was designed and erected at the same time, to give additional effect and 
importance to the event. Mr. Duncumb describes the tomb of " freestone," 
and Mr. Gough calls it " red stone ;" but I believe that it consists of Purbeck 
marble, a stone of greyish colour, abounding with shells. It is, however, 
absurdly coated with white paint, and thereby appears like common board. 
In Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. i. p. 62, is a short account of 
this shrine, accompanied by an engraving, from a drawing by Mr. Carter. 
On a gravestone, in this transept, is a long Latin inscription to the memory 
of John Philips, author of the poem entitled " Cider," which was once 
popular, but is now almost obsolete. He died in February, 1708, at the 
age of thirty-two. 

Against the north wall is a bust of Bishop Field, under a canopy. 
Between the ailes of this transept and the choir, is a handsome monument 
to the memory of Bishop Aquablanca (No. 7). It consists of columns, 
three open arches, with canopies covering and enclosing an effigy of the 
prelate. Near this monument, resting on the floor, is an effigy on a coffin 
tomb, to the memory of Dean Aquablanca, nephew of the Bishop. 

Against the north wall of the north aile of the choir (No. 8), is a 
monumental memorial ascribed to Bishop Mapenore, with his effigy ; nearly 
opposite to which (No. 9) is another old monument, said to cover the grave 
of Bishop Bennet. At 10 is an effigy, on a coffin tomb, for Bishop Clive ; 
near which is a door-way (3) to the once splendid monumental and chantry 
chapel of Bishop Stanbury. The plan of this is shewn (1) in the Ground 
Plan, Plate i., and an interior view, with representations of its numerous 

i 



58 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

shields, most of which are allusive to our Saviour and to saints, are 
engraved in Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," vol. ii. p. 240. At the 
time Mr. Gough wrote his account, he states that " this chapel is used as a 
vestry for the churchwardens, and not shewn by the vergers." It is now 
certainly unoccupied, but in a dirty, neglected condition. At the east end 
was an altar, to the right of which, in a niche of the wall, is a coffin tomb, 
supporting the effigy of a Bishop, of fine proportions, with a crozier in the 
left hand. The whole interior of the chapel is covered with tracery and 
panelling, as is the groined ceiling, which resembles in style that of King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge. On the north wall of the choir is a long 
inscription to Stanbury, whence some have supposed that he was buried 
near the altar ; and Willis thinks that the effigy in the chapel is intended to 
represent some other Bishop, but this conjecture seems very improbable. 
At the west end of the chapel are the arms of Canterbury, Hereford, and 
Stanbury. 

On the outside of this chapel, in the aile (No. 12), is an effigy beneath a 
pointed niche in the wall, with an inscription to Bishop Lozing, but it is not 
likely that such a distinguished prelate and builder would have been interred 
in that situation. Indeed it may be remarked, in this place, that four or 
five of the effigies of Bishops, with the niches in which they are placed, and 
the accompanying inscriptions, were apparently all made at one time, and 
subsequent to the decease of the respective persons. 

Nearly opposite, beneath the eastern arch of this aile, is a very handsome 
alabaster altar tomb (No. 11), sustaining a beautiful effigy, and adorned with 
several small statues in niches, all of the same material. This monument is 
variously ascribed, as it has no inscription to intimate the name of the 
person for whom it was intended. Willis and Duncumb consider that it 
belongs to Bishop Stanbury. There are eleven statues on the outside, two 
at the feet, and the verger states that there are other figures on the side, 
towards the altar. The shields on them would most likely enable us to 
appropriate the monument to its proper Bishop. 

In the north side of the eastern transept are two old tombs at 13 and 14, 
respectively assigned to Bishops Swinford and Godwin, both much muti- 



MONUMENTS. 59 

lated. Against the eastern wall, at 15, is a large, clumsy monument to 
Bishop Westfaylinq, with his effigy reclining on one side. 

The Lady Chapel, now the library, contains some ancient memorials 
worthy of particular notice. No. 17 is the site of the very curious and 
interesting monument represented in Plate xv. and generally attributed to a 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford. An effigy of the deceased is placed 
on a ledge, in a square recess, clad in chain and plate armour, with long 
spurs, a small helmet, and a dog at his feet. The frame of the tomb is 
adorned with rosettes and panelled buttresses, with a canopy of open trefoil 
arched mouldings above, and panelling below. It is surmounted by an open 
screen of elaborate and exquisite workmanship, in which are two small 
statues of females, seated, and apparently offering incense. The heads are 
gone. Duncumb describes two shields of arms as attached to the tomb. 
In a niche to the east (see Plate vin.) at No. 18, is an effigy of a female, 
said to be that of the wife of the Earl. There is probably some error in 
ascribing these monuments to Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and his Countess ; 
for, on referring to the account of that family in Dugdale's "Baronage," 
I do not find that either of them was buried here, or had any immediate 
connexion with the Cathedral. The design of the screen of the monument, 
and of the two effigies, are of different ages. There were eight or nine 
Humphrey Bohuns. Mr. Gough, in " Sepulchral Monuments," says that the 
arms indicate the man to be a Bohun, but not an earl of Hereford. 

At the south-east angle of this chapel (No. 19) is a fragment of a statue, 
which Mr. Duncumb describes as K a lady wearing a coronet," but which 
other antiquaries consider to be that of St. Ethelbert, taken from a pedestal 
near the high altar, where Bishop Mayo ordered by his will that his own 
monument should be erected. Against the south wall, near the west end of 
the chapel, is a monument, in a niche, to Dean Berew, or Borew, whose effigy 
is placed on a slab beneath a pointed arch. Small figures of boars, with sprigs 
of rue, are sculptured in a cavetto moulding round the arch. Near this, on 
the floor, are monumental slabs, with fragments of brasses, &c. which 
covered the graves of persons who were interred here. (See Figures 38, 
39, 40, 41, 42.) One of these commemorated Richard de la Marr, and his 



60 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

lady, Isabella, who died respectively in 1435 and 1421. Another was to 
Dean Harold : 1393. 

In the south wing of the eastern transept are the following monuments 
(No. 21) — Bishop Lewis Charlton, a mutilated effigy of whom on a dilapi- 
dated tomb, with shields of arms, and an inscription, commemorate his 
name and sepulture 2 . Near it, at 22, is a large mass of marble and stone, 
painted, &c. in the bad taste of 1636, to the memory of Bishop Coke. At 
the southern extremity are tombs to Bishop Ltndsell (23), Dean Harvey (24), 
and Dean Chandler adjoining. 

The south aile of the cboir is adorned with a very handsome monument 
(at 25), to Bishop Mayo, whose effigy, in freestone on an altar tomb of the 
same, and surmounted by a canopy of unusual and fine design, are repre- 
sented in the annexed engraving (See Plate xm.) The monuments, Nos. 26, 
27, 30, and 31, are indicated in the Wood Cut in the title page. Beneath 
four pointed arches, on slabs, are four effigies said to represent Bishops 
De Vere, Foliot, Betun, and Melun. On the floor is a fine, large, 
inlaid brass, almost the only relic of the sort in the church, for Dean 
Frowcester (37). The place of sepulture of Bishop Raynelm is pointed 
out by No. 28. 

In the south transept are three monuments pointed out by figures 32, 
33, 34. The first refers to a large altar tomb to Alexander Denton and his 
lady, whose effigies repose on a slab of alabaster. Willis states that Denton 
was buried at Hillesdon, in Buckinghamshire, in 1576. 

Beneath the great south window in the wall is a monument to Bishop 
Trevenant, who most probably rebuilt that end of the church. Against the 
west wall (No. 34), is a mural slab to the memory of Dean Tvler, who 
was also Bishop of Landaff. 

The Choir has fifty stalls for the members of the Cathedral, a pulpit, and 
a throne. Beneath the seats of the stalls are various carvings, some of which 
are executed with much spirit ; and others distinguished for the grotesque 
and ludicrous figures represented. The great and inappropriate screen, 

5 A view and account of this tomb are given in Gough's " Sep. Mon." vol. i. PI. xlvii. 



BISHOPS' PALACES. 61 

which is returned on the north and south sides, has been already noticed. 
Within the last few years, the east window has been filled with painted 
glass : being a copy from a picture by Mr. West, of the Last Supper. 

The Choir contains several monuments, some of which are very imposing 
in materials and workmanship, though not very attractive as objects of art 
or antiquity. No. 29 is the site of the ponderous mass of marble raised to 
the memory of Bishop Bisse and the Countess op Plymouth, his lady. 
When this monument was raised, another for Bishop Braoes, with his 
effigy, was removed to the opposite side of the choir. 

Bishops Butler, Beauclerk, Humphreys, Crofts, and Trellick were 
interred in the choir, near the altar, where flat stones cover their remains. 



The following Notices of the Palaces of the Bishops of this See are given 
in Leland's Itinerary, vol. viii. p. 54, ed. 1744: — 

PALATIA EP1SCOPI HEREFORDEM. 

Sugwas a slite Shot, or more, of Wy Ryver on the lifte Ripe of it 2. Miles 
dim. It stondithe in the Roots of an Hillet, and a Park by it now without 
Dere. — Colwel Park longed to the Byshope of Hereford by * Malvern Chace, 
and a Pece of a Malvern is the Byshops, fro the Crest of the Hill, as it 
aperithe by a Dyche. 

Bosberie x. Miles by North Est from Hereford at the Head of Ledon 
Reveret, and thereby is a place longginge to Seint John's in London caulled 
Upledon. 

Gul. Ver. episcopus, ut patet ex ejus a epitaphio, multa egregia construxit 
cedijicia. 

Whitburne 7. Miles from Worcester. It is in the very extreme Parte of 
Herefordesldre on the righte banke of Temde Ryver. 

» Mai venn MS. " Epitaphia MS. 



62 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

Johannes Films Alani, Dominus de Arundel, cepit Byssops Castell, et 
constabulurium P castrifide data interfecit anno regni 45. Henrici 3. et r inde 
tenuit pene 6. annis. 

There was a faire Mansion Place for the Byshope at Ledbryi xn. Miles 
by Est North Est from Hereford, and vn, Myles or more from Rosse. This 
Hous is all in Ruyne. The convict Prison for the Byshope of Hertford was 
at Rosse, now at Hereford 

Rosse at the veri West End of the Paroche Churche Yarde at Rosse, 
now in clene Ruynes. 

By shops Castle a 23. Miles by North Northe West from Hereford in 
Shropshire. — It is xn. Miles from Shroivsbirie. 

Prestebyri 5. Miles from Glocester hard by Clife. Ther is a Parke 
hard by Prestebyri. 

Joannes le Breton episcopns Hereforden. fuit aliquanto tempore vice- 
comes Hereford : cuslos maner : de Abergeveney, et trium castrorum. 

Breton episcopus custos Garderobe domini Q regis. 

Kilpek Castelle a 5. Mils from Hereford by Southe West very nigh 
Worm Brooke. 

Some Ruines of the Waulls yet stonde. Ther was a Priorie of Blake 
Monks suppressed in Thomas Spofford's Byshope of HerforcCs time, and 
clerly united to Glocester. 

f> Cast. MS. y In detinuit MS. a Rege MS. 



63 



A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE 

3St!5i)0pjS! of liertfortr, 

WITH THE CONTEMPORARY KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



[For the list of Bishops 
previously to Ethelstan, 
vide pages 3, 4, 5.] 

Ethelstan 



Leofgar , 

See vacant four years. 

Aldred (in trust) 

Walter of Lorraine .... 
Robert Lozing 

Gerard 



Roger Lardarius 

Raynelm, or Raynald 

Geoffry de Clive 

Richard de Capella 

Robert de Betun 

Gilbert Foliot 

Robert de Melun 

See vacant seven years. 

Robert Foliot 

William de Vere 

Egidius, or Giles de ) 

Bruse, or Braoes . . . . j 

Hugh de Mapenore 

Hugh Foliot 

Ralph de Maydenstan 

Peter de Aquablanca 

John Breton, LL.D 

Thomas Cantelupe 

Richard de Swinford 

Adam de Orlton, LL.D. . . 
Thomas Charlton,LL.D.. . 

John Trellick, D. D 

Lewis Charlton, S.T. P... 
Wm. Courteney, LL. D. . . 

John Gilbert 

John Trevenant , 

Robert Mascall 



Consecrated or Installed. 



Supp. 



1012 
1056 



Con 1060 

Con.... Dec. 29, 1079 



1095 

Not consecrated. 

(Appointed 1101") 

(Con. Aug. SO, 1 107J 
Con.. ..Dec. 26, 1115 

Con Jan. 16, 1121 

Con. ..June 19, 1131 
Con. . . Sept 5, 1149 
Con...Dee.22,1163 2 



Con. 
Con. 



• Oct. 4, 1174 
.Oct. 6, 1186 



Con.. .Sept. 24, 1200 

Con. . . Dec. 6, 1216 
Con. . .. Nov. 1, 1219 

Con. .. Nov. 12, 1234 



Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 
Con. 



..Dec. 23, 
. . June 3, 
. . Sept. 8, 
. March 7, 
.Sept. 12, 
. Oct. 18, 
..June 24, 
..Oct. 25, 



Con. 
Con. 



.Sept. 12, 
. June 20, 

. ..July 2, 1404 



1240 
1269 
1275 
1283 
1317 
1327 
1344 
1361 
1369 
1375 
1389 



Died or Translated. 



Died..Feb.l0,1055 I 
Killed . June 16, 1056 

S York 1060 ) 

I D.Sept. 11,1069 \ 

Died 1079 

Died . .June 26, 1095 

J York 1095 

(Died 1101 

Died .. Oct. 28, 1115 

Died.... Feb. 3,1119 
Died.. Aug. 15, 1127 
Died.. April 22, 1148 

To London 1162 

Died.. March 4, 1167 

Died . . May 9, 1186 
Died .. Dec. 24, 1199 

Died... Nov. 5, 1215 

Died ....April, 1219 
Died ..July 26, 1234 

5ResignedDec.l7, j 
1239. [ 

(.Died 1244 } 

Died.. Nov. 27, 1268 

Died April, 1275 

Died.. Aug. 25, 1282 
Died March 15, 1316 

Worcester 1327 

Died... Jan. 11, 1343 

Died Feb. 1360 

Died... May 23, 1369 
London Sept.12, 1375 

St. David's 1389 

Died .. 1403 or 1404 

Died.. Dec. 22, 1416 



Kings. 





< Ethelred II. to 
\ Ed. Confessor. 


— 


Edw. Confessor. 


York 


jEd.Con. Harold 
(II. and Wm. I. 










William I. 


York 


William I. 




Henry I. 




Henry I. 




Henry I. 




Henry I. 


.... 


Stephen. 




Henry II. 




Henry II. 




Henry II. 




John. 




Henry III. 




Henry III. 




Henry III. 




Henry III. 


Hereford (supp) . 


Henry III. 




Edward I. 




Edward I. 




Edward II. 




Edward III. 


Hereford (supp.) 


Edward HI. 




Edward III. 




Edward III. 


Haverfordwest. . . 


Edward III. 




Richard II. 


C White Friars, } 
( London . . . . j 


Henry IV. 



1 Leland says 1081 ; Antiq. of Cath. says 1050. 



2 Antiq. of Cath. says Jan. II, 1102 ; Willis says May 22, 1104. 



64 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



Edmund Lacy, D.D. 



Thomas Polton, LL.B... 



Thomas Spofford 

Rich. Beauchamp, LL. D. 
Richard Butler, or Bolers . 

John Stanbury 

Thomas Milling, S.T. P... 

Edmund Audley 

Adrian de Castello 

Richard Mayew, S.T.P... 
Charles Booth, LL. D. .. . 

Edward Fox, S.T.P 

Edmund Bonner, LL.D.. . 

John Skyp 

John Harley 

Robt. Purfey, or Warton. . 

Thomas Reynolds 

John Scory, S.T.P 

Herb. Westfayling, D.D.. . 

Robert Bennett, D. D 

Francis Godwin, D.D. 

William Juxon, S.T. P.. . 

Augustine Lindsell.S.T.P. 

Matthew Wren, D. D 

Theophilus Field, D.D... 

George Coke 

See vacant fourteen years. 

Nicholas Monk 

Herbert Croft 



Gilbert Ironside, D. D... . 

Humphrey Humphreys, / 

D.D S 

Philip Bisse, D.D 



Ben. Hoadley, D. D. 



Hon. H. Egerton, D.D.. 
Lord James Beauclerk... . 

Hon. John Harley, D.D. . . 

John Butler 

Foliot Herbert Walker ) 
(Jornewall, D.D > 

John Luxmore, D. D 



Consecrated or Installed. 



Con. ..April 18, 1417 
Con Nov. 9, 1420 



George Isaac Hunting- i 
ford, D.D \ 



Nov. 17, 1422 

Con Feb. 9, 1449 

Con Feb. 4, 1451 

Enth.. April 25, 1453 
App. ..Aug. 15, 1474 
( From Rochester, } 
\ Dec. 26, 1492. S 

Con 1502 

Con Oct. 1504 

Con.. .Nov. 30, 1516 

Con... Sept. 26, 1535 

Elected Nov. 27, 1538 

Con. .. Nov. 23, 1539 

Con. . . May 26, 1553 

Con... April 24, 1554 

Not consecrated 

Con. .. July 20, 1559 
Con. ..'Dec. 12, 1585 

Con Feb. 20, 1602 

Con. ...Nov. 28, 1617 
\ Trans, to London / 
\ before Con. . . . \ 
Con. March 24, 1633 

Con. ..March 8, 1635 

Con... Dec. 23, 1635 
Con July 2, 1636 

Con. . . Jan. 13, 1661 
Con. .. . Feb. 9, 1662 

Con. ..July 29, 1691 

Con Dec. 2, 1701 

Enth. .Sept. 17, 1713 

Con 1721 

Con. . .. Feb. 2, 1724 
Con. . .June 26, 1746 

Con Nov. 1787 

Con 1788 

Con Jan. 1803 

Con July 1808 

Con July 5, 1815 



Died or Translated. 



< Exeter 1420 J 

( D. May 23, 1455 S 
( Chichester 1422 j 
(D.Aug. 23,1433) 
Resigned 1448 

Salisbury Aug.l 4,1 450 
Lichfield, &c... 1453 
Died.. May 11, 1474 

Died 1492 

S Salisbury . . 1 502 \ 
I D.Aug. 23, 1525 ] 
Bath and Wells, 1504 
Died.. April 18,1516 
Died ...May 5,1535 

Died ...May 8, 1538 

S London 1539 3 

* D. Sept. 5, 1569 S 

Died 1552 

( Deprived . . 1554 

\ Died 1557 

Died.. Sept. 22, 1557 
Died.. Nov. 24, 1559 
Died ..June 26, 1585 
Died.. March 1, 1601 
Died .. Oct. 25, 1617 
Died April, 1633 



Died ..Nov. 6, 1634. 
( Norwich .. 1636) 

I Ely 1638 } 

( D.April 24, 1667 ) 
Died ...June 2, 1636 
Died ..Dec. 10,1646 

Died.. Dec. 17, 1661 
Died.. May 18, 1691 

Died.. Aug. 27, 1701 

Died . .Nov. 20, 1712 

Died... Sept. 5, 1721 

I Salisbury y 

< Winchester . . . . > 

{Died 1761 ) 

Died 1746 

Died ..Oct. 19, 1787 

Died ...Jan. 7, 1788 

Died.. Dec. 10, 1802 

To Worcester . . 1 808 

i To St. Asaph, ) 
( June, 1815 ) 



Exeter . 
Rome . 



)St. Mary's Ab-) 
\ bey, York..) 



Salisbury 
Lichfield . . . 
Hereford . . . 
Westminster 

Salisbury . . 



Hereford 

Hereford 

(S. Mary Mont-} 
\ halt, Lond... ( 
\ St. George's, ] 
) Southwark . < 
London 



Hereford 



Whitbourn . 
Hereford . . 
Hereford . . 
Whitbourn 



Hereford . . , 
Cambridge 



Hereford 



Westminster. . . . 

Hereford 

f St. Mary So- j 

\ merset, Lond. } 

Hereford 

Hereford 

Winchester 



Kings. 



Hereford 

! Brampton ) 
Bryan ... \ 
Hereford 



Henry V. 
Henry V. 

Henry V. 

Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Edward IV. 

Henry VII. 

Henry VII. 
Henry VII. 
Henry VIII. 

Henry VIII. 

Henry VIII. 

Henry VIII. 
(Edw.VI.&VII. 

)Mary. 
Mary. 

Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
James I. 



Charles I. 

Charles I. 

Charles I. 
Charles I. 

Charles IF. 
Charles II. 

Wm. and Mary. 

William III. 
Anne. 

George I. 

George I. 
George II. & III. 

George III. 

George III. 

George III. 

George III. 

George III. 



65 



A CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE 

Srauss of &ttt forfcu 

WITH BIOGRAPHICAL MEMORANDA. 

The ensuing List of the Names, Dates of Election, &c. of the Deans of Hereford has been derived from the 
published Accounts in Le Neve's "Fasti Ecclesie," who acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Reynolds, 
" sometime Registrary of Hereford," Willis's " Survey of the Cathedrals," and various miscellaneous works. 
Though the Author has endeavoured to make it complete and correct, and has attempted to reconcile, or at 
least improve upon, the lists of each of the authors here specified, he is aware of defects and omissions which 
he has not the means of remedying. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 



Ralph 1 

Geffrey, or Geoffrey 

Ralph 2 

Geffrey, or Geoffrey. 

Richard 

Hugh de Breuse 3 

Hugh de M apenore 4 . . . 

Henry 

Thomas de Bosbury . . . . 
Ralph de Maideston 5 . . . , 

Stephen de Thorne 

Ancellinus, or Amselm 6 . 
Giles de Avenbury. ..*.., 
John de Aquablanca 7 . . , 
Stephen de Ledbury 8 . . . , 
Thomas de Trellick 9 . . . . 
William de Birmingham . 
John de Middleton 10 



Elected, &c 



Held it 1140 

1150 

1157 

1173 

about 1187 

1202 

1203 

Consecrated Jan. 15, 1216 

about 1218 

Elected . . Dec. 14, 1231 
Elect, about Oct. 28, 1234 

about 1247 

Elected 1271 

about 1278 

Elected 1320 

Elected 1352 

1363 



Died or removed. 



Deposed by Bishop Betun. 

Bishop of Hereford 1216 

Died Sept. 26, 1231 

Bishop of Hereford 1234 

Died ... 13 C. Oct. 1277 or 1278 

Died 1320 

Died 1352 

Dean of St. Paul's 1363 

Living in 1369 

Deprived about 1280 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMORANDA OF THE DEANS. 

1 Some writers place John de Middleton as the first Dean, whilst others state that Ralph was constituted by 
Bishop Betun, who shortly after deposed him. Ang. Sac. vol. ii. p. 312. He appears as witness to Will. Devereuis 
grant to Croyland in the time of King Stephen. Antiquities of the Cath. 223, and Mon. Anglic. 

2 A second Ralph is given in the lists, but it is not clear that he is a different person to the first Dean. In the 
Antiquities of Hereford he is described as opposing Bishop Betun, who was dead before this Dean was appointed. 

3 Le Neve places Breuse as second Dean, but he occurs as sixth in Willis's list, and third in "The Antiquities." 
Giles de Breuse was Bishop at the same time, and probably his brother. 

4 Giraldus tells us that this Dean was proposed for the See of St. David's in 1203. In 1216 he was advanced from 
the Deanery to the Bishopric. 

5 See Account of Bishops, p. 14. 

6 According to Willis and Dugdale, he held this Deanery in 1247 and 1262. In "The Antiquities" he is called 
Antellinus, with the date of 1256. 

7 He was nephew of Bishop Aquablanca. In his will he directed his body to he interred near the Bishop's in the 
north aile. His efBgy, in the Dean's habit, lies on a slab. 

8 Dugdale gives the dates of 1341 and 1348 ; the Antiquities, 1331 ; and Willis, as above. He was Prebendary 
of Bullinghope. 

9 Trellick was made Bishop of Rochester in 1364. 

10 Le Neve and Dugdale erroneously place Middleton as the first Dean. Willis. And his name occurs as the 
second in "The Antiquities." 

K 



66 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



No. 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



DEANS. 



Elected, &c. 



Died or removed. 



John Harold a 

John Prophet 

Thomas Felde, LL. D. 12 . .. 

John Stanwey 

Henry Shelford 

John Berew 13 

John ap Richard 

Richard Pede, LL. D 

Thomas Chandeler, D. D. 14 

Oliver King, LL. D. 15 

John Harvey l6 

Reginald West 

Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal u 
Edmund Frovrcester,S.T.P. 18 
Galmaliel Clifton, LL. D. J 9. . 
Hugh Coren, or Curwyn 20 . . 
Edmund Daniel, A. M.- 1 .. 

John Ellis, M. A 

John Watkins, A. M. 22 . . . . 
Charles Langford, D.D. 23 .. 
Edmund Doughtie, A. M. . . 
Richard Montague, D. D. Si 



Installed 1380 

Installed . . Nov. 7, 1393 
Installed. .April 20, 1407 

1419 

Installed. .Sept. 26, 1434 

Elected 1445 or 1446 

Elected . . June 24, 1462 
Installed . . March 8, 1462 
Installed March 26, 1481 
Installed March 23, 1490 
Installed about July, 1491 

Elected aboutloOl 

Elected 1512 

Installed .. Jan. 27, 1512 
Installed.. Aug. 14, 1530 
Installed . . . June 1, 154L 
. July 3, 1558 
Feb. 18, 1559 
Nominated. .Jan. 9, 1576 
Installed . . April 5, 1593 
Installed. .Dec. 2», 1607 
Installed . . Dec. 9, 1616 



Installed 
Installed 



Died Oct. 19, 1393 

Dean of York 1407 

Died July, 1419 

Died Aug. 9, 1434 

Died 1445 or 1446 

Died April 6, 1462 

Deprived June 26, 1462 

Died 1480 

Died Nov. 2, 1490 

Resigned 1491 

Died about April, 1500 

Resigned 1512 

Resigned Dec. 3, 1512 

Died May 16, 1529 

Died April 29, 1541 

Archbishop of Dublin 1555 

Deprived 1559 

Died about 1576 

Resigned 1593 

Died Oct. 28, 1607 

Died 1616 

Resigned 1617 



" He was buried in the Cathedral, where the following fragment of an inscription remained in Willis's time — 
" De Salme Mercy m.ccc.lxxxxiii." Willis's date is 1493. 

" By will he directed his body to be interred in the Church of Maidstone ; that forty marks be given to the Cathedral 
of Hereford, and ten pounds towards the fabric of Leighton Buzzard Church. — Willis. 

13 This Dean was buried in the Lady Chapel, where an effigy in the south wall, under an arch, with figures of 
hoars, and the rue-leaf, are said to commemorate him. 

14 His remains were interred in the Cathedral, where a monument with an efiigy and an inscription remain. 

14 He was principal secretary to Henry VII. — Bishop of Exeter in 1492 — transferred to Bath and Wells, 149.5. 
He pulled down and began to rebuild Bath Abbey Church, and died June 24, 1509. He was buried in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, where there is an inscription to his memory. See History of Bath Abbey Church ; also History of 
Wells Cathedral. 

16 By will he appointed to he buried in the Cathedral, before St. Margaret's Altar, and a chantry to be erected to 
his memory. Willis supposes the effigy in the upper end of the south aile to be his. 

17 See Accounts of Wells Cathedral and York Cathedral. 

" He was Canon and Prebendary of Barton Colwalle — interred in the upper end of the south aile. His monument 
of marble contains his "portraiture lying under a canopy, with figures of six saints engraved on two pillars which 
support it." Antiquities of Cath. p. 231. Willis gives a long inscription from his gravestone. 

19 Canon of Windsor and York, and Rector of West Idesley, in the county of Berks ; buried in the Cathedral. In 
his will " he directed a solemn dirge to be kept for him in the Cathedral." Willis, p. 535. 

su See some account of this Dean in the History, &c. of Oxford Cathedral, p. 25. 

-' Prebendary of Worcester. In 1559 he was deprived of this Deanery by Queen Elizabeth. Retired to Rome, 
where he died Oct. 13, 1576. and was buried in the English Collegiate Chapel of St. Thomas a Becket. Willis gives 
a copy of the inscription on his monument at Rome. 

52 Le Neve says he was installed March 13, 1574. Antiquities of Cath. say March 13, 1557. He died May, 1594. 

53 Prebendary of Bristol, and Rector of Stokehammond, Bucks. When he died he was Prebendary of Pratm 
Minus, Vicar of Lugwarden, and Rector of Eastham. Buried in the Cathedral. Willis. 

24 Exchanged the Deanery for the Archdeaconry of Hereford. Willis. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF DEANS. 



67 



No. 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
HO 
61 



DEANS. 



Silvanus Griffith, S. T. P. = 5 
Oliver Lloyd, LL. D. s6 . . . . 
Daniel Price, S. T. P. 27 . . . 
John Richardson, D. D. 28 . . 
Jonathan Brown, S.T.P. ^ 

Herbert Croft, D.D 

Thomas Hodges, D. D. 30 . . 
George Benson, S. T. P. 31 . . 

John Tyler, D. D. 32 

Robert Clavering 33 

John Harris 3i 

Edward Cressett, M. A. 35 . . 

Edmund Castle, D. D 

John Egerton, B. L. L. 36 ... 

Francis Webber, D.D 

Nathan Wetherell, D. D. 37 .. 
William Leigh, LL. D. 38 . . . 
George Gretton, D. D. 3 9. . . 
Robert James Carr, D. D. 40 . 

Edward Mellish, A.M 

Edward Grey, D.D 



Elected, &c. 



Installed. .Sept. 16, 1617 



Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed . 
Installed. 
Installed. 
Installed. 
Installed., 
Installed . 
Installed . 
Installed 
Installed . 



Dec. 16, 
. Oct. 27, 



,Dec. 10, 
, Sept. 10, 
, Sept. 27, 

, May 16, 
, . Oct. 8, 
.March 2, 
• Aug. 7, 
. July 30, 
. Nov. 9, 
March 4, 
..April 5, 
. .. . Aug. 
. July 8, 



1623 
1631 
1636 
1644 
1661 
1672 
1692 
1724 
1729 
1736 
1748 
1750 
1756 
1771 
1808 
1809 
1820 
1827 
1831 



Died or removed. 



Died Nov. 1623 

Died 1625 

Died Sept. 23, 1631 

Died. 1636 

Died Dec. 1, 1643 

Bishop of Hereford 1661 

Died Aug. 22, 1672 

Died Aug. 24, 1692 

Bishop of Landaff 1706 

Bishop of Landaff 1724 

Bishop of Landaff 1730 

Bishop of Landaff 1748 

Bishop of Bangor 1756 

Died 1771 

Died 1808 

Died 1809 

Died July 29, 1820 

Bishop of Chichester 1827 

Died Dec. 1830 

Now living. 



25 Not mentioned in Antiquities of Cath. And Wood, in Athen. Oxon. names George Carleton as Dean in 1617. 

26 Not mentioned in Willis, or Le Neve, but described in The Antiquities as having exchanged with Montague. See 
Wood's Athena? Oxon. edit. 1815. vol. iii. col. 878. He was Chancellor of Hereford, in 1615 Canon of Windsor, 
which he exchanged with Montague for this Deanery. Died in Hereford. Antiq. of Cath. 

27 Chaplain to Prince Henry, afterwards to James I., then to Charles I., Canon Residentiary of Hereford, Rector 
of Worthing in Shropshire, and of Lanteglos, Cornwall, and Justice of the Peace. Died at Worthing near Cause 
Castle, Salop, and was buried there. Willis gives a long inscription from his tomb. Survey, i. 536. 

58 Le Neve says installed 1634, also Antiq. of Cath. In his will he gave five pounds to the Cathedral, and six 
pounds to the poor of Hereford City, &c. 

29 Prebend of Westminster, Minister of St. Faith's, London, in 1633, and Rector of Hertingfordbury, co. Herts, 
where he was buried. Willis. 

30 Rector of Kensington, was a celebrated preacher before Parliament, one of the Assembly of Divines, and a 
Covenanter ; one of the clergymen who attended tlie Earl of Holland on the scaffold, to whom he was distantly related ; 
Rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill, in 1662 ; buried at Kensington, where there is a gravestone to his memory. Faulkner's 
History, &;c. of Kensington, p. 166. ; Willis. 

31 Prebendary of Worcester, Archdeacon of Hereford, Prebendary of Wellington. Ant. of Cath. He was Dean of 
Hereford, Master of Ledbury Hospital, and Rector of Cradley in Herefordshire. Buried near the Altar at Hereford 
Cathedral. Wood's Fasti Oxon. and Antiquities of the Cath. 136. 

32 Prebendary of Bartonsham, and Vicar of St. Peter's in Hereford ; held the Deanery of Hereford in commendam, 
with the Bishopric of Landaff. Antiquities of the Cath. 

33 See account of Peterborough Cathedral. 

34 Resigned the Deanery, 1736. 

35 Resigned the Deanery, 1748. 

36 Son of Bishop Egerton ; Bishop of Bangor, 1756 ; Lichfield, 1768 ; Durham, 1771 ; died, 1787.— See Account 
of Lichfield Cathedral. 

37 Head of University Coll. Oxford; Prebendary of Cublington; Died at Oxford. 

38 Never resided at the Deanery, but made considerable repairs to the Deanery House. 

39 Elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. 1776, M.A. 1779, D.D. 1791; promoted to this 
Deanery through the interest of the Earl of Lonsdale ; died at the Deanery House, aged sixty-seven. He was Vicar 
of Upton Bishop, near Ross, and Canon Residentiary of Hereford. Gent. Mag. 

,0 Resigned the Deanery, 1827. 



68 

A 

IU$t of 23oofc$, ©$$*££, antr Print*, 

WHICH HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED RELATING TO THE 

CATHEDRAL OF HEREFORD. 

WITH A LIST OF 

ENGRAVED PORTRAITS OF ITS BISHOPS. 

THIS LIST IS SUBJOINED TO GRATIFY THE BIBLIOGRAPHER, THE CRITICAL ANTIQUARY, AND THE ILLUSTRATOR; 
AS WELL AS TO SHEW, AT ONE VIEW, THE SOURCES WHENCE THE CONTENTS OF THE PRECEDING PAGES HAVE 
BEEN DERIVED, AND THE FULL TITLES OF THE WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE NOTES. 



MANUSCRIPTS, BOOKS, AND ESSAYS. 

The following notice from Bishop Nicholson's " Historical Library," edit. 1736", p. 130, contains 
some information respecting the library and archives: — 

" That there were anciently several good old Register Books belonging to this Cathedral, is 
beyond dispute. Sir H. Spelman 1 quotes one of them; and we have heard of several others 
besides that of Bishop 2 Booth. The library and archives here fell under the like misfortunes, 
during the ravage of our late days of usurpation, with those of other Cathedral Churches : being 
made a very improper prey to a fanatical and illiterate army of rebellious blockheads. Amongst 
these Silas Taylor was an officer of a more than ordinary fancy and respect for books and 
learning; and, having gotten part of the Bishop's Palace' in his possession, thought it was also 
convenient to seize as many of the Churches evidences and records, as he could possibly get into 
his clutches. With these (and many of the like kind from the church of Worcester) he troop'd off, 
upon the happy return of our old English government ; and near twenty years afterwards, dy'd with 
some of 'em in his possession at Harwich. His books and papers, together with the few other 
moveables he left behind him, fell into the hands of his creditors; from whom (if any care was 
taken to preserve them) it will now be a very difficult matter to retrieve them." 

In a volume printed in London in 1720, 8vo. is the following notice: — " In the public library 
at Oxford amongst Mr. Jones's IMS. is one in folio, on vellum, entitled ' Inquisitiones ct literal 
patentes ad Eceleri a m Herefordenscm pcrtiitentcs MSS. Jones XXI.' This was deposited in the 
library since the publication of Dr. Bernard's Catalogue. In a private hand is a Collection of the 
Monuments in the Cathedral Church, made by Mr. Dingley in 1680, which has preserved some 
few inscriptions ; but is remarkable for the fine draughts of monuments and the original characters 
in which the inscriptions are wrote." — Cough's Topography. A list of the same is given in the 
Appendix to " The Antiquities of the Cathedral Church," e've. 

" Rcgistrum (aroli Booth, Edv. Fox, ct Edm. Boneri Episcoporvm Hereford," ab A. D. 1516 
ad A. D. 1531) inclusive, MS. pergam. folio, nuper in bibl. Joannis Moore episc. Eliens. modo in 
bibl. publ. Cantab. 

In Bibl. Cotton MSS. Vitellius, E. ix. Adami Herefordcnsis episcopi quadam ad Joannem de 
rebus quibusdam et controcersiis ad ecclesiam suam spectantibus. Ibid. Faustina, B. ii. 33, 
appropriationcm ecclesice de Lugivarden decano et capitulo Hereford. 

Registrum pcrvetustum eccl. Cath. Hereford, temp. R. Ed. I. vol. ii. penes praehonorabilem 
Thomam vicecomitem Weymouth. 

In Bibl. Coll. Corp. Christi. Cant. MS. 120, p. 483, Consvetttdines et Statuta Ecclesice 
Hereford; p. 510, injunctions given by Queen Elizabeth's Visitors to the Dean and Chapter of 
Hereford. 

In the " Valor Ecclesiasticus," temp. Henry VIII. is a map of the Diocess of Hereford, and 
some account of the same. 

In the " Reports on the Public Reeords of the Kingdom," folio, 1800, published by authority 

1 Glossar. in voce Panama. 2 Hist. Episc. et Dec. Loodia. et Assav. 

" Atb. Oxod. vol. ii. p. 464. See new edition, vol. iii. col. 1175. 



LIST OF BOOKS, ESSAYS, AND PRINTS. 69 

of Parliament, is a return from the Registrar of the Cathedral Church and of the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford, respecting the records of this Cathedral. 

In the British Museum, are some MSS. relating to Hereford Cathedral, its monuments, &c. 
The following numbers in the Harleian Catalogue point them out :— Nos. 6149, 3048, 23d article 
has relation to De Bohun. — 4826, the Bishops of Hereford. — 4768, Family of Cantilupe. — 1430, 
5th Article, ditto. — 595, Episcopal Affairs. — 6303, Regulations respecting the Church of' 
Hereford. — 3740, Article 12, Disputes between the Dean and Prebendaries. 

" The Life and Gests of Sir Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford, and some time 
Chancellor of England. Extracted out of the authentic Records of his Canonization as to the 
most part. Anonymous, Matt. Paris, Capgrave, Harpsfleld, and others. Collected by R. S. 
(Qy. Surius) S. I. at Gaut. Small 8vo. 1674. Dedicated to the Duke of Tuscany." 

" Dr. Stukeley saw a book of no little bulk at St. Omer's, containing an account of his 
miracles." Gough's " Topography," vol. i. p. 412. 

" The History and Antiquities of the City and Cathedral Church of Hereford, containing an 
Account of all the Inscriptions, Epitaphs, &c. upon the Tombs, Monuments, and Gravestones; 
with Lists of the principal Dignitaries ; and an Appendix, consisting of several valuable original 
Papers," was published, if not, compiled by Dr. Rawlinson. London, 1717, 8vo. (By a notice, 
in p. 23, of " the present Lord Chancellor," Harcourt, it is presumed that the volume was printed 
in 1713, as he was Chancellor only that year.) The Appendix contains the obits of several 
benefactors to this Cathedral, transcribed from a folio MS. missal secundum usum Hereford, 
written about the reign of Edward III., and seventy-one charters or grants of lands to this 
church, from a Bodleian MS. and dated 1510. Some years after it came out it was attacked 
" in a most ungenerous manner by a member of this church, in a very warm and angry preface to 
a sermon preached in Landaff Cathedral, fathering it on Browne Willis, with some uncharitable 
reflections." In the account of this Church in his " Survey of the Cathedrals," &c. 1727, p. 500, 
Mr. Willis disclaims all concern in the book, and gives the author of the sermon a sharp 
castigation. 

The new edition of Dugdale's " Monasticon Anglicanum," vol. vi. by Caley, Ellis, and 
Bandinel, contains the following engravings, drawn and etched by J. Coney: — 1. Ground Plan 
of the Cathedral. — 2. View of the West End, copied from Hollar's print. — 3. North East View, 
and 4. An Interior View. The same volume contains some account of the Diocess, See, and 
Cathedral, notices of the Bishops and Deans, copies of the following deeds, &c. — No. 1. Historia 
de prima fundatione ejusdem, 1212. — 2. Carta regis Edwardi Confessoris, ib. — 3. Praedia 
Episcopatus Heref. temp. R. Willielmi I. ib. — 4. Carta R. Henrici I. donat Rad. de Simesi 
confirmans, 1215. — 5. C. Simonis de Cliffords, de Manerio de Hamne, ib. — 6. C. Radulhi 
Heref. episcopi dec. et capitulo vi. ib. — 7. C. Walteri de Lascy facta priori et conv. de 
Crassewell, 1216. — 8. C. Prioris de Crassewell, et ejusdem loci fratrum, ib. — 9. De dono et 
concessionibus Petri de Aquablanca Herefordensis episcopi, ib. — 10. Nomina maneriorum olim 
eccl. Cathedr. Heref. spectantium, ib. — 11. Carta Will. d'Eureus de Capella de putela, ib. — 
12. Finis lavatus de advocatione eccl. de Putelego, 1217. — 13. Confirmatio Radulfi Murdac, ib. 

Tanner's" Notitia Monastica" contains references to several authorities relating to the See 
and Diocess. 

Willis's " History of the Mitred Abbeys," 8vo. 1719, contains measurements of the Cathedral, 
with names of Bishops buried within it. 

In Stukeley's " Itinerarium Curiosum," fol. 1724, Iter. 4, p. 67, is an account of Cantilupe's 
shrine, the Chapter House, Lady Chapel, and Library. 

Lord John Scudamore 's Benefactions to this Cathedral, are recorded in Gibson's "View of 
Door and Holm Lacy." London, 1727, 4ta. 

In Wilkius's " Concilia Magna Britannia, " fol. 1737, vol. i. p. 761, Prseceptum Regis 
Henrici HI. episcopo Herefardensi contra non residentiam praelatorum. 

Browne Willis's " Survey of the Cathedrals," 4to. 1742, contains accounts of the Cathedral, 
Monuments, Inscriptions, sale of the estates and lands in 1647, 1648, 1649, and 1650, endowment 
of the Dean and Chapter, notices of the Bishops, Deans, Precentors, Chancellors, Treasurers, 
Archdeacons, Prebendaries, also an account of the Churches and Chapels in the Diocess, &c. 
vol. i. p. 499 to 622. Plates, North Prospect, drawn by W. Merricke and engraved by 
J. Harris ; West Front, ditto ditto. 

Leland's " Itinerary" 8vo. 1744, vol. iv. p. 86, of the Cathedral ; vol. v. p. 10, vol. vi. p. 75, 



70 HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

of Prestbury; vol. viii. p. 37. 56, nomina episcoporum ; p. 41, ex libro martirologii ; p. 55, 
inscriptiones sepulchrales in ecclesia Hereford; p. 57, palaetia episcopi Hereford; p. 59, de 
fundatione. 

In Carter's " Antient Architecture," folio, 1795, Pl. xlv. Shield from Cantilupe's tomb, 
lviii. Stone Seats in the Cathedral, lxxviii. Spandril on Cantilupe's tomb. 

Gough's " Sepulchral Monuments," fo. 1796, coutains, vol. i. part i. p. lxix, Chalice, found 
1524 — p. cxx. Brasses stolen from — p. ci. Brass in Cathedral ; vol. i. part ii. p. 18, account of 
Tombs of Bishops Rainelm and Lozing — p. 32, five Bishops' Monuments alike, Vere, Clyve, 
Betune, Foliot, and Melun — p. 36, Monument of Giles Bruce (Bp.) — p. 62, Bishop Cantilupe, 
account of bis Tomb, &c. ; vol. ii. part i. cci., Charnel House; part iii. West End rebuilt by 
Lochard, 115 — inscriptions on two Monuments in south transept, 178. 315 — Cathedral yard 
levelled, 325; with the following Plates; Shrine of Cantelupe — Shrine of St. Ethelbert — Chapel 
of Bishop Stanburv — Figures on the Tomb and Arms — Monument of Bishop Thomas Charlton, 
1313 — Monument of Sir Richard Pembridge, 1375 — Monument of Lewis Charlton, Bishop, 1369 
— Brasses on Tomb of Bishop Trellick — Monuments of Robert Lozing and Raynelm. 

Price's " Historical Account of the City of Hereford,'' 8vo. 1796, contains a South East View 
of the Cathedral, erroneously called the west; Plan of the Cathedral; Remains of the old 
Chapter House. 

" Collections toicards the History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford. By John 
Duncumb, A. M. vol. i." 1804, Hereford ; contain memoirs of the Bishops, from 680 to 1803 — 
accounts of the revenues of the Cathedral, and of monuments, &c. p. 443 to 583 ; Plates, 1. Five 
Seals — 2. Ancient Front (West) — 3. Windows — 4. Shrines of Ethelbert and Cantilupe. 

In Newcourt's " Iiepertorium," vol. i. p. 452, of the advowson of St. Mary Mounthaw, 
London, and the Bishop's bouse near it. 

In the " Beauties of England and Wales," vol. iv. 8vo. 1805, is an account of the Cathedral, 
p. 458 to 479, and two Plates; General View — Ruins of the Chapter House. 

Malcolm's " First Impressions," 8vo. 1807, contain an account of the Cathedral, p. 82 to 109, 
and two Plates, 1. of Windows — 2. North Porch, drawn and etched by the author. 

" The History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Hereford," by J. and H. S. Storer, 
8vo. 1815, contains a short account of the Cathedral, and the following nine prints, Ground Plan 
— South Transept — Interior of Nave — South West View — North West View — Interior North 
W r est of Transept — Cloisters — South East End — East End. 

George III. Anno 59. An Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Hereford to discharge 
certain Debts incurred in repairing the Cathedral Church of Hereford. P. A. 

" The Hereford Guide ; containing a concise History of the City of Hereford, a Description 
of its public Buildings, Episcopal See, Cathedral, Parochial Churches," &c. by W.J. Rees, M. A. 
12mo. 1827, contains a short account of the See, account of the Bishops, &c. history and account 
of the Cathedral, Bishop's Palace, &c. p. 110 to 173, and a View of the Cathedral engraved on 
wood. 

" A Brief Inquiry into the ancient and present State of Hereford Cathedral, with an Attempt 
to classify its Architecture, and suggestions for its renovation and improvement. By the 
Rev. Thomas Garbett, M. A." 8vo. 1827, contains remarks on the alterations and present state 
of the Cathedral, and three plates of windows. 

" A short Description of a portable Shrine (Saint Ethelbert s). By the Rev. Thomas Russell, 
M. A." 8vo. 1830, contains a plate of the shrine, with fac-simile of the inscription — an account of 
the discovery of Bishop Trellick's coffin, with a plate of the head of his crosier. 

PRINTS. 

West Front of the Cathedral as it stood in 1724, published in European Mag. 1792, 8vo. 

In the " Vetusta Monumenta," by the Society of Antiquaries, is a View and Plan of the 
Chapel called St. Magdalen's, 1747, folio, vol. i. pl. 49. The same is re-engraved for Gough's 
edition of" Camden's Britannia," vol. ii. folio, 1789. 

Four Vieics of Hereford, each taking in the Cathedral, Geo. Powle, del. ; James Ross, sc. 
large 4to. 1778. 

North View of the Cathedral, uith Spire and Toner, published in the " Christian's Magazine," 
1784, 8vo. 



LIST OP BOOKS, ESSAYS, AND PRINTS. 71 

Interior of the Chapter House, sketched 1784, J. Carter, sc. 1790. — Ditto, in " The Beauties 
of England and Wales," T. Hearne del. ; J. Roffe, sc. 1803. 

In " Hearne and Byrne's Antiquities," 1786, is a View of the ruins of the West End, &c. of 
the Cathedral, with an account. 

Four Prints of the Cathedral, representing- the West Front before it fell, and view of it in ruins, 
with the Nave and North West View, were engraved in aquatint by Middiman and Jukes in 
1788 and 1789, from drawings by James Wathen. 

View of the Cathedral after the spire was taken down, E. Dayes, del. ; J. Walker, sc. 4to. 
1795, in Copper-plate Magazine. 

View of the Cathedral from the North East, 1811, a large aquatint, from a drawing by 
J. Buckler. — Ditto, 1816, etched by J. C. Buckler, 4to. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1824, is a View of the North Porch. The same plate 
published in Malcolm's " First Impressions." 

Vertue engraved a Seal of the Dean, two of the Dean and Chapter (temp. Hen. III. and later), 
those of Bishops Bennet and Coke, three of the Bohun families, and three others. 

N. W. View of the Cathedral, with the Western Tower, published by Smith, in Exeter 
Change, large folio. — The same, published in 4to. J. Harris, fecit. 

King engraved a North View of the Cathedral, and Hollar both North and West Views, for 
the third volume of the Monasticon, which Gough calls " some of his worst." 

In Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales is a View, with an account of the Chapter House. 
Engraved by Sparrow. 

View of the East Window of the Cathedral, painted by Bachler. E. W. Gill, del. ; on stone 
by L. Haghe. Small folio, published by W. H. Vale, Hereford. 

" Ecclesiae Cathedralis Herefordensis Prospectus Occidentalis," large print. 

In the Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet are the following engravings, Shrine of 
Bishop Cantilupe — Shrine of St. Ethelbert — Back of ditto — Crosier of Bishop Trellick. 

ACCOUNTS OF BISHOPS. 

Godwin in his " Catalogue of Bishops," small 4to. 1615, gives short Memoirs of the Bishops 
from 680 to 1602. 

In " De Prasulibus," by Godwin and Richardson, fol. 1742, these accounts are continued to 
1723. 

Le Neve's " Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanm," fol. 1716, contains lists, with short accounts of the 
Bishops, Deans, Prebendaries, &c. up to 1713. 

Willis's " Survey of the Cathedrals," 4to. 1742, contains a list, with Memoirs of the Bishops, 
Deans, Prebendaries, &c. up to that time. 

" The History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Hereford" 8vo. 1717, gives lists of 
the Bishops, Deans, Treasurers, Archdeacons, &c. to 1712. 

PORTRAITS OF BISHOPS. 

1538 Edmund Bonner whipping Thomas Henshawe, a wood print, in the first edition of Fox's 

" Acts and Monuments," p. 2043. Granger. Bromley. 
1617 Francis Godwin : — half sh. Vertue, sc. 1742, engraved for " De Prsesulibus." 

1633 William Juxon :—" From a painting at Longleat, 8vo. Granger. In the set of Loyalists, 

G. Vertue, sc. Bromley. In Lord Clarendon's " History," 8vo. Vertue, sc. Bromley. 

1634 Matthew Wren: — G. Vander Gucht, half sh., engraved for the " Parentalia." 

Granger. Bromley. A satirical print in " Wren's Anatomy," 4to. Bromley. 
1660 Nicholas Monk: — Jos. Nutting, sc, small, with others. Granger. Bromley. 
1712 Philip Bisse, folio, Thomas Hill, p. ; G. Vertue, sc. Noble. Bromley. 
1721 Benjamin Hoadley: — Sitting in robes, sh. W. Hogarth, p.; B. Baron, sc. 1743. 

Bromley. Prefixed to his " Works," 1773, fol.; N. Hone, p.; J. Basire, sc. 1772. 

Bromley. Oval, in a canonical habit; J. Faber, sc. Bromley. Large folio; G. Vertue, 

sc. Bromley. 
1788 John Butler: — Prefixed to a volume of Sermons, iEtat 82; Hall, pinx. ; Simon, sc. 

Another, in Christian's Magazine, as Bishop of Oxford, 8vo. 1783. 



72 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



m$t of ^rtntjef, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



I, 

- II, 

III 

IV, 

v. 

VI 

VII, 

VIII. 

IX. 

x. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 
XV. 

XVI. 
XVII. 



Subjects. 



Ground Plan, and Plans ofParts 

View of the Cburch from N. W 

North Porch. North Transept, Sec 

View of the Nave in Ruins 

View behind the Altar , 

Part of North Transept, Tower, &c. .. 

East End 

Lady Chapel, Compartment North Side 
with Section of the East End 

Section East End, Lady Chapel and Crypt 

Compartments of Choir, Interior and) 
Exterior, North Side ) 

Section throogh Tower and Transept,) 
North to South £ 

View in the North Transept 

Sooth Aile, Monomentof Bishop Mayo, Sec. 

Cantelupe's Shrine (figured XV.) 

Mnnnment in the North Wall of the 
Lady Chapel (Title) 

Windows at N. E. end, Lady Chapel ... 

View of Monuments in the South Aile) 
of the Choir (Wood Cut) J 



Drawn by 



T. H. Clarke. 
W. H.Bartlett 
W.H. Bartletl 
T. Hearne . , 
W. H.Bartlett 
W.H. Bartletl 

W.H. Bartletl 

T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 

T.H.Clarke... 
T.H.Clarke... 
W.H. Bartletl 

W.H. Bartletl 

T.H.Clarke... 
W.H. Bartletl 
W.H. Bartletl 



Engraved by 



R. Roose .. 
T. Higham. 
J. Le Keux 
Jas. Redaway 
J. Le Keux 
R. Sands... 



W. Taylor... 

G. Gladwin .. 
J. Le Keux... 
J. Le Keux... 

J. Le Keux... 
J. Le Keax... 
W.Woolnolh 

J. Le Keux... 

J. Le Keux... 
J. Le Keax... 
S. Williams.. 



R. B.Phillips, Esq. 
Rev. John Clutton.D.D. 
Rev.A. J.Walker, A.M. 

Ben. Biddulph, Esq 

Rev. H. H.Morgan, B.D. 
"Rev. Thomas Un-) 
derwood, M. A. $ 



Edward Haycock, Esq. 



William Tite, Esq 

The Rev. John Jones. . 
(Rev. Newton D.H 
( Newton, A. B. 
I The Lord Bishop of ) 

\ Hereford J 

t The Rev. Henry ) 
( Lee Warner .... $ 

Sir E. S. Stanhope, Bt 



37, 38. 

42, 43. 
43. 

44. 51. 
43. 

44. 

52. 
52. 

42. 44. 47. 

43. 49, 50. 
50. 56. 
48. 51. 

56. 

52. 
52. 
60. 



a ©fcronologtcal ftatile 



NAMES AND DATES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 



Kings. 



William II 
Henry I.... 

Henry II. . 

Henry III. 

Henry HI. 



Edward II. 



r.i-iiMp-- 



Parts of the Building. 



Lozing 1079 Nave, East Side of South Transept , 

Raynelm 1107 Nave, Uc 

De Vere 1190 1 \ ^' l behind the Altar 

| ( Lady Chapel 

Aquablanca 1240 | Clerestory of the Choir 

Brace 5 12 1G | Cenlral Tower 

Cantelupe 1287 I (North Transept from the Ground .. 

| ^Cantelupe s Shrine 

Henry VI jSlanbnry 1474 1 Stanbury Chapel 

Henry MI.... Andley 1502 | Andley Chapel 

Henry VIII... Booth 1536 North, or Booth's Porch 

I 



41. 49 

41 

44.51 . 



42. 44. 47 , 
49 



Plates. 



VII, VIII. 
X. 



50 

19 JXIV. 

57 X. 

52 IX. 

43 I III. 



II. VI. VII 
XI. XII. 



INDEX. 



AiLES, see Ground Plan ; monuments in, 60; 

remarks on the word, 41. 
Aldred, Archbishop of York, 7. 
Altar-screen, by Bishop Bisse, 33. 
Aquablanca, Bishop, account of, 14; his 

character, 15; annually commemorated, 16; 

monument, 57. 
Aquablanca, Dean, monument, 57 ; notice of, 

65. 
Athelstan, see Ethelstan. 
Audley, Bishop, 24; chantry chapel of, 52; 

section, plate ix. 

Beauchamp, Bishop, 23. 

Beauclerk, Bishop, 34. 

Bennett, Bishop, 28 ; disputes between him 
and the citizens, 29 ; a good tennis player, 
30; monument, 57. 

Berew, Dean, mouuraent, 59; noticed, 66. 

Betun, Bishop, account of, 9 ; anecdote of, 10 ; 
repaired the cathedral, 11; monument of, 60. 

Bishops, biographical notices of, 2 to 35 ; 
chronological list of, 63; monuments of, see 
respective names ; palaces of, 61. 

Bisse, Bishop, 33; built the organ-screen, ib. ; 
monument, 61 ; portrait of, 71. 

Bohun, Humphrey de, monument of, 59. 

Bonner, Bishop, 26 ; died in prison, ib. ; por- 
trait of, 71. 

Booth, Bishop, 25 ; porch of, 43; monument 
of, 57. 

Breton, Bishop, account of, 16. 

Breuse, Bishop, 13 ; built the central tower, 
ib. ; monument of, 61. 

Burials within towns, &c. 3. 

Butler, Bishop Richard, 23. 

Butler, Bishop John, 35 ; built the chapel of 
the palace, and contributed towards the re- 
building of the west end, ib. ; portrait of, 71. 

Cantelupe, Bishop, 16 ; account of, 17 ; his 
shrine, ib. ; miracles performed at, 18 ; view 
of shrine, plate xiv. ; described, 56. 

Capella, Bishop, 9; built the Wye Bridge, ib. 

Castello, Bishop, attempt to poison, 25. 

Cathedral — Milfred built a " stone church," 
and appointed a bishop, 4; suffered from the 



Danes, 5; repaired or rebuilt by Ethelstan, 
ib. ; burnt by the Welsh, ib. ; commenced 
rebuilding by Bishop Lozing, 8; injured in 
the civil wars, temp. Stephen, 11 ; repaired 
by Bishop Betun, ib. ; described, 37 ; exte- 
rior described, 42; interior, 44; nave, 45; 
west end, 45; transept, 43. 49; choir, 44 
to 48; east transept, 51; Lady Chapel, 44. 
52; cloisters, 53; chapter-house, 54; tower, 
43 ; repairs and rebuilding, 46. 

Cedda, Bishop, 4. 

Chandler, Dean, monument to, 60; see list. 

Chapel, an ancient, account of, 34. 

Chapel, Lady, described, 44; plan of, see 
plate i. 

Chapter-house, remains of, 53; plan, plate I. 

Chapter-room, ancient map in, 54. 

Charlton, Lewis, Bishop, 22; monument of, 
60. 

Charlton, Thomas, 21 ; monument of, 61. 

Choir described, 44. 48; monuments in, 61 ; 
plate x. 

Clive, Bishop, 9; monument of, 57. 

Cloisters, Bishops', described, 53 ; plan of, 
plate i. 

Coke, Bishop, 32 ; monument of, 60. 

Columns, plans of, see Plan, plate I.; see also 
plates of interior views. 

Cornewall, Bishop, 35. 

Courteney, Bishop, 22. 

Croft, Bishop, character of, 32. 

Crypt, plan of, plate I.; section, plate ix. ; de- 
scribed, 52. 

Cuthbert, Bishop, account of, 3. 

Deans, chronological list of, with notices, 65. 
Denton, Alexander, and his wife, monument 
of, 60. 

Egerton, Bishop, 34. 

Ethelbert, murder of, 3 ; his ghost, 4 ; interred 
at Hereford, ib. ; miracles at his tomb, ib. ; 
new church dedicated to, ib. ; supposed 
statue of, 59. 

Ethelstan, Bishop, repaired or rebuilt the ca- 
thedral, 5; account of, 6; remarks on his 
building, 41 ; monument of, 56. 
L 



74 



INDEX. 



Field, Bishop, 32 ; bust of, 57. 

Foliot, Gilbert, 11 ; monument of, 60. 

Foliot, Hugh, 13 ; hospital, ib. 

Foliot, Robert, Bishop, account of, 12 ; monu- 
ment of, 13. 

Fout described, 54. 

Foxe, Bishop, his works, 26. 

Frowcester, Dean, brass to, 60; see list of 
Deans. 

Gerard, Bishop, anecdote of, 8. 

Gilbert, Bishop, 22. 

Godwin, Bishop, account of his works, 30, 31 ; 

monument of, 58. 
Harley, John, Bishop, account of, 26. 
Harley, the Honourable John, Bishop, 34. 
Harold, Dean, monument of, 60; see list of 

Deans. 
Harvey, Dean, monument of, 60. 
Hereford, founded in the Anglo-Saxon era, 2; 

See here in 544, 2. 
Hoadley, Bishop, account of, 33; portraits, 71. 
Humphreys, Bishop, disputes with the citizens, 

33; monument of, 61. 
Huntingford, Bishop, 35. 

Ironside, Bishop, 33. 

Juxon, Bishop, 32. 

Lady Chapel, described, 44 ; plates viii. ix. xvi. ; 
described by Mr. Garbett, 52 ; remarks on 
its present state, 53 ; monuments in, 59. 

Leofgar, Bishop, account of, 6. 

Lindsell, Bishop, 32 ; monument of, 60. 

Lozing, account of, 7 ; built the cathedral, 8 ; 
inscription to, 58. 

Lucy, Bishop, 22. 

Luxmore, Bishop, 35. 

Mapenore, Bishop, 13; monument of, 57. 
Marr, Richard de la, and his wife, brass to, 59. 
Mascall, Bishop, 22. 
Maydenstan, Bishop, his benefactions to the 

cathedral, 14. 
Mayo, Bishop, 25 ; monument of, 60. 
Melun, Bishop, 12; monument of, 60. 
Millyng, Bishop, 24. 
Monk, Bishop, never visited his diocess, 32. 

Xave, described, 47 ; view of, plate iv. 

Orlton, Bishop, account of, 20. 



Palaces of Bishops, 61. 

Pembridge, Sir Richard, monument of, 56. 

Philips, John, monument of, 57. 

Podda, Bishop, 3. 

Polton, Bishop, 22. 

Porch, built by Bishop Booth, 25; see Booth. 

Purfey, Bishop, or Warton, 26. 

Putta, Bishop, account of, 2. 

Raynelm, Bishop, account of, 9 ; monument 
of, 60. 

Saxon Architecture, remarks on, 48. 

Scory, Bishop, account of, 27 ; bequests to 

Hereford, 28. 
See at Hereford in 544, 2; granted in trust to 

Aldred — vacant six years — vacant fourteen 

years, 1646, 32. 
Shrine, see Cantelupe. 
Skipp, Bishop, 26. 
Spofford, Bishop, 23. 
Stanbury, Bishop, account of, 23 ; built a 

chantry chapel, 24; described, 57. 
Swinford, Bishop, 19; journal of his domestic 

affairs, See. 20 ; monument of, 58. 

Tirktell, Bishop, 3. 
Tortere, Bishop, 3. 
Tower, Central, built by Bishop Breuse, 13; 

described, 43 ; views of, plates ii. vi. xi. 
Transepts, Eastern, Account of, 51 ; windows 

of, ib. 
Transept, North, described, 43. 50. 57 ; plates 

vi. xi. xii. 
Transept, South, described, 49; monuments 

in, 60 ; plate xi. 
Trellick, Bishop, an enemy to pageants and 

matrimony, 21 ; his grave opened, ib. 
Trevenant, Bishop, 22 ; monument of, 60. 
Tyler, Dean, monument of, 60; see list of 

Deans. 

Vere, Bishop, 13; noted for buildings, ib. ; 
monument of, 60. 

Walstod, Bishop, commenced a " magnificent 
cross," which Cuthbert finished, 3. 

Walter of Lorraine, 7. 

West Front, comments on, 45. 

Warton, Bishop, or Purfey, 26. 

Westfayling, Bishop, 28; anecdote of, ib. ; 
character of, ib. ; monument of, 59. 

Wren, Bishop, 32. 



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